Place:Northumberland, England

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NameNorthumberland
Alt namesNBLsource: Curious Fox: UK Counties and Shires [online] (2002). accessed 16 Dec 2002
Norhumberlandsource: Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names (1998)
Northdsource: Royal Mail: PAF Digest [online] (2002) accessed 16 Dec 2002
Northumsource: Gazetteer of Great Britain (1999) xviii
Nthumbsource: BIAB Online (1999-2000) accessed 16 Dec 2002; UK Counties and Regions Abbreviations [web site] (1997-98) accessed 16 Dec 2002
TypeHistoric county, Administrative county, Modern county
Coordinates55.169°N 1.687°W
Located inEngland
See alsoTyne and Wear, Englandunitary authority which replaced Northumberland in 1974
Contained Places
Borough (county)
Newcastle upon Tyne ( - 1974 )
Tynemouth ( - 1974 )
Borough (municipal)
Berwick upon Tweed
Blyth
Morpeth
Wallsend ( 100 - 1974 )
Whitley Bay ( - 1974 )
Chapelry
Allendale
Alnmouth
Beadnell
Bellingham
Benwell ( - 1974 )
Blanchland
Byker ( - 1974 )
Carham
Cramlington
Doddington
Falstone
Gosforth ( - 1974 )
Halton
Hebron
Horton
Longhoughton
Lowick
Lucker
Netherwitton
Newcastle upon Tyne All Saints ( - 1914 )
Newcastle upon Tyne St. Andrew ( - 1914 )
Newcastle upon Tyne St. John ( - 1914 )
Newton
Rennington
Rock
South Charlton
Sugley
Ulgham
Wark on Tyne
West Allen ( 1897 - )
Whitley Bay ( - 1974 )
Widdrington
Civil parish
Abberwick
Acklington Park
Acklington
Acomb
Acton and Old Felton
Adderstone with Lucker ( 1955 - )
Adderstone
Akeld
Allendale
Alnham
Alnmouth
Alnwick
Alwinton
Amble
Anick
Apperley
Ashington and Sheepwash
Ashington ( 1896 - )
Aydon Castle
Aydon
Bamburgh Castle
Bamburgh
Barrow
Bassington
Beadnell
Beanley
Bearl
Belford ( 1844 - )
Bellingham
Bellister
Belsay
Benridge
Benwell ( - 1974 )
Berwick Hill
Bewick ( 1955 - )
Bickerton
Biddlestone
Bigges Quarter
Bingfield
Birling
Bitchfield
Black Callerton
Black Heddon
Blanchland
Blenkinsopp
Bockenfield
Bolam Vicarage
Bolam
Bolton
Bothal Demesne ( 1866 - 1935 )
Bothal
Bradford (near Morpeth)
Bradford in Bamburgh
Brandon
Branton
Branxton
Brenkley
Brinkburn
Broome Park
Broomhaugh and Riding ( 1955 - )
Broomhaugh
Broomley and Stocksfield
Brotherwick
Broxfield
Brunton
Budle
Bullers Green
Bullocks Hall
Burradon (near Alnwick)
Burradon in Tyneside ( - 1974 )
Burton
Butterlaw
Byker ( - 1974 )
Bywell St. Andrew
Bywell St. Peter ( - 1887 )
Bywell ( 1887 - )
Caistron
Callaly and Yetlington
Cambo
Capheaton
Carham
Cartington
Causey Park ( - 1955 )
Charlton
Chathill
Chatton
Chevington
Chillingham
Chirdon
Chirton
Chollerton
Clarewood
Clennel
Coanwood
Cocklaw
Cockle Park
Coldcoats
Coldsmouth and Thompsons Walls
Corbridge
Corridge
Corsenside
Coupland
Cowpen
Coxlodge
Cramlington
Craster
Crawley
Cresswell
Crookhouse
Cullercoates
Darras Hall
Deanham
Debdon
Detchant
Dilston
Dinnington
Ditchburn
Doddington
Doxford
Dueshill ( - 1889 )
Dunstan
Eachwick
Earle
Earsdon (near North Shields) ( - 1974 )
Earsdon ( - 1955 )
Easington
East Brunton
East Denton
East Heddon
East Lilburn
East Shaftoe
East Thornton ( - 1955 )
East and West Hartford
Edington
Edlingham
Eglingham
Elford
Ellingham
Ellington
Elsdon
Elswick ( - 1974 )
Elwick ( 1844 - )
Elyhaugh
Embleton
Eshott
Espershields
Ewart
Ewesley
Fairhaugh
Fairnley
Fallodon
Fallowfield
Fallowlees
Falstone
Farnham
Fawdon Clinch and Hartside
Fawdon and Clinch
Fawdon
Featherstone
Felton
Fenham ( - 1974 )
Fenrother ( - 1955 )
Fenton
Fleetham
Flotterton
Ford
Freeholders Quarter
Gallow Hill
Glanton
Glororum
Gloster Hill
Gosforth ( - 1974 )
Great Bavington
Great Ryle
Great Whittington
Greenleighton ( - 1955 )
Greens and Glantlees
Greys Forest
Greystead
Guyzance
Hadstone
Hallington
Halton Shields
Halton
Haltwhistle
Harbottle
Harehope
Harnham
Hartburn Grange
Hartburn
Hartington ( - 1955 )
Hartley Burn
Hartley
Harwood ( - 1955 )
Hauxley
Hazon and Hartlaw ( - 1955 )
Healey and Combhill
Healey
Heathpool
Heaton ( - 1974 )
Hebron
Heddon on the Wall
Hedgeley
Hedley on the Hill
Henshaw
Hepburn
Hepple
Hepscott
Hesley Hurst
Hexham
Hexhamshire High Quarter ( 1866 - 1955 )
Hexhamshire Low Quarter ( 1866 - )
Hexhamshire Middle Quarter ( 1866 - 1955 )
Hexhamshire West Quarter ( 1866 - 1955 )
Hexhamshire ( 1955 - )
High Angerton
High Buston
High Callerton
High Fotherley
High and Low Highlaws
High and Low Trewhitt
Higham Dykes
Highlaws
Hirst
Hollinghill
Holystone
Holywell
Hoppen
Horton Grange
Horton
Houghton and Closehouse
Howick
Howtel
Humbleton
Ilderton
Ingoe
Ingram Linhope Greenshawhill and Hartside
Ingram Linhope and Greenshawhill
Ingram
Jesmond ( - 1974 )
Kenton
Kidland
Kielder ( 1955 - )
Kilham
Kirkharle
Kirkhaugh
Kirkley
Kirknewton
Kirkwhelpington
Knaresdale ( - 1955 )
Knarsdale with Kirkhaugh ( 1955 - )
Lambley
Lanton ( - 1955 )
Learchild
Lee St. John
Lee Ward
Lemmington
Lesbury
Linbridge
Linsheeles
Little Callerton
Little Harle
Little Ryle
Little Whittington
Long Horsley
Longbenton ( - 1974 )
Longframlington
Longhirst
Longhoughton
Longshaws
Longwitton
Lorbottle
Low Angerton
Low Buston
Lowick
Lucker
Lynemouth
Mason
Meldon
Melkridge
Middleton Hall
Middleton
Milburn Grange
Milburn
Milfield
Mitford
Molesden
Monkhouse
Monkridge
Monkseaton
Morpeth Castle
Morpeth
Morwick
Mount Healey
Mousen
Murton
Nesbit (near Wooler)
Netherton North Side
Netherton South Side
Netherwitton
New Bewick
Newbiggin by Newburn
Newbiggin by the Sea
Newbiggin in Shotley
Newburn Hall
Newburn ( - 1974 )
Newcastle upon Tyne All Saints ( - 1914 )
Newcastle upon Tyne St. Andrew ( - 1914 )
Newcastle upon Tyne St. John ( - 1914 )
Newham (near Morpeth)
Newham
Newlands
Newminster Abbey
Newsham and South Blyth
Newstead
Newton Park
Newton Underwood
Newton by the Sea
Newton on the Moor
Newton
Newtown (near Rothbury)
Newtown (near Wooler)
North Charlton
North Dissington
North Gosforth
North Middleton (near Morpeth) ( - 1955 )
North Middleton (near Wooler)
North Seaton
North Shields ( - 1974 )
North Sunderland
Nunnykirk
Nunriding
Ogle
Old Bewick
Old Moor
Otterburn ( 500 - )
Outchester
Paston ( - 1955 )
Pauperhaugh
Peels
Pegswood
Pigdon
Plashetts and Tynehead ( 1866 - 1955 )
Plenmellor with Whitfield ( 1955 - )
Plenmellor
Ponteland
Portgate
Powburn
Prendwick
Preston (near Alnwick)
Preston (near North Shields) ( - 1974 )
Prestwick
Ramshope
Ratchwood
Raw
Reaveley
Rennington
Riddells Quarter
Riding
Ridley
Riplington
Ritton Coltpark
Ritton Whitehouse
River Green
Rochester
Rock
Roddam
Roseden
Ross ( 1844 - )
Rothbury
Rothley
Rudchester
Sandhoe
Scrainwood
Seaton Delaval
Seghill
Selbys Forest
Sharperton
Shawdon
Sheepwash ( 1896 - 1935 )
Shilbottle
Shilvington
Shipley
Shitlington
Shoreston
Shortflatt
Shotley Low Quarter
Smalesmouth
Snitter
South Charlton
South Dissington
South Gosforth
South Middleton (near Morpeth)
South Middleton (near Wooler)
Spindlestone
Spital Hill
Stamford
Stannington
Stanton
Stelling
Sturton Grange
Styford
Sugley
Swarland
Swinhoe
Tarset West
Tarset ( 1955 - )
Thirlwall
Thirston with Shothaugh
Thornbrough
Thorngrafton
Throphill
Thropton
Titlington
Todburn
Todridge ( - 1955 )
Togstone
Tosson
Tranwell and High Church
Trewick
Tritlington
Troughend
Tughall
Twizell
Tynemouth ( - 1974 )
Ulgham
Unthank
Walkmill
Wall
Wallbottle
Wallington Demesne
Walltown
Warenford
Warenton
Wark on Tyne
Warksburn
Warkworth
Warton
Wellhaugh ( 1866 - 1955 )
West Allen ( 1897 - )
West Brunton
West Denton
West Heddon
West Lilburn
West Shaftoe ( - 1955 )
West Thornton
Westgate
Westnewton
Whalton
Whitchester
Whitfield
Whitley Bay ( - 1974 )
Whitridge ( - 1955 )
Whittingham
Whittington ( 1955 - )
Whittle (near Alnwick)
Whitton
Whittonstall
Whorlton
Widdrington
Wingates
Witton Shields
Woodhorn Demesne
Woodhorn
Woodhouse
Woodside
Wooler
Woolsington
Wooperton
Wreighill
Yeavering
Deserted settlement
Housesteads
District municipality
Alnwick District ( 1974 - 2009 )
Berwick upon Tweed District ( 1974 - 2009 )
Blyth Valley District ( 1974 - 2009 )
Castle Morpeth District ( 1974 - 2009 )
Tynedale District ( 1974 - 2009 )
Wansbeck District ( 1974 - 2009 )
Extra parochial area
Kidland
Monkhouse
Ramshope
River Green
Former district
Hexhamshire ( 1955 - )
Hamlet
Wark on Tweed
Hundred
Bamburgh Ward
Castle Ward
Coquetdale Ward
Glendale Ward
Morpeth Ward
Tynedale Ward
Inhabited place
Ayle
Backworth ( - 1974 )
Bardon Mill
Baybridge
Beaconhill
Beal
Bearsbridge
Beauclerc
Bebside
Bellshill
Beltingham
Benthall
Berrington
Bilton
Birtley
Bolam West Houses
Bomarsund
Boulmer
Bowsden
Branch End
Bridge End
Broomhill
Brownieside
Butteryhaugh
Byrness
Bywell ( 1887 - )
Cambois
Carterway Heads
Causey Park Bridge
Chesters
Chesterwood
Cheswick Buildings
Cheswick
Chollerford
Choppington
Clennell
Clifton
Coalcleugh
Collingwood
Colpitts Grange
Cornhill on Tweed
Crag Lough
Crookham
Englingham
Flodden
Guide Post
Haydon Bridge
Killingworth
Langley
Lindisfarne ( 700 - )
Marston St. Lawrence
Newcastle upon Tyne ( - 1974 )
Norham ( 500 - )
North Seaton Colliery
Ovingham
Painshawfield
Percy Main
Radcliffe
Scremerston Station
Seahouses
Seaton Sluice
Sparty Lea
Stonehaugh
Throckley ( - 1974 )
Tweedmouth
Warkton
Wylam
Parish (ancient)
Alnham
Alnwick
Alwinton
Bamburgh
Belford ( 1844 - )
Bellingham
Bolam
Bothal
Branxton
Brinkburn
Bywell St. Andrew
Bywell St. Peter ( - 1887 )
Chatton
Chillingham
Chollerton
Corbridge
Corsenside
Dinnington
Doddington
Edlingham
Eglingham
Ellingham
Elsdon
Embleton
Falstone
Felton
Ford
Greystead
Haltwhistle
Hartburn
Heddon on the Wall
Hexham
Holystone
Howick
Ilderton
Ingram
Kirkhaugh
Kirknewton
Kirkwhelpington
Knaresdale ( - 1955 )
Lambley
Lee St. John
Long Horsley
Longbenton ( - 1974 )
Longhoughton
Meldon
Mitford
Morpeth
Newburn ( - 1974 )
Ponteland
Rothbury
Shilbottle
Stannington
Tynemouth ( - 1974 )
Wark on Tyne
Warkworth
Whalton
Whitfield
Whittingham
Woodhorn
Wooler
Registration district
Alnwick Registration District
Belford Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Bellingham Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Berwick Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Castle Ward Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Glendale Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Haltwhistle Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Hexham Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Morpeth Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Newcastle upon Tyne Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Northumberland Central Registration District ( 1937 - 2008 )
Northumberland North First Registration District ( 1937 - 2008 )
Northumberland North Second Registration District ( 1937 - 2008 )
Northumberland Registration District ( 2008 - )
Northumberland South Registration District ( 1937 - 2008 )
Northumberland West Registration District ( 1937 - 2008 )
Rothbury Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Tynemouth Registration District ( 1837 - 1936 )
Rural district
Alnwick Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Belford Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Bellingham Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Castle Ward Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Glendale Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Haltwhistle Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Hexham Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Morpeth Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Newcastle Rural ( 1912 - 1974 )
Norham and Islandshires Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Rothbury Rural ( 1894 - 1974 )
Tynemouth Rural ( 1894 - 1912 )
Suburb
Jesmond ( - 1974 )
Township
Abberwick
Acklington Park
Acklington
Acomb
Acton and Old Felton
Adderstone
Akeld
Amble
Anick
Apperley
Ashington and Sheepwash
Aydon Castle
Aydon
Bamburgh Castle
Barrow
Bassington
Beanley
Bearl
Belford ( 1844 - )
Bellister
Belsay
Benridge
Berwick Hill
Bickerton
Biddlestone
Bigges Quarter
Bingfield
Birling
Bitchfield
Black Callerton
Black Heddon
Blanchland
Blenkinsopp
Bockenfield
Bolam Vicarage
Bolam
Bolton
Bothal Demesne ( 1866 - 1935 )
Bradford (near Morpeth)
Bradford in Bamburgh
Brandon
Branton
Brenkley
Broome Park
Broomhaugh
Broomley and Stocksfield
Brotherwick
Broxfield
Brunton
Budle
Bullers Green
Bullocks Hall
Burradon (near Alnwick)
Burradon in Tyneside ( - 1974 )
Burton
Butterlaw
Caistron
Callaly and Yetlington
Cambo
Capheaton
Cartington
Causey Park ( - 1955 )
Charlton
Chathill
Chevington
Chirdon
Chirton
Clarewood
Clennel
Coanwood
Cocklaw
Cockle Park
Coldcoats
Coldsmouth and Thompsons Walls
Corridge
Coupland
Cowpen
Coxlodge
Craster
Crawley
Cresswell
Crookhouse
Cullercoates
Darras Hall
Deanham
Debdon
Detchant
Dilston
Dinnington
Ditchburn
Doxford
Dueshill ( - 1889 )
Dunstan
Eachwick
Earle
Earsdon (near North Shields) ( - 1974 )
Earsdon ( - 1955 )
Easington
East Brunton
East Denton
East Heddon
East Lilburn
East Shaftoe
East Thornton ( - 1955 )
East and West Hartford
Edington
Elford
Ellington
Elswick ( - 1974 )
Elwick ( 1844 - )
Elyhaugh
Eshott
Espershields
Ewart
Ewesley
Fairhaugh
Fairnley
Fallodon
Fallowfield
Fallowlees
Farnham
Fawdon Clinch and Hartside
Fawdon
Featherstone
Felton
Fenham ( - 1974 )
Fenrother ( - 1955 )
Fenton
Fleetham
Flotterton
Freeholders Quarter
Gallow Hill
Glanton
Glororum
Gloster Hill
Great Bavington
Great Ryle
Great Whittington
Greenleighton ( - 1955 )
Greens and Glantlees
Greys Forest
Greystead
Guyzance
Hadstone
Hallington
Halton Shields
Halton
Harbottle
Harehope
Harnham
Hartburn Grange
Hartburn
Hartington ( - 1955 )
Hartley Burn
Hartley
Harwood ( - 1955 )
Hauxley
Hazon and Hartlaw ( - 1955 )
Healey and Combhill
Healey
Heathpool
Heaton ( - 1974 )
Heddon on the Wall
Hedgeley
Hedley on the Hill
Henshaw
Hepburn
Hepple
Hepscott
Hesley Hurst
Hexhamshire High Quarter ( 1866 - 1955 )
Hexhamshire Low Quarter ( 1866 - )
Hexhamshire Middle Quarter ( 1866 - 1955 )
Hexhamshire West Quarter ( 1866 - 1955 )
High Angerton
High Buston
High Callerton
High Fotherley
High and Low Highlaws
High and Low Trewhitt
Higham Dykes
Highlaws
Hirst
Hollinghill
Holywell
Hoppen
Horton Grange
Houghton and Closehouse
Howtel
Humbleton
Ingoe
Ingram Linhope Greenshawhill and Hartside
Ingram Linhope and Greenshawhill
Jesmond ( - 1974 )
Kenton
Kilham
Kirkharle
Kirkley
Lanton ( - 1955 )
Learchild
Lee Ward
Lemmington
Lesbury
Linbridge
Linsheeles
Little Callerton
Little Harle
Little Ryle
Little Whittington
Longframlington
Longhirst
Longshaws
Longwitton
Lorbottle
Low Angerton
Low Buston
Lynemouth
Mason
Melkridge
Middleton Hall
Middleton
Milburn Grange
Milburn
Milfield
Mitford
Molesden
Monkridge
Monkseaton
Morpeth Castle
Morpeth
Morwick
Mount Healey
Mousen
Murton
Nesbit (near Wooler)
Netherton North Side
Netherton South Side
New Bewick
Newbiggin by Newburn
Newbiggin by the Sea
Newbiggin in Shotley
Newburn Hall
Newburn ( - 1974 )
Newham (near Morpeth)
Newham
Newlands
Newminster Abbey
Newsham and South Blyth
Newstead
Newton Park
Newton Underwood
Newton by the Sea
Newton on the Moor
Newton
Newtown (near Rothbury)
Newtown (near Wooler)
North Charlton
North Dissington
North Gosforth
North Middleton (near Morpeth) ( - 1955 )
North Middleton (near Wooler)
North Seaton
North Shields ( - 1974 )
North Sunderland
Nunnykirk
Nunriding
Ogle
Old Bewick
Old Moor
Otterburn ( 500 - )
Outchester
Paston ( - 1955 )
Pauperhaugh
Peels
Pegswood
Pigdon
Plenmellor
Portgate
Powburn
Prendwick
Preston (near Alnwick)
Preston (near North Shields) ( - 1974 )
Prestwick
Ratchwood
Raw
Reaveley
Riddells Quarter
Riding
Ridley
Riplington
Ritton Coltpark
Ritton Whitehouse
Rochester
Roddam
Roseden
Ross ( 1844 - )
Rothley
Rudchester
Sandhoe
Scrainwood
Seaton Delaval
Seghill
Selbys Forest
Sharperton
Shawdon
Shilvington
Shipley
Shitlington
Shoreston
Shortflatt
Shotley Low Quarter
Smalesmouth
Snitter
South Charlton
South Dissington
South Gosforth
South Middleton (near Morpeth)
South Middleton (near Wooler)
Spindlestone
Spital Hill
Stamford
Stanton
Stelling
Sturton Grange
Styford
Swarland
Swinhoe
Tarset West
Thirlwall
Thirston with Shothaugh
Thornbrough
Thorngrafton
Throphill
Thropton
Titlington
Todburn
Todridge ( - 1955 )
Togstone
Tosson
Tranwell and High Church
Trewick
Tritlington
Troughend
Tughall
Twizell
Unthank
Walkmill
Wall
Wallbottle
Wallington Demesne
Walltown
Warenford
Warenton
Wark on Tweed
Warksburn
Warton
Wellhaugh ( 1866 - 1955 )
West Brunton
West Denton
West Heddon
West Lilburn
West Shaftoe ( - 1955 )
West Thornton
Westgate
Westnewton
Whitchester
Whitridge ( - 1955 )
Whittle (near Alnwick)
Whitton
Whittonstall
Whorlton
Wingates
Witton Shields
Woodhorn Demesne
Woodhouse
Woodside
Woolsington
Wooperton
Wreighill
Yeavering
Unknown
Ancroft
Annitsford
Balkwell
Beaufront
Bell's Close
Birdhope Craig
Black Carts with Ryehill
Borrowdon
Brierdean
Carrshields
Carrycoats
Cheeseburn Grange
Cheeseburn
Coatyards
Cockshaw
Colwell and Swinburn
Cornhill
Deanraw
Denwick
Duddo
Dukes Hagg
Earsdon (near Morpeth)
East Matfen
Elsdon Ward
Eltringham
Felkington
Fenwick (near Belford)
Fenwick (near Newcastle upon Tyne)
Fern Islands
Greenhead
Grindon
Haggerston
Halton Lea Gate
Harlow Hill
Haughton
Hawick
Hawkwell
Heugh
High and Low Brunton
Holy Island
Horncliffe
Horsley (near Otterburn)
Horsley (near Wylam)
Howden
Humshaugh
Jupiter
Kearsley
Keenley
Kirkheaton
Kyloe
Linmouth
Linton
Little Bavington
Little Houghton
Loan-End
Longridge
Matfen
Mickley
Mindrum
Minster Acres
Morpeth-Castle
Nafferton
Nesbit (near Hexham)
New Hartley
Newbrough
Newburn-Hall
Newtown (near Alnwick)
Ninebanks
Norham Mains
Nunridge
Ord
Ovington
Park
Pegsworth
Plashetts
Red Row
Ridsdale
Rochester Ward
Ryal
Scotswood
Seaton Terrace
Shankhouse
Shiremoor
Shoreswood
Simonburn
Slaley
Sleekburn
South Blyth
Spittle (near Hexham)
Spittle (near Tweedmouth)
St. Oswald in Lee
Stamfordham
Stonecroft
Sweethope
Thockrington
Thorneyburn
Thornton
Tilmouth
Twizel
Walridge
Warden
Welton
West Matfen
Whittle (near Newcastle upon Tyne)
Willington
Windmill Hill
Woodside Ward
Wooley Burnfoot
Urban district
Alnwick
Amble
Ashington ( 1896 - )
Bedlington
Benwell and Fenham ( - 1974 )
Benwell ( - 1974 )
Cowpen
Cramlington
Earsdon (near North Shields) ( - 1974 )
Elswick ( - 1974 )
Gosforth ( - 1974 )
Heaton ( - 1974 )
Hexham
Longbenton ( - 1974 )
Newbiggin by the Sea
Newburn ( - 1974 )
Prudhoe
Rothbury
Seaton Delaval
Seaton Valley
Seghill
South Gosforth
Walker ( - 1974 )
Weetslade
Whitley and Monkseaton ( 1894 - 1954 )
Willington Quay
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Northumberland (pronounced) is a county in North East England. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham to the south and Scotland to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a long distance path. The county town is Alnwick although the county council is located in Morpeth.

The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself. Northumberland expanded greatly in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972.

Being on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles. The county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now largely protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the most sparsely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The area once formed part of the Roman Empire; later, as Northumberland, it witnessed much conflict between England and Scotland. As evidence of its violent history, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including those of Alnwick, Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Newcastle and Warkworth.

The region of present-day Northumberland once formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia (from ca. 547), which united with Deira (south of the River Tees) to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century. The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin (reigned 616-633) stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north, though in 1018 its northern part, between the Tweed and the Forth (including Lothian, the region which contains Edinburgh), was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland.

Northumberland is often called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne - a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island - after King Oswald of Northumbria (reigned 634-642) invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. Lindisfarne saw the production of the Lindisfarne Gospels (ca. 700) and it became the home of St Cuthbert (ca. 634-687, abbot from ca. 665), who is buried in Durham Cathedral.

Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the "royal" castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century.

The Earldom of Northumberland was briefly held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217. Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York (1237). The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish invasion.

Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North (1569-1570) against Elizabeth I of England. These revolts were usually led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur (1364-1403), the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1. The Percys were often aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts; the latter were stripped of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651.

The county was also a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support after the Restoration of 1660. Northumberland became a wild county, where outlaws and Border Reivers hid from the law. However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603.

Northumberland played a key role in the industrial revolution from the 18th century onwards. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures under Labour and subsequent Conservative governments in the 1970s and 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Bedlington, Choppington, Netherton, Ellington and Pegswood. The region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, and the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s.

Northumberland remains largely rural. As the least-densely populated county in England, it commands much less influence in British affairs than in times past. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism due to its scenic beauty and the abundant evidence of its historical significance.

Governance

The four most northerly ancient counties of England – Cumberland, Westmorland, County Durham and Northumberland – were historically divided into administrative units called "wards" instead of "hundreds" or "wapentakes", as in other counties further south. Wards were areas originally organised for military purposes, each centred on a castle. (Source:Wikipedia)

The organization of wards remained in place in an increasingly less organized fashion until the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 and the establishment of Registration Districts in 1837.

At the end of the Victorian era, the Local Government Act 1894 was passed. This created a system of urban and rural districts with elected councils. These, along with the town councils of municipal boroughs created earlier in the century, formed a second tier of local government below the existing county councils. The act also introduced elected parish councils in rural areas.

The Local Government Act 1972 which came into being on 1 April 1974 introduced a pattern of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan county and district councils which remains in use today in large parts of England, although the metropolitan county councils were abolished in 1986, and both county and district councils have been replaced with unitary authorities in many areas since 1990.

The Local Government Act 1972 also created the administrative county of Tyne and Wear. It covered an area around the mouths of the River Tyne and the River Wear and effectively reduced the size of the counties of Northumberland and Durham. The county boroughs of Tynemouth (which included North Shields, Wallsend and Whitley Bay), and the City of Newcastle upon Tyne were transferred to Tyne and Wear.

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