Place:Northumberland, England

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NameNorthumberland
Alt namesNBLsource: Curious Fox: UK Counties and Shires [online] (2002). accessed 16 Dec 2002
Norhumberlandsource: Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names (1998)
Northdsource: Royal Mail: PAF Digest [online] (2002) accessed 16 Dec 2002
Northumsource: Gazetteer of Great Britain (1999) xviii
Nthumbsource: BIAB Online (1999-2000) accessed 16 Dec 2002; UK Counties and Regions Abbreviations [web site] (1997-98) accessed 16 Dec 2002
TypeHistoric county, Administrative county, Modern county
Coordinates55.169°N 1.687°W
Located inEngland
See alsoTyne and Wear, EnglandChild
Contained Places
Borough
Newcastle upon Tyne
Castle
Featherstone
Deserted settlement
Housesteads
Rudchester
Inhabited place
Abberwick
Acklington
Acomb
Adderstone
Akeld
Allendale Town
Allenheads
Alnham
Alnmouth
Alnwick
Alwinton
Amble
Anick
Apperley Dene
Ashington
Aydon
Ayle
Backworth
Bamburgh
Bardon Mill
Barrasford
Baybridge
Beaconhill
Beadnell
Beal
Beanley
Bearsbridge
Beauclerc
Bebside
Bedlington
Belford
Bellingham
Bellshill
Belsay
Beltingham
Benthall
Berrington
Berwick Hill
Berwick-upon-Tweed
Biddlestone
Bilton
Bingfield
Birling
Birtley
Black Heddon
Blanchland
Blyth
Bolam West Houses
Bolam
Bolton
Bomarsund
Bothal
Boulmer
Bowsden
Bradford
Branch End
Brandon
Branton
Branxton
Bridge End
Broomhaugh
Broomhill
Broomley
Brownieside
Brunton
Burradon
Burton
Butteryhaugh
Byrness
Bywell
Callaly
Cambo
Cambois
Capheaton
Carr Shield
Carterway Heads
Cartington
Catton
Causey Park Bridge
Charlton
Chathill
Chatton
Chesters
Chesterwood
Cheswick Buildings
Cheswick
Chevington Drift
Chillingham
Chirton
Chollerford
Chollerton
Choppington
Clennell
Clifton
Coalcleugh
Coanwood
Collingwood
Colpitts Grange
Colwell
Corbridge
Cornhill-on-Tweed
Coupland
Cowpen
Crag Lough
Cramlington
Craster
Cresswell
Crookham
Dunston
Edlingham
Ellington
Embleton
Englingham
Fallodon
Falstone
Fenham ( - 1974 )
Flodden
Ford
Glanton
Gosforth
Guide Post
Guyzance
Haltwhistle
Harbottle
Harper Town
Hartburn
Haydon Bridge
Hebburn (near Morpeth)
Hexham
Kielder Station
Killingworth
Kirkharle
Kirkwhelpington
Langley
Lesbury
Lindisfarne ( 700 - )
Long Horsley
Longbenton
Longframlington
Longhoughton
Lowick
Lynemouth
Marston Saint Lawrence
Morpeth
Newbiggin-by-the-Sea
Newburn
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newham
Norham ( 500 - )
North Seaton Colliery
North Shields
North Sunderland
Otterburn ( 500 - )
Ovingham
Painshawfield
Pegswood
Ponteland
Prudhoe
Radcliffe
Riding Mill
Rochester
Rothbury
Rothley
Scremerston Station
Seahouses
Seaton Delaval
Seaton Sluice
Shilbottle
Snitter
South Shields
Sparty Lea
Stannington
Stocksfield
Stonehaugh
Throckley
Thropton
Tweedmouth
Twizell
Tynemouth
Wallsend
Wark On Tyne
Wark
Warkton
Warkworth
Whitley Chapel
Whittingham
Widdrington
Wooler
Wylam
Yeavering
Parish
Hexhamshire
Rural district
Castle Ward
Unknown
Acklington-Park
Acton and Old Felton
Ancroft
Anick Grange
Annitsford
Ashington and Sheepwash
Aydon-Castle
Balkwell
Bambrough Castle
Bambrough
Barrow
Bassington
Bearl
Beaufront
Bell's Close
Bellister
Benridge
Bickerton
Bigges Quarter
Birdhope Craig
Bitchfield
Black-Callerton
Black-Carts-with-Ryehill
Blenkinsop
Bockenfield
Bolam Vicarage
Borrowdon
Bothal Demesne
Bradford (near Morpeth)
Brenkley
Brierdean
Brinkburn
Broom Park
Brotherwick
Broxfield
Budle
Bullers Green
Bullock's Hall
Byker
Bywell-St. Andrew
Bywell-St. Peter
Caistron
Callaley and Yetlington
Carham
Carrshields
Cary-Coats
Catcherside
Causey-Park
Cheeseburn Grange
Cheeseburn
Chevington
Chirdon
Clarewood
Clennel
Coatyards
Cocklaw
Cockle-Park
Cockshaw
Coldcoats
Coldwell
Colwell and Swinburn
Cornhill
Corridge
Corsenside
Couldsmouth and Thompsons-Walls
Coxlodge
Crawley
Crookdean
Crookhouse
Cullercoates
Dalton
Darras Hall
Deanham
Deanraw
Denwick
Detchant
Dilston
Dinnington
Ditchburn
Doddington
Doxford
Duddo
Dukers-Hagg
Dunstan
Eachwick
Eals
Earl
Earsdon (near Morpeth)
Earsdon (near North Shields)
Earsdon
Earsdon-Forest
Easington
Easington-Grange
East Brunton
East Denton
East Heddon
East Lilburn
East Matfen
East Shaftoe
East Thornton
East and West Hartford
East and West Whorlton
Edington
Eglingham
Elford
Ellingham
Elsdon
Elsdon-Ward
Eltringham
Elwick
Elyhaugh
Eshott
Espershields
Etal
Ewart
Ewesley
Fairhaugh
Fairnley
Fallowden
Fallowfield
Fallowlees
Farnham
Fawdon Clinch and Hartside
Fawdon
Fawns
Felkington
Felton
Fenrother
Fenwick (near Belford)
Fenwick (near Newcastle-upon-Tyne)
Fern Islands
Fleetham
Flotterton
Freeholders-Quarter
Gallow-Hill
Glororum
Gloster Hill
Great Bavington
Great Ryle
Great Whittington
Greenhead
Greenleighton
Greens and Glantlees
Greys-Forest
Grindon
Hadstone
Haggerston
Hallington
Halton Lea Gate
Halton
Harehope
Harlow-Hill
Harnham
Hartburn-Grange
Hartington Hall
Hartington
Hartlaw
Hartley
Hartley-Burn
Harwood
Haughton
Hauxley
Hawick
Hawkwell
Hazon
Healey and Combhill
Healey
Heathpool
Hebburn (near Wooler)
Heddon-on-the-Wall
Hedgeley
Hedley-on-the-Hill
Heighley
Henshaw
Hepple
Hepscott
Hesley-Hurst
Heugh
Hexhamshire High Quarter
Hexhamshire Low Quarter
Hexhamshire Middle Quarter
Hexhamshire West Quarter
High Angerton
High Buston
High Callerton
High Fortherley
High and Low Brunton
High and Low Trewhitt
Higham-Dykes
Highlaws
Hollinghill
Holy Island
Holystone
Holywell
Horncliffe
Horsley (near Otterburn)
Horsley (near Wylam)
Horton
Horton-Grange
Houghton and Closehouse
Howden
Howick
Howtell
Humbleton
Humshaugh
Hurst
Ilderton
Ingoe
Ingram Linhope and Greenshawhill
Ingram
Kearsley
Keenley
Kenton
Kidland
Kilham
Kirkhaugh
Kirkheaton
Kirkley
Kirknewton
Knaresdale
Kyloe
Lambley
Lanton
Learchild
Lemmington
Lillswood
Linbridge
Linmouth
Linsheeles
Linton
Little Bavington
Little Callerton
Little Harle
Little Houghton
Little Ryle
Little Whittington
Loan-End
Longhirst
Longridge
Longshaws
Longwitton
Lorbottle
Low Angerton
Low Buston
Lucker
Mason
Matfen
Meldon
Melkridge
Mickley
Middleton
Middleton-Hall
Milburn Grange
Milburn
Milfield
Mindrum
Minster Acres
Mitford
Molesden
Monkhouse
Monkridge-Ward
Monkseaton
Morpeth-Castle
Morwick
Mount Healey
Mouson
Murton
Nafferton
Nesbit (near Hexham)
Nesbit (near Wooler)
Nether Witton
Netherton North Side
Netherton South Side
New Bewick
New Hartley
Newbiggin
Newbrough
Newburn-Hall
Newham (near Morpeth)
Newlands
Newminster Abbey
Newsham
Newstead
Newton
Newton-Hall
Newton-Park
Newton-Underwood
Newton-by-the-Sea
Newton-on-the-Moor
Newtown (near Alnwick)
Newtown (near Wooler)
Ninebanks
Norham-Mains
North Charlton
North Dissington
North Gosforth
North Middleton (near Morpeth)
North Middleton (near Wooler)
North Seaton
Nunny-Kirk
Nunridge
Ogle
Old Bewick
Oldmoor
Ord
Ordley
Outchester
Ovington
Park
Paston
Peals
Pegsworth
Percy
Pigdon
Plainmellor
Plashetts
Portgate
Prendwick
Preston (near Alnwick)
Preston (near North Shields)
Prestwick
Ratchwood
Raw
Reaveley
Red Row
Rennington
Riddells-Quarter
Riding
Ridley
Ridsdale
Riplington
Ritton-Coltpark
Ritton-Whitehouse
River-Green
Rochester-Ward
Rock
Roddam
Roseden
Ross
Ryall
Sandhoe
Scotswood
Screnwood
Seaton Hirst
Seaton Terrace
Seghill
Selbys-Forest
Shankhouse
Sharperton
Shawdon
Shilvington
Shipley
Shiremoor
Shorestone
Shoreswood
Shortflatt
Shotley Low-Quarter
Shotley
Simonburn
Slaley
Sleekburn
Smalesmouth
South Blyth
South Charlton
South Dissington
South Gosforth
South Middleton (near Morpeth)
South Middleton (near Wooler)
Spindlestone
Spittle (near Hexham)
Spittle (near Tweedmouth)
Spittle-Hill
St. John-Lee
St. Oswald-in-Lee
Stamford
Stamfordham
Stanton
Stelling
Stonecroft
Sturton-Grange
Styford
Sugley
Swarland
Sweethope
Swinhoe
Thirlwall
Thirston-with-Shothaugh
Thockrington
Thornbrough
Thorneyburn
Thorngrafton
Thornton
Throphill
Tilmouth
Titlington
Todburn
Todridge
Togstone
Tosson
Tranwell and High Church
Trewick
Tritlington
Troughend
Tughall
Twizel
Ulgham
Unthank
Walker ( - 1974 )
Walkmill
Wall
Wallbottle
Wallington-Demesne
Walltown
Walridge
Warden
Warenford
Warenton
Warton
Wellhaugh
Welton
West Brunton
West Denton
West Harle
West Heddon
West Lilburn
West Matfen
West Newton
West Shaftoe
West Tarset
West Thornton
West Whelpington
Westgate
Whalton
Whitchester
Whitfield
Whitley (near North Shields)
Whitridge
Whittle (near Alnwick)
Whittle (near Newcastle-upon-Tyne)
Whitton
Whittonstall
Whorlton
Willington Quay
Willington
Windmill Hill
Wingates
Witton Shields
Woodhorn
Woodhorn-Demesne
Woodhouse
Woodside
Woodside-Ward
Wooley Burnfoot
Woolsington
Wooperton
Wreighill
Urban district
Benwell ( - 1974 )
Elswick ( - 1974 )
Heaton ( - 1974 )
Jesmond ( - 1974 )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Northumberland (pronounced ) is the northernmost ceremonial county and a unitary district in North East England. It borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham to the south and Tyne and Wear to the south east and the Scottish Borders council area to the north. Its North Sea coastline is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty with a long distance path. Since 1981, the county council has been located in Morpeth, situated in the east of the county.

The historical boundaries of the county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne, the traditional county town, as well as Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside, all areas transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. The historical county boundaries are sometimes taken to exclude Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire (collectively North Durham), exclaves of County Durham which were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. For Eurostat purposes Northumberland is a NUTS 3 region (code UKC21) and is one of three local authority areas that comprise the "Northumberland and Tyne and Wear" NUTS 2 region.

Being on the border of England and Scotland, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles. The county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, a favourite with landscape painters, and now largely protected as a National Park. Northumberland is the most sparsely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The area was once part of the Roman Empire and as Northumberland it was the scene of many wars between England and Scotland. As evidence of its violent history, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including the castles of Alnwick, Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Newcastle and Warkworth.

The region of present-day Northumberland once formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which was later united with Deira south of the River Tees to form the kingdom of Northumbria. The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north, though it was reduced to having its traditional northern border of the River Tweed after the area from the Tweed to the Forth was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland in 1018, including Lothian, the region which contains Edinburgh. Northumberland is often called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because it was on Lindisfarne, a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island, that Christianity flourished when monks from Iona were sent to convert the English. Lindisfarne was the home of the Lindisfarne Gospels and Saint Cuthbert, who is buried in Durham Cathedral.

Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the "royal" castle from before the unification of England under one monarch. In contemporary times, although Northumberland County Council's offices are in Morpeth, Alnwick and Morpeth contest which of the two is the county town.

The Earldom of Northumberland was briefly held by the Scottish Royal Family via marriage from 1139–1157 and 1215–1217. Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York. The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as the Marcher Lords, they were entrusted with protecting England from Scottish invasion.

Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North in Tudor times. These revolts were usually led by the then Dukes of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur, the real hero of his Henry IV, Part 1.

The county was also a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as of Jacobite support after the Restoration. Northumberland became a sort of wild county, where outlaws and Border Reivers hid from the law. However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I in 1603.

Northumberland played a key role in the industrial revolution. Coal mines were widespread in Northumberland until widespread closures were carried out under Labour and subsequent Conservative government in the 1970s and 1980s. There were collieries at Ashington, Bedlington, Choppington, Netherton, Ellington and Pegswood. The region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of the country, and the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialization of the 80s.

Today, Northumberland is still largely rural. As the least densely populated county in England, it commands much less influence in British affairs than in times past. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism due to its scenic beauty and the abundant evidence of its historical significance.

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