Newburn is a semi-rural village, parish, and a former urban district in the county of Northumberland, England. Since 1974, however, it is located in the western part of the county of Tyne and Wear. Situated on the banks of the River Tyne, it is built up the valley which rises from the river. It is situated approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) from the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, 14 miles (23 km) east of Hexham and 13 miles (21 km) south southwest of Morpeth. In the 2001 UK census, the population was given as 9,301, and increased to 9,536 by the 2011 UK census. The town is in the City of Newcastle upon Tyne metropolitan district.
In the distant past, the town was larger than Newcastle upon Tyne as it was the most eastern fordable point of the River Tyne. It was located on the point where the three ancient wards of Tynedale, Morpeth and Castle came together.
The area has Roman remains, and a Norman church dating from 1070 AD. In 1640, the Battle of Newburn took place. The village grew with the Industrial Revolution with the discovery of coal, and in 1822 Spencer's Steelworks was opened. The steelworks grew to a size which led the village to be known colloquially as "New Sheffield", after the town famed for its steel-making prowess. The town's steelworks fell into decline after the First World War.
A Vision of Britain through Time provides a description of Newburn from John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales of 1870-72 which makes an interesting comparison with the modern town found in Wikipedia.
Townships in the ancient parish
As an ancient parish Newburn had the following townships and chapelries:
Newburn as an urban district and after 1974
In 1894, Newburn Urban District Council was formed. This governed Newburn, along with other suburbs to the west of Newcastle. In 1911, the district council offices were officially opened.
Until 1935, as an urban district, Newburn contained the following parishes:
In 1935 these six parishes were absorbed into the parish of Newburn itself. Newburn became part of the Newcastle upon Tyne in Northumberland in 1935 and of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne in Tyne and Wear in 1974.