Place:Durham, England

Watchers


NameDurham
Alt namesCounty Durham
Co Durhamsource: Royal Mail: PAF Digest [online] (2002) accessed 16 Dec 2002
Dursource: BIAB Online (1999-2000) accessed 16 Dec 2002
Durhamsource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeHistoric county, Administrative county, Modern county
Coordinates54.733°N 1.75°W
Located inEngland
Contained Places
Borough
Stockton-on-Tees
Castle
Raby
Civil parish
Yarm
District
Teesdale
Inhabited place
Aislaby
Allensford
Ancroft
Annfield Plain
Archdeacon Newton
Auckland Saint Andrew
Aukside
Aycliffe Village
Barmpton
Barnard Castle ( 500 - )
Barningham ( 1974 - )
Beamish
Bearpark
Beaumont Hill
Bedburn
Belmont
Benfieldside
Bildershaw
Billingham
Billy Row
Binchester
Bishop Auckland
Bishop Middleham
Bishopsgarth
Bishopton
Blackhall Colliery
Blackhall Rocks
Blackhill
Blackwell
Bolam
Boldron ( 1974 - )
Bournmoor
Bowbank ( 1974 - )
Bowburn
Bowlees
Bradbury
Brafferton
Brancepeth
Brandon
Branksome
Bridge End
Bridgehill
Brierton
Brignall ( 1974 - )
Broom Hill
Broompark
Brotherlee
Burnhope
Burnopfield
Butsfield
Butterknowle
Butterwick
Byers Green
Carlbury
Carlton
Carrville
Cassop
Castle Eden
Castleside
Catchgate
Causey
Chester Moor
Chester-le-Street
Chilton Lane
Chilton
Cleatlam
Close House
Clough Dene
Coal Bank
Coatham Mundeville
Cockerton
Cockfield
Cold Hesledon
Consett
Copley
Copthill
Cornforth
Cornriggs
Cornsay Colliery
Cornsay
Cotherstone ( 1974 - )
Coundon Grange
Coundon
Coundongate
Cowpen Bewley
Cowshill
Coxhoe
Craghead
Craigside
Crawcrook ( - 1974 )
Crawleyside
Crimdon
Crook
Crookgate Bank
Crookhall
Croxdale
Daddry Shield
Dalton Piercy
Dalton-le-Dale
Darlington ( 1998 - )
Dawdon
Deaf Hill
Dean Bank
Delves
Deneside
Dent Bank
Denton
Dipton
Durham
Easington Colliery
Easington
East Blackdene
East Briscoe ( 1974 - )
East Hedleyhope
East Kyo
East Law
East Stanley
Eastbourne
Eastgate
Ebchester
Eden Vale
Edmondbyers
Edmondsley
Edmundbyers
Egglesburn
Eggleston
Eldon Lane
Eldon
Elstob
Elton
Elwick
Embleton
Escomb
Esh Winning
Esh
Esperley Lane Ends
Etherley Dene
Ettersgill
Evenwood Gate
Evenwood
Faverdale
Ferryhill Station
Ferryhill
Fir Tree
Firth Moor
Fishburn
Fleming Field
Flint Hill
Forest-in-Teesdale
Foxton
Framwellgate Moor
Frosterley
Gainford
Gilesgate Moor
Gilesgate
Gilmonby ( 1974 - )
Grange Hill
Grange Villa
Grassholme ( 1974 - )
Great Burdon
Great Chilton
Great Lumley
Great Stainton
Greatham
Greencroft
Greenhill
Greta Bridge ( 1974 - )
Grindon
Hallgarth
Hamsterley
Hardwick
Harelaw
Harperley
Harrowgate Hill
Harrowgate Village
Hart Station
Hart
Hartlepool ( 640 - )
Harwood
Haswell Moor
Haswell Plough
Haswell
Haughton Le Skerne
Hawthorn
Headlam
Healeyfield
Hedley Hill
Heighington
Helmington Row
Hesleden
Hett
High Coniscliffe
High Dyke
High Etherley
High Forge
High Friarside
High Grange
High Haswell
High Hesleden
High Shincliffe
High Stoop
High Throston
High Urpeth
High Westwood
Hill End
Hill Top
Hilton
Hobson
Holmside
Holwick
Horden
Horsleyhope
Houghton Bank
Houghton-le-Side
Howden-le-Wear
Hummersknott
Hunstanworth
Hunwick
Hurworth Place
Hurworth-on-Tees
Hury ( 1974 - )
Hutton Henry
Hutton Magna ( 1974 - )
Ingleton
Inkerman
Ireshopeburn
Iveston
Kelloe
Killerby
Kimblesworth
Kinninvie
Kip Hill
Kirk Merrington
Knitsley
Laithkirk
Lanchester
Langdon Beck
Langley Moor
Langley Park
Langton
Lartington ( 1974 - )
Leadgate
Leamside
Leasingthorne
Leeholme
Lingfield
Lintz
Lintzgarth
Little Newsham
Little Stainton
Little Thorpe
Littletown
Longnewton
Low Coniscliffe
Low Dinsdale
Low Etherley
Low Walworth
Low Westwood
Lowes Barn
Ludworth
Lumley Thicks
Maiden Law
Mainsforth
Meadowfield
Medomsley
Merrybent
Metal Bridge
Mickleton ( 1974 - )
Middle Side
Middlestone Moor
Middlestone
Middleton One Row
Middleton Saint George
Middleton St George
Middleton
Middleton-in-Teesdale
Middridge
Monk End
Monk Hesleden
Moor End
Moorside
Mordon
Morley
Morton Tinmouth
Mount Pleasant
Mowden
Muggleswick
Murton
Neasham
Nettlesworth
Neville's Cross
New Brancepeth
New Coundon
New House
New Hunwick
New Kyo
Newbiggin
Newbottle
Newfield
Newton Aycliffe
Newton Bewley
Newton Hall
Newton Ketton
No Place
North Bitchburn
North Close
Northlea
Norton
Oak Tree
Oakenshaw
Old Cassop
Old Eldon
Old Quarrington
Old Stillington
Old Wingate
Ornsby Hill
Ouston
Ovington ( 1974 - )
Owton Manor
Oxhill
Page Bank
Parkside
Pelton Fell
Pelton
Perkinsville
Peterlee
Phoenix Row
Pickering Nook
Piercebridge
Pittington
Pity Me
Plawsworth
Port Clarence
Portrack
Preston-le-Skern
Quaking Houses
Quarrington Hill
Quebec
Rainton Gate
Ramshaw
Redmarshall
Redworth
Rift House
Rise Carr
Roddymoor
Rokeby
Romaldkirk ( 1974 - )
Rookhope
Roseworth
Royal Oak
Rushyford
Sacriston
Sadberge
Satley
Scargill ( 1974 - )
School Aycliffe
Seaham
Seaton Carew
Seaton
Sedgefield
Shadforth
Sheep Hill
Sheraton
Sherburn Hill
Sherburn
Shield Row
Shildon
Shincliffe
Shittlehope
Shotley Bridge
Shotton Colliery
Shotton
Skerne Park
Snaisgill
Sockburn
South Church
South Hetton
South Moor
South Pelaw
South Side
South Stanley
South Wingate
Spennymoor
Springwell
St Helen Auckland
St John's Chapel
Staindrop
Stainton
Stanhope
Stanley Crook
Stanley
Startforth ( 1974 - )
Station Town
Stillington
Stony Heap
Summerhouse
Sunderland Bridge
Sunderland
Sunderland
Sunniside
Sunny Brow
Tan Hills
Tanfield
Tantobie
The Boldons ( - 1974 )
The Dene
The Grove
The Headland
The Middles
The Slack
Thinford
Thornaby
Thornley
Thorpe Larches
Thorpe Thewles
Thringarth ( 1974 - )
Tindale Crescent
Todhills
Toft Hill
Toronto
Tow Law
Town Kelloe
Townfield
Trimdon Colliery
Trimdon Grange
Trimdon
Tudhoe Grange
Tudhoe
Tursdale
Urlay Nook
Urpeth
Ushaw Moor
Wackerfield
Waldridge
Wall Nook
Walworth Gate
Walworth
Washington
Waskerley
Waterhouses
Wearhead
West Auckland
West Blackdene
West Cornforth
West Kyo
West Lea
West Park
West Pasture
West Rainton
West View
Westerton
Westgate
Westwick
Wheatley Hill
Whinfield
White Kirkley
White-le-Head
Whitton
Whitworth
Whorlton
Willington
Wingate
Winston
Witton Gilbert
Witton Park
Witton-le-Wear
Wolsingham
Wolviston
Woodham
Woodland
Woodside
Wycliffe ( 1974 - )
Yarm
Parish
Barningham ( 1974 - )
Bishopwearmouth
Ford
Monkwearmouth
Penshaw
Sunderland
Rural district
Startforth Rural ( 1974 - )
Unitary authority
Stockton-on-Tees
Unknown
Auckland-St. Helen
Aycliffe
Barlow
Barmston
Barony
Birtley
Bishop-Wearmouth Pans
Blaydon
Boldon
Bowden Close
Bradley Lordship
Brandon and Byshottles
Broom
Browney Colliery
Browney
Burdon
Burnop and Hamsteels
Byermoor
Castletown
Chester
Chilton-Moor
Chopwell
Clara Vale
Claxton
Cleadon
Coatsawmoor
Cocken
Cold-Rowley
Collierley
Coniscliffe
Coxgreen
Crook and Billy-row
Crossgate
Deaf Hill cum Langdale
Deptford
Dunston
Durham College
Eaglescliffe
Easington Lane
East Boldon
East Hartburn
East Howle Colliery
East Morton
East Rainton
East Thickley
East and Middle Herrington
East and West Newbiggin
Egglestone
Eighton-Banks
Elvet
Elwick Hall
Etherley
Fatfield
Felling
Fellside
Fence-houses
Finchale
Five Houses
Forest and Frith
Forest-Quarter
Foxton and Shotton
Framwellgate
Fulwell
Fylands Bridge
Garmondsway-Moor
Gateshead
Gateshead-Fell
Goosepool
Great Aycliffe
Great Eppleton
Greenside
Harraton
Harton
Haverton-Hill
Heatherycleugh
Hebburn
Hedley
Hedworth
Helme Park
Helmington
Hendon
Hetton-le-Hole
Heworth
High Fell
High Spen
Houghton-le-Spring
Hulam
Hunwick and Helmington
Hurworth
Hylton
Jarrow
Kibblesworth
Kyo
Lambton
Lamesley
Lanehead
Langley
Langleydale and Shotton
Leazes
Lintz-Green
Little Eppleton
Little Lumley
Low Fell
Lowside
Lumley
Lynesack and Softly
Marley Hill
Marton
Marwood
Middridge-Grange
Millfield
Monk Wearmouth Shore
Monk-Hesleton
Monkton
Moorhouse
Moorsley
Morton-Grange
Morton-Palms
Nesbitt
New Herrington
New Penshaw
New Seaham
New Shildon
Newbiggen (near Bishop-Auckland)
Newbiggen (near Middleton-in-Teesdale)
Newlandside-with-Bishopley
Newsham
Newton-Cap
North Bailey
North Bedburn
North Biddick
Offerton
Old Park
Oxneyfield
Pease's West
Pelaw
Pierremont
Piersebridge
Pollards-Lands
Pontop
Preston-upon-Tees
Quarrington
Raby-with-Keverstone
Ravensworth
Roker
Rowley
Rumby Hill
Ryhope
Ryton
Ryton-Woodside
Seaham-Colliery
Seaham-Harbour
Seaton and Slingley
Sheraton with Hulam
Sherburn Hospital
Shiney-Row
Silksworth
Sleetburn
South Bailey
South Bedburn
South Biddick
South Shields
South Westoe
Southwick
Spion Kop
St. Giles
St. Hilda
St. John's
St. Nicholas
St. Oswald
Stainton-with-Streatlam
Stargate
Stella
Stockley
Stranton
Swallwell
Thornley (near Tow-Law)
Thorpe-Bulmer
Thrislington
Throston
Tottenham
Tunstall
Tyne Dock
Ushaw
Usworth
Warden-Law
West Hartlepool
West Herrington
Westoe
Whessoe
Whickham
Whitburn
Whitwell House
Windlestone
Windynook
Winlaton
Wreckenton
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

County Durham (locally ) is a ceremonial county and (smaller) unitary district in North East England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county (in its own unitary borough) is Darlington. The county has a mixture of mining and farming heritage, as well as a heavy railway industry, particularly in the southeast of the county in Darlington, Shildon and Stockton. Its economy was historically based on coal and iron mining. It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination.

The ceremonial county borders Tyne and Wear, Cumbria, Northumberland and North Yorkshire, forming part of the North East England region.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

County Palatine of Durham

The territory that became known as County Durham was originally a liberty under the control of the Bishops of Durham. The liberty was known variously as the "Liberty of Durham", "Liberty of St Cuthbert's Land" "The lands of St. Cuthbert between Tyne and Tees" or "The Liberty of Haliwerfolc".

The bishops' special jurisdiction was based on claims that King Ecgfrith of Northumbria had granted a substantial territory to St Cuthbert on his election to the see of Lindisfarne in 684. In about 883, a cathedral housing the saint's remains was established at Chester-le-Street and Guthfrith, King of York granted the community of St Cuthbert the area between the Tyne and the Wear. In 995 the see was moved again to Durham.

Following the Norman invasion, the administrative machinery of government was only slowly extended to northern England. In the twelfth century a shire or county of Northumberland was formed, and Durham was considered to be within its bounds. However the authority of the sheriff of Northumberland and his officials was disputed by the bishops. The crown still regarded Durham as falling within Northumberland until the late thirteenth century. Matters came to a head in 1293 when the bishop and his steward failed to attend proceedings of quo warranto held by the justices of Northumberland. The bishops' case was heard in parliament, where he stated that Durham lay outside the bounds of any English shire and that "from time immemorial it had been widely known that the sheriff of Northumberland was not sheriff of Durham nor entered within that liberty as sheriff. . . nor made there proclamations or attachments". The arguments appear to have been accepted, as by the fourteenth century Durham was accepted as a liberty which received royal mandates direct. In effect it was a private shire, with the bishop appointing his own sheriff.[1] The area eventually became known as the "County Palatine of Durham".

Sadberge was a liberty, sometimes referred to as a county, within Northumberland. In 1189 it was purchased for the see but continued with a separate sheriff, coroner and court of pleas. In the 14th century Sadberge was included in Stockton ward and was itself divided into two wards. The division into the four wards of, Chester-le-Street, Darlington, Easington and Stockton existed in the 13th century, each ward having its own coroner and a three-weekly court corresponding to the hundred court. The diocese was divided into the archdeaconries of Durham and Northumberland. The former is mentioned in 1072, and in 1291 included the deaneries of Chester-le-Street, Auckland, Lanchester and Darlington.

The term palatinus is applied to the bishop in 1293, and from the 13th century onwards the bishops frequently claimed the same rights in their lands as the king enjoyed in his kingdom.

Early administration

At its historic extent, Durham included a main body covering the Catchment of the Pennines in the west, the River Tees in the south, the North Sea in the east and the Rivers Tyne and Derwent in the north. The county had a number of exclaves: Bedlingtonshire, Islandshire and Norhamshire within Northumberland, and Craikshire within the North Riding of Yorkshire. In 1831 the county covered an area of and had a population of 253,910. The historic boundaries were used for parliamentary purposes until 1832, and for judicial and local government purposes until the coming into force of the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844, which merged most remaining exclaves with their surrounding county.

Until the 15th century the most important administrative officer in the palatinate was the steward. Other officers were the sheriff, the coroners, the Chamberlain and the chancellor. The palatine exchequer was organised in the 12th century. The palatine assembly represented the whole county, and dealt chiefly with fiscal questions. The bishops council, consisting of the clergy, the sheriff and the barons, regulated the judicial affairs, and later produced the Chancery and the courts of Admiralty and Marshalsea.

Durham city was captured by a Norman army in 1069. There was a rebellion against the new Norman earl Robert de Comines, who was killed. However, County Durham largely missed the Harrying of the North that was designed to subjugate such rebellions. The best remains of the Norman period are to be found in Durham Cathedral and in the castle, also in some few parish churches, as at Pittington and Norton in Stockton. Of the Early English period are the eastern portion of the cathedral, the churches of Darlington, Hartlepool, and St Andrew, Auckland, Sedgefield, and portions of a few other churches.

The prior of Durham ranked first among the bishop's barons. He had his own court, and almost exclusive jurisdiction over his men. There were ten palatinate barons in the 12th century, the most important being the Hyltons of Hylton Castle, the Bulmers of Brancepeth, the Conyers of Sockburne, the Hansards of Evenwood, and the Lumleys of Lumley Castle. The Nevilles owned large estates in the county. Raby Castle, their principal seat, was rebuilt by John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby in 1377.

Edward I's quo warranto proceedings of 1293 showed twelve lords enjoying more or less extensive franchises under the bishop. The repeated efforts of the Crown to check the powers of the palatinate bishops culminated in 1536 in the Act of Resumption, which deprived the bishop of the power to pardon offences against the law or to appoint judicial officers. Moreover, indictments and legal processes were in future to run in the name of the king, and offences to be described as against the peace of the king, rather than that of the bishop. In 1596 restrictions were imposed on the powers of the chancery, and in 1646 the palatinate was formally abolished. It was revived, however, after the Restoration, and continued with much the same power until 5 July 1836, when the Durham (County Palatine) Act 1836 provided that the palatine jurisdiction should in future be vested in the crown.

During the Wars of the Roses, Henry VI passed through Durham. On the outbreak of the Great Rebellion Durham inclined to support the cause of the Parliament, and in 1640 the high sheriff of the palatinate guaranteed to supply the Scottish army with provisions during their stay in the county. In 1642 the Earl of Newcastle formed the western counties into an association for the kings service, but in 1644 the palatinate was again overrun by the Scottish army, and after the Battle of Marston Moor fell entirely into the hands of the parliament.

In 1614 a bill was introduced in parliament for securing representation to the county and city of Durham and the borough of Barnard Castle. The movement was strongly opposed by the bishop, as an infringement of his palatinate rights, and the county was first summoned to return members to parliament in 1654. After the Restoration the county and city returned two members each. By the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned two members for two divisions, and the boroughs of Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland acquired representation. The boroughs of Darlington, Stockton and Hartlepool returned one member each from 1868 until the Redistribution Act of 1885.

Modern local government

The municipal boroughs of Durham, Stockton on Tees and Sunderland were reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. In 1875 Jarrow was incorporated as a municipal borough, as was West Hartlepool in 1887. At a county level, the Local Government Act 1888 reorganised local government throughout England and Wales. Most of the county came under control of the newly formed Durham County Council in an area known as an administrative county. Not included were the county boroughs of Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland. However, for purposes other than local government the administrative county of Durham and the county boroughs continued to form a "county of Durham" to which a Lord Lieutenant of Durham was appointed.

Over its existence, the administrative county lost territory, both to the existing county boroughs, and also due to the municipal borough of West Hartlepool becoming a county borough in 1902[2] and Darlington in 1915. In 1967 the former area of the borough of Hartlepool was removed from the administrative county when it merged with West Hartlepool to form a new county borough of Hartlepool. The county boundary with the North Riding of Yorkshire was adjusted: that part of the town of Barnard Castle historically in Yorkshire was added to County Durham, while the portion of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees in Durham was ceded to the North Riding. In 1968, following the recommendation of the Local Government Commission, Billingham was transferred to the county borough of Teesside, in the North Riding. In 1971 the population of the county including all associated county boroughs (an area of 634,000 acres)[3] was 1,409,633 and the population outside the county boroughs was 814,396.

In 1974 the administrative county and the county boroughs were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 and County Durham was reconstituted as a non-metropolitan county.[4] The reconstituted County Durham lost territory to the north east (around Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland) to Tyne and Wear and to the south east (around Hartlepool) to Cleveland.[5][6] At the same time it gained the former area of Startforth Rural District from the North Riding of Yorkshire. The area of the Lord Lieutenant of Durham was also adjusted by the Act to coincide with the non-metropolitan county (which occupied in 1981).[3]

In 1996, as part of the 1990s UK local government reform, Cleveland was abolished and its districts were reconstituted as unitary authorities. Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees (north of the River Tees) were returned to Durham for the purposes of Lord Lieutenant. In 1997, Darlington became a unitary authority and was separated from the shire county. The change in area for Lord Lieutenant to include all these places was reconfirmed by the Lieutenancies Act 1997.[7] Cleveland was adopted as a postal county in 1974 and by the time of its abolition, Royal Mail had abandoned the use of counties altogether; the County Durham former postal county therefore has not been adjusted to the new ceremonial boundary.

As part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England initiated by the Department for Communities and Local Government, the seven district councils within the County Council area were abolished. The County Council assumed their functions and became a unitary authority. The changes came into effect on 1 April 2009.[8]

Modern national government

See List of Parliamentary constituencies in County Durham

Research Tips


This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at County Durham. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.