Place:Hampshire, England

Watchers
NameHampshire
Alt namesHAMsource: Curious Fox: UK Counties and Shires [online] (2002). accessed 16 Dec 2002
Hantssource: Wikipedia
Southamptonshiresource: Wikipedia
Hamptonshiresource: Wikipedia
Southamptonsource: Family History Library Catalog
TypeHistoric county, Administrative county, Modern county
Coordinates51.06°N 1.31°W
Located inEngland
See alsoIsle of Wight, EnglandChild
Contained Places
Ancient parish
Kingston
Borough
Bournemouth ( - 1974 )
Christchurch ( - 1974 )
Eastleigh
Civil parish
Barton Stacey
Burton ( - 1974 )
Hampreston ( 1860 - )
District
Eastney
District municipality
Christchurch ( - 1974 )
Hamlet
Hale Common
Inhabited place
Abbots Worthy
Abbots-Ann
Abbotstone
Abbotswood
Abbotts Ann
Aldershot
Alton
Ampfield
Amport
Andover
Andwell
Ansty
Appleshaw
Arreton
Ashe
Ashley
Ashurst
Avington
Avon
Awbridge
Barton Stacey
Bashley
Basing
Basingstoke
Battramsley Cross
Battramsley
Baughurst
Baybridge
Beaulieu
Bedhampton
Bembridge
Bentley
Bickton
Bighton
Binstead (near Ryde)
Binsted
Bishop's Sutton
Bishop's Waltham
Bishopstoke
Bisterne
Bitterne
Boarhunt
Boldre
Bonchurch
Bordon
Boscombe ( 1974 - )
Botley
Bowcombe
Brading
Bradley
Braishfield
Brambridge
Bramdean
Bramley
Bramshaw
Bramshill
Bransbury
Bransgore
Breamore
Brighstone
Brockenhurst
Brook
Broughton
Brown Candover
Buckler's Hard
Burghclere
Bursledon
Burton ( - 1974 )
Cadnam
Calbourne
Calshot
Carisbrooke
Chale
Chalton
Chandler's Ford
Chawton
Chilbolton
Chilcomb
Chillerton
Chilton Candover
Chilworth
Chineham
Christchurch ( - 1974 )
Church Crookham
Clanville
Cliddesden
Colemore
Coombe
Corhampton
Cowes
Cowplain
Crawley
Crondall
Crow Hill Top
Crow Hill
Crow
Crux Easton
Damerham
Dartmouth
Deane
Denmead
Dibden
Dogmersfield
Droxford
Dummer
Dunbridge
East Dean
East Meon
East Stratton
East Tytherley
East Wellow
East Woodhay
East Worldham
Easton
Ecchinswell
Ellingham
Ellisfield
Elson
Empshott
Emsworth
Enham Alamein
Eversley
Exbury
Exton
Faccombe
Fareham
Farleigh Wallop
Farnborough
Fawley
Fleet
Fordingbridge
Foxcotte
Freefolk
Freshwater
Fullerton
Fyfield
Gatcombe
Godshill
Goodworth Clatford
Gosport
Grayshott
Great Shoddesden
Greatham
Hale
Hamble
Hamble-le-Rice
Hambledon
Hannington
Harbridge
Hardley
Hart Plain
Hartley Mauditt
Hartley Wespall
Havant ( 500 - )
Headbourne Worthy
Headley
Heath End
Heckfield
Hedge End
Highclere
Highcliffe ( 1974 - )
Hill Head
Hinton Ampner
Holbury
Holybourne
Hook
Hordle
Horndean
Houghton
Hound
Hurn ( - 1974 )
Hursley
Hurstbourne Priors
Hurstbourne Tarrant
Hyde
Hythe
Ibsley
Idsworth
Itchen Abbas
Itchen Stoke
Johnson's Corner
Kilmeston
Kimpton
King's Somborne
King's Worthy
Kings Worthy
Kingsclere
Langley
Langstone
Lasham
Laverstoke
Leckford
Lee-on-the-Solent
Linkenholt
Liphook
Liss
Litchfield
Little Ann
Little Shoddesden
Little Somborne
Lockerley
Locks Heath
Long Sutton
Longstock
Lovedean
Lower Burgate
Lower Farringdon
Lower Froyle
Lymington
Lyndhurst
Mapledurwell
Marchwood
Martyr Worthy
Mattingley
Medina
Medstead
Meon
Meonstoke
Micheldever
Middleton
Milford on Sea
Minstead
Monk Sherbourne
Monxton
Mottisfont
Mottistone
Nately Scures
Neatham
Nether Wallop
Netley
New Alresford
New Milton
Newnham
Newton Stacey
Newton Valence
Niton
North Baddesley
North Charford
North Gorley
North Hayling
North Waltham
Northington
Northwood
Nursling
Nutley
Oakhanger
Oakley
Odiham
Old Alresford
Old Basing
Old Milton
Otterbourne
Otterwood
Outwick
Over Wallop
Overton
Ower
Parkhurst
Penton Grafton
Penton Mewsey
Petersfield
Pilley
Popham
Portchester
Portsmouth ( 900 - )
Preston Candover
Purbrook
Quarley
Ringwood
Ripley
Rockbourne
Rockford
Romsey ( 500 - )
Ropley
Rownhams
Ryde
Saint Helens
Sandown
Segensworth
Selborne
Shalden
Shalfleet
Shanklin
Sheet
Sherborne Saint John
Sherfield English
Sherfield on Loddon
Shipton Bellinger
Shirrell Heath
Shorwell
Silchester
Soberton
Sopley
South Baddesley
South Gorley
South Hayling
South Warnborough
Southampton
Southsea
Spanish Green
St Mary Bourne
St. Ives ( - 1974 )
St. Leonards ( 1974 - )
Steep
Steventon
Stockbridge
Stoke Charity
Stratfield Saye
Stratfield Turgis
Stubbington
Sutton Scotney
Swampton
Swanwick
Sway
Sydmonton
Tadley
Tangley
Thorley
Thruxton
Tichborne
Timsbury
Titchfield
Totton and Eling
Totton
Tufton
Tunworth
Turgis Green
Twyford
Up Nately
Upham
Upper Burgate
Upper Canterton
Upper Clatford
Upper Farringdon
Upper Froyle
Upton
Vernham Dean
Walhampton
Wallington
Warblington
Warnford
Warsash
Waterlooville
West Meon
West Tisted
West Tytherley
West Wellow
Weston Patrick
Weyhill
Wherwell
Whippingham
Whitchurch
Whiteley
Wickham
Winchester ( 500 - )
Winchfield
Winkton ( - 1974 )
Winslade
Wonston
Woodmancott
Wootton Saint Lawrence
Wootton
Wroxall
Yarmouth
Yateley
Yaverland
Island
Hayling
Portsea Island
Parish
Alverstoke
East Cowes
Foxcott
Holdenhurst ( - 1974 )
Hurn ( - 1974 )
North Stoneham
Totlands Bay
Settlement
North Stoneham
Suburb
Highcliffe ( 1974 - )
Holdenhurst ( - 1974 )
Pokesdown ( - 1974 )
Unitary authority
Bournemouth ( - 1974 )
Unknown
Abshot House
Anstey
Ashley-Walk
Ashmansworth
Barton
Beaurepaire
Beauworth
Bentworth
Bishops-Sutton
Bishops-Waltham
Bittern
Blackfield
Blackmoor
Blendworth
Bossington
Bramshott
Brockhampton
Broomy-Walk
Broxhead Warren
Buckholt
Bucklershard
Bullington
Buriton
Burley
Cadlands
Catherington
Catisfield
Charlton
Cheriton
Clanfield
Colbury
Colden-Common
Coldrey
Combe
Compton
Copythorne
Cove
Crofton
Crookham
Crowdhill
Curdridge
Denny Lodge
Dockenfield
Droxfield
Dunwood
Durley
East Hoe
East Tisted
Eastrop
Eldon
Eling
Elvetham
Emery-Down
Empshot
Ewhurst
Ewshott
Faringdon
Farley-Chamberlayne
Farlington
Forton
Freefolk Manor
Freemantle
Frenchmoor
Froxfield
Froyle
Godsfield
Grateley
Great Salterns
Grewell
Hartley-Wintney
Hatherden
Haven-Street
Hawkley
Hawley
Headbourn-Worthy
Herriard
Hill
Hinton Admiral
Hunton
Itchel Manor
Itchin-Abbas
Kings-Sombourn
Kingsley
Knight's Enham
Lainston
Langrish
Leigh
Limerston
Little Sombourn
Littleton
Longparish
Maplederwell
Mapledurham
Marwell Hall
Merston
Michelmersh
Millbrook
Milton
Minley
Mitchelmersh
Monk-Sherborne
Moordown
Morestead
Mortimer
Mortimer-West-End
Mountjoy
New Forest
Newchurch
Newtown
Newtown-near-Newbury
North Eling
Oakfield
Osborne house
Ovington
Owslebury
Pamber
Pennington
Pittleworth
Plaitford ( 1932 - Present )
Porchfield
Portsdown
Portsea
Portswood
Priors-Dean
Privett
Redbridge
Rhinefield
Rotherwick
Rowner
Sarisbury
Shawford
Sherborne-Monk
Sherborne-St. Peter
Sherfield-upon-Loddon
Shidfield
Shirley
South Charford
South Stoneham
South Tidworth
Southwick
Sparkford
Sparsholt
St. Cross
St. Faith
St. Lawrence
St. Mary-Extra
St. Nicholas-Castlehold
Standford
Swanmore
Swarraton
Toyd-Farm-With-Allenford
Upton-Gray
Warboys
Weeke
West Worldham
Westend
Weston
Weston-Corbett
Whitsbury
Whitway
Whitwell
Wicor
Widley
Wield
Winnall
Wolverton
Wood-Green
Woodcott
Woodland
Woolston
Woolton-Hill
Worting
Wymering
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Hampshire (or variants; abbreviated Hants) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire is Winchester, the former capital city of England. Hampshire is the most populous ceremonial county in the United Kingdom excluding the metropolitan counties with almost half of the county's population living within the South Hampshire conurbation which includes the cities of Southampton and Portsmouth. Hampshire is notable for housing the birthplaces of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force. The ceremonial county is bordered by Dorset to the west, Wiltshire to the north-west, Berkshire to the north, Surrey to the north-east, and West Sussex to the east. The southern boundary is the coastline of the English Channel and the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight.

Hampshire is the largest county in South East England and the third largest shire county in the United Kingdom despite losing more land than any other English county during the Local Government Act 1972 boundary changes. At its greatest size in 1889, Hampshire was the fifth largest county in England. It now has an overall area of , and measures approximately east–west and north–south.

Hampshire's tourist attractions include many seaside resorts, the motor museum at Beaulieu, and national parks in both the New Forest and the South Downs (covering some 45% of the county). Hampshire has a long maritime history and two of England's largest ports, Portsmouth and Southampton, lie on its coast. The county is famed as home of such writers as Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, as well as the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Prehistory until the Norman Conquest

Humans have probably existed in Hampshire on and off for perhaps as much as 700,000 years. The region is believed to have been continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12,000 BP. At this time Britain was still attached to the European continent and was predominantly covered with deciduous woodland. The first inhabitants came overland from Europe; these were anatomically and behaviourally modern humans, Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Over several thousand years, the climate got progressively warmer, and sea levels rose; the English Channel, which started out as a river, was a major inlet by 8000 BCE, although Britain was still connected to Europe by a land bridge across the North Sea until 6500 BCE. Notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff.

Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, and with it a neolithic culture. Some deforestation took place in this period, although it is during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, that this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from these early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 BCE and 2200 BCE. In the very late Bronze Age, fortified hilltop settlements known as hillforts began to appear in large numbers in many parts of Britain including Hampshire, and these became more and more important in the early and middle Iron Age; many of these are still visible in the landscape today and can be visited, notably Danebury Rings, the subject of a major study by archaeologist Barry Cunliffe. It is maintained that by this period the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, and their culture shared much in common with the Celts described by classical writers.

Hillforts largely declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. It was probably around this period that the first recorded invasion of Britain took place, as southern Britain was largely conquered by warrior-elites from Belgic tribes of northeastern Gaul - whether these two events are linked to the decline of hillforts is unknown. By the Roman conquest, the oppidum at Venta, modern-day Winchester, was the de facto regional administrative centre; Winchester was however of secondary importance to the Roman-style town of Calleva, modern Silchester, built further north by a dominant Belgic polity known as the Atrebates in the 50s BCE. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England briefly in 55 and again in 54 BCE, but he never reached Hampshire. Notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head (now technically in Dorset), which was a major port.[1] There is a "Museum of the Iron Age" in Andover.

The Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, and Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia very quickly. It is generally believed their political leaders allowed themselves to be incorporated peacefully. Venta became the capital of the administrative polity of the Belgae, which included most of Hampshire and Wiltshire and reached as far as Bath. It is not recorded whether the people of Hampshire played any role in Boudicca's rebellion of 60-61 CE, but there is evidence of burning in Winchester dated to around this period. For most of the next three centuries, southern Britain enjoyed relative peace. The later part of the Roman period saw most towns build defensive walls; a pottery industry based in the New Forest was exported widely across southern Britain. There was a fortification near Southampton called Clausentum, part of the Saxon Shore forts, traditionally seen as defences against maritime raids by Germanic tribes. The Romans officially withdrew from Britain in 410 CE.

Records are unreliable for the next two hundred years, but in this time southern Britain went from being Brythonic to being English and Hampshire emerged as the centre of what was to become the most powerful kingdom in Britain, the Kingdom of Wessex. Evidence of early Anglo-Saxon settlement has been found at Clausentum and on the Thames at Dorchester, dated to the fifth century, and by the seventh century, the population of Hampshire were predominantly English-speaking. It is also around this period that the administrative region of "Hampshire" seems to appear; the name is attested as "Hamtunscir" in 755, and Albany Major suggested that the traditional western and northern borders of Hampshire may even go back to the very earliest conquests of Cerdic, legendary founder of Wessex, at the very beginning of the sixth century. Wessex gradually expanded westwards into Brythonic Dorset and Somerset in the seventh century. A statue in Winchester celebrates the powerful King Alfred, who repulsed the Vikings and stabilised the region in the 9th century. He was also a great scholar, who commissioned the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a powerful tool in the development of the English identity. King Alfred proclaimed himself "King of England" in 886; but it was not until 927 that Athelstan of Wessex officially controlled the whole of England.[2][3]

Middle Ages Onwards

By the Norman conquest, Winchester had been overtaken by London as the largest city in England, thanks in part to Alfred the Great's investments in infrastructure, and after the Norman Conquest King William I made it his capital. The centre of political power moved away from Hampshire, although Winchester remained a city of importance: it was the proximity of the New Forest to Winchester that made it such a prized royal hunting forest; indeed King William Rufus was famously killed in suspicious circumstances while hunting there. The county was recorded in the Domesday Book divided into 44 hundreds. From the 12th century the ports grew in importance, fuelled by trade with the continent, wool and cloth manufacture in the county, and the fishing industry, and a shipbuilding industry was established. By 1523 at the latest, the population of Southampton had outstripped that of Winchester.

Over several centuries a series of castles and forts were constructed along the coast of the Solent to defend the harbours at Southampton and Portsmouth. These include the Roman Portchester Castle which overlooks Portsmouth Harbour, and a series of forts built by Henry VIII including Hurst Castle, situated on a sand spit at the mouth of the Solent, Calshot Castle on another spit at the mouth of Southampton Water, and Netley Castle. Southampton and Portsmouth remained important harbours when rivals, such as Poole and Bristol declined, as they are amongst the few locations that combine shelter with deep water. Southampton has been host to many famous ships, including the Mayflower and the Titanic, the latter being staffed largely by natives of Southampton.

Hampshire played a crucial role in the Second World War due to the large Royal Navy harbour at Portsmouth, the army camp at Aldershot and the military Netley Hospital on Southampton Water, as well as its proximity to the army training ranges on Salisbury Plain and the Isle of Purbeck. Supermarine, the designers of the Spitfire and other military aircraft, were based in Southampton, which led to severe bombing of the city. Aldershot remains one of the British Army's main permanent camps. Farnborough is a major centre for the Aviation industry.

Although the Isle of Wight was traditionally part of Hampshire, it has been administratively independent for over a century, obtaining a county council of its own in 1890. The Isle of Wight became a full ceremonial county in 1974. Apart from a shared police force there are now no formal administrative links between the Isle of Wight and Hampshire, though many organisations still combine Hampshire and the Isle of Wight.

The towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch also fall within the traditional county of Hampshire, but were transferred to Dorset in the local government reorganisation of 1974. The boundary was changed again in 1992, when South Tidworth was transferred to Wiltshire.

The City Museum in Winchester covers the Iron Age and Roman periods, the Middle Ages, and the Victorian period over three floors.

United States

Hampshire was the departure point of some of those later to settle on the east coast of what is now the United States, in the 17th century, giving its name in particular to the state of New Hampshire. The counties of Isle of Wight and Southampton in Virginia reflect the origins of some of the earliest Jamestown settlers.

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