Place:Virginia, United States

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NameVirginia
Alt namesVAsource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1258
Vir
Virg
TypeState
Coordinates37°N 80°W
Located inUnited States     (1788 - )
Contained Places
Area
Virginia Military District ( 1607 - 1803 )
Cemetery
Old Settlers Cemetery ( - 1863 )
County
Accomack ( 1634 - )
Albemarle ( 1744 - )
Alleghany ( 1822 - )
Amelia ( 1734 - )
Amherst ( 1761 - )
Appomattox ( 1845 - )
Arlington ( 1926 - )
Augusta ( 1738 - )
Barbour ( 1843 - 1863 )
Bath ( 1791 - )
Bedford (county) ( 1754 - )
Berkeley ( 1772 - 1863 )
Bland ( 1861 - )
Boone ( 1847 - 1863 )
Botetourt ( 1770 - )
Bourbon ( 1763 - 1792 )
Braxton ( 1836 - 1863 )
Brooke ( 1797 - 1863 )
Brunswick ( 1732 - )
Buchanan ( 1858 - )
Buckingham ( 1761 - )
Cabell ( 1809 - 1863 )
Calhoun ( 1856 - 1863 )
Campbell ( 1782 - )
Caroline ( 1728 - )
Carroll ( 1842 - )
Charles City ( 1634 - )
Charlotte ( 1765 - )
Chesterfield ( 1749 - )
Clarke ( 1836 - )
Clay ( 1858 - 1863 )
Craig ( 1851 - )
Culpeper ( 1749 - )
Cumberland ( 1749 - )
Dickenson ( 1880 - )
Dinwiddie ( 1752 - )
Doddridge ( 1845 - 1863 )
Essex ( 1692 - )
Fairfax (county) ( 1742 - )
Fauquier ( 1759 - )
Fayette ( 1780 - 1792 )
Fayette ( 1831 - 1863 )
Fincastle ( 1772 - 1776 )
Floyd ( 1831 - )
Fluvanna ( 1771 - )
Franklin (county) ( 1785 - )
Frederick ( 1743 - )
Giles ( 1806 - )
Gilmer ( 1845 - 1863 )
Gloucester ( 1651 - )
Goochland ( 1728 - )
Grayson ( 1793 - )
Greenbrier ( 1777 - 1863 )
Greene ( 1838 - )
Greensville ( 1781 - )
Halifax ( 1752 - )
Hampshire ( 1754 - 1863 )
Hancock ( 1848 - 1863 )
Hanover ( 1721 - )
Hardy ( 1786 - 1863 )
Harrison ( 1784 - 1863 )
Henrico ( 1634 - )
Henry ( 1777 - )
Highland ( 1847 - )
Isle of Wight ( 1637 - )
Jackson ( 1831 - 1863 )
James City ( 1634 - )
Jefferson ( 1780 - 1792 )
Jefferson ( 1801 - 1863 )
Kanawha ( 1788 - 1863 )
King George ( 1721 - )
King William ( 1701 - )
King and Queen ( 1691 - )
Lancaster ( 1651 - )
Lee ( 1793 - )
Lewis ( 1816 - 1863 )
Lincoln ( 1780 - 1792 )
Logan ( 1824 - 1863 )
Loudoun ( 1757 - )
Louisa ( 1742 - )
Lunenburg ( 1745 - )
Madison ( 1793 - )
Marion ( 1842 - 1863 )
Marshall ( 1835 - 1863 )
Mason ( 1804 - 1863 )
Mathews ( 1791 - )
McDowell ( 1858 - 1863 )
Mecklenburg ( 1764 - )
Mercer ( 1837 - 1863 )
Middlesex ( 1669 - )
Monongalia ( 1776 - 1863 )
Monroe ( 1799 - 1863 )
Montgomery ( 1777 - )
Morgan ( 1820 - 1863 )
Nelson ( 1808 - )
New Kent ( 1654 - )
Nicholas ( 1818 - 1863 )
Northampton ( 1642 - )
Northumberland ( 1645 - )
Nottoway ( 1789 - )
Ohio ( 1776 - 1863 )
Orange ( 1734 - )
Page ( 1831 - )
Patrick ( 1791 - )
Pendleton ( 1788 - 1863 )
Pittsylvania ( 1767 - )
Pleasants ( 1851 - 1863 )
Pocahontas ( 1821 - 1863 )
Powhatan ( 1777 - )
Preston ( 1818 - 1863 )
Prince Edward ( 1754 - )
Prince George ( 1702 - )
Prince William ( 1731 - )
Pulaski ( 1839 - )
Putnam ( 1848 - 1863 )
Raleigh ( 1850 - 1863 )
Randolph ( 1787 - 1863 )
Rappahannock ( 1833 - )
Richmond (county) ( 1692 - )
Ritchie ( 1842 - 1863 )
Roane ( 1856 - 1863 )
Roanoke (county) ( 1838 - )
Rockbridge ( 1778 - )
Rockingham ( 1778 - )
Russell ( 1786 - )
Scott ( 1814 - )
Shenandoah ( 1778 - )
Smyth ( 1832 - )
Southampton ( 1749 - )
Spotsylvania ( 1721 - )
Stafford ( 1664 - )
Surry ( 1652 - )
Sussex ( 1754 - )
Taylor ( 1844 - 1863 )
Tazewell ( 1800 - )
Tucker ( 1856 - 1863 )
Tyler ( 1814 - 1863 )
Upshur ( 1851 - 1863 )
Warren ( 1836 - )
Washington ( 1777 - )
Wayne ( 1842 - 1863 )
Webster ( 1860 - 1863 )
Westmoreland ( 1653 - )
Wetzel ( 1846 - 1863 )
Wirt ( 1848 - 1863 )
Wise ( 1856 - )
Wood ( 1798 - 1863 )
Wyoming ( 1850 - 1863 )
Wythe ( 1790 - )
Yohogania ( 1776 - 1779 )
York ( 1634 - )
District
District of West Augusta ( 1738 - 1776 )
Irish Corner ( ? - 1863 )
Former community
Werowocomoco
Former county
Braxton ( 1836 - 1863 )
Dunmore ( 1772 - 1778 )
Elizabeth City ( 1634 - 1952 )
Kentucky ( 1777 - 1780 )
Lower Norfolk
Nansemond ( 1642 - )
Norfolk (county) ( 1691 - )
Old Rappahannock (extinct) ( 1656 - 1692 )
Princess Anne ( 1691 - 1963 )
Warwick ( 1642 - 1958 )
Independent city
Alexandria ( 1852 - )
Bedford (independent city)
Bristol
Buena Vista ( 1892 - )
Charlottesville
Chesapeake ( 1963 - )
Colonial Heights ( 1948 - )
Covington ( 1952 - )
Danville ( 1890 - )
Emporia
Fairfax (independent city) ( 1961 - )
Falls Church ( 1948 - )
Franklin (independent city)
Fredericksburg ( 1879 - )
Galax ( 1954 - )
Hampton ( 1908 - )
Harrisonburg ( 1916 - )
Hopewell City ( 1916 - )
Lexington
Lynchburg ( 1852 - )
Manassas Park ( 1975 - )
Manassas ( 1975 - )
Martinsville ( 1940 - )
Newport News ( 1896 - )
Norfolk (independent city) ( 1845 - )
Norton ( 1954 - )
Petersburg ( 1850 - )
Poquoson ( 1970 - )
Portsmouth ( 1858 - )
Radford City ( 1887 - )
Richmond (independent city) ( 1842 - )
Roanoke (independent city) ( 1884 - )
Salem City
Staunton ( 1902 - )
Suffolk ( 1910 - )
Virginia Beach ( 1952 - )
Waynesboro ( 1948 - )
Williamsburg ( 1884 - )
Inhabited place
Denbigh
Manchester
Old Point Comfort
Phoebus
South Parkersburg ( 1765 - 1865 )
Winchester
Inhabited region
Shenandoah Valley
Locality
Wilderness. Spotsylvania
State
West Virginia ( 1779 - 1863 )
Unknown
Northern Neck Proprietary
Northern Neck
Skiffs Creek
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state located in the South Atlantic region of the United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, though Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population is 8,260,405 .[1]

The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy. Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, during which Richmond was made the Confederate capital and Virginia's northwestern counties seceded to form the state of West Virginia. Although the Commonwealth was under single-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.[2]

The Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government has been repeatedly ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States.[3] It is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the Department of Defense and CIA; and military facilities in Hampton Roads, the site of the region's main seaport. Virginia's public schools and many colleges and universities have contributed to growing media and technology sectors. As a result, computer chips have become the state's leading export.[4]

Contents

History

Image:Early Virginia Settler Banner.jpg

Virginia History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Jamestown 2007 marked Virginia's quadricentennial year, celebrating 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. The celebrations highlighted contributions from Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans, each of which had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history. Warfare, including among these groups, has also had an important role. Virginia was a focal point in conflicts from the French and Indian War, the American Revolution and the Civil War, to the Cold War and the War on Terrorism. Stories about historic figures, such as those surrounding Pocahontas and John Smith, George Washington's childhood, or the plantation elite in the slave society of the antebellum period, have also created potent myths of state history, and have served as rationales for Virginia's ideology.

Colony

The first people are estimated to have arrived in Virginia over 12,000 years ago. By 5,000 years ago more permanent settlements emerged, and farming began by 900 AD. By 1500, the Algonquian peoples had founded towns such as Werowocomoco in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah. The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network. Powhatan controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia Algonquian language. In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 and 14,000.

Several European expeditions, including a group of Spanish Jesuits, explored the Chesapeake Bay during the 16th century. In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted Walter Raleigh a charter to plant a colony north of Spanish Florida. In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America. The name "Virginia" may have been suggested then by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen", and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa", or name, "Wingina". Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda. The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area. The Company financed the first permanent English settlement in the "New World", Jamestown. Named for King James I, it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport. In 1619, colonists took greater control with an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses. With the bankruptcy of the London Company in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as an Englishcrown colony.


Life in the colony was perilous, and many died during the "starving time" in 1609 and the Anglo-Powhatan Wars, including the Indian massacre of 1622, which fostered the colonists' negative view of all tribes. By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived. However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants. The headright system tried to solve the labor shortage by providing colonists with land for each indentured servant they transported to Virginia. African workers were first imported to Jamestown in 1619 initially under the rules of indentured servitude. The shift to a system of African slavery was however pushed by the legal cases of John Punch, who was sentenced to lifetime slavery in 1640 for attempting to run away, and of John Casor, who was claimed by Anthony Johnson as his servant for life in 1655. Slavery first appears in Virginia statues in 1661 and 1662, when a law made it hereditary based on the mother's status.

Tensions and the geographic differences between the working and ruling classes led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, by which time current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population. Rebels, largely from the colony's frontier, were also opposed to the conciliatory policy towards native tribes. Colonists appropriated tribal land by force and treaty, including the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states. Williamsburg became the colonial capital in 1699, following the founding of The College of William & Mary in 1693. In 1747, a group of Virginian speculators formed the Ohio Company, with the backing of the British crown, to start English settlement and trade in the Ohio Country west of the Appalachian Mountains. France, which claimed this area as part of their colony of New France, viewed this as a threat, and the ensuing French and Indian War became part of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). A militia from several British colonies, called the Virginia Regiment, was led by then-Lieutenant colonel George Washington.

Statehood

The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others. Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress the following year. After the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia Conventions. On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution. Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence.

When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's coastal location would make it vulnerable to British attack. In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown. His surrender on October 19, 1781 led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies.

Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution. James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789.[5] Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives. Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though the Virginian area was retroceded in 1846. Virginia is called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into states like Kentucky, which became the 15th state in 1792, and for the numbers of American pioneers born in Virginia.[6]

Civil War and aftermath

In addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries. Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 showed deep social discontent about slavery and its role in the plantation economy. By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31% of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved. This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War.

Virginia voted to secede from the United States on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter and Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers. On April 24, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America, which chose Richmond as its capital. After the 1861 Wheeling Convention, 48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia, which chose to remain loyal to the Union. Virginian general Robert E. Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia in 1862, and led invasions into Union territory, ultimately becoming commander of all Confederate forces. During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House. After the capture of Richmond in April 1865, the state capital was briefly moved to Lynchburg, while the confederate leadership fled to Danville. Virginia was formally restored to the United States in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine.

During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights. The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883. It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites. Though their schools and public services were segregated and underfunded due to a lack of political representation, African Americans were able to unite in communities and take a greater roll in Virginia society.

Modern era

New economic forces also changed the Commonwealth. Virginian James Albert Bonsack invented the tobacco cigarette rolling machine in 1880 leading to new industrial scale production centered around Richmond. In 1886, railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington founded Newport News Shipbuilding, which was responsible for building six major World War I-era battleships for the U.S. Navy from 1907–1923. During the war, German submarines like U-151 attacked ships outside the port. In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Though their project, like others in the state, had to contend with the Great Depression and World War II, work continued as Colonial Williamsburg became a major tourist attraction.


Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill, was decided in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal". But, in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" led by the influential segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd and his Byrd Organization, the Commonwealth prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving state funding.

The Civil Rights Movement gained many participants in the 1960s. It achieved the moral force and support to gain passage of national legislation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In 1964 the United States Supreme Court ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools. In 1967, the Court also struck down the state's ban on interracial marriage with Loving v. Virginia. From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws had been achieved. In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.

The Cold War led to the expansion of national defense government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia near Washington, D.C., and correlative population growth. The Central Intelligence Agency in Langley was involved in various Cold War events, including as the target of Soviet espionage activities. Also among the federal developments was the Pentagon, built during World War II as the headquarters for the Department of Defense. It was one of the targets of the September 11 attacks; 189 people died at the site when a jet passenger plane crashed into the building.

Timeline

YearEventSource
1781Battle of YorktownSource:Wikipedia
1776Patrick Henry becgins serving as first Governor of VirginiaSource:Wikipedia
1788Virginia becomes a stateSource:Wikipedia
1790Virginia's first censusSource:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990

Population History

source: Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
Census Year Population
1790 691,737
1800 807,557
1810 877,683
1820 938,261
1830 1,044,054
1840 1,025,227
1850 1,119,348
1860 1,219,630
1870 1,225,163
1880 1,512,565
1890 1,655,980
1900 1,854,184
1910 2,061,612
1920 2,309,187
1930 2,421,851
1940 2,677,773
1950 3,318,680
1960 3,966,949
1970 4,648,494
1980 5,346,818
1990 6,187,358

Note: Virginia was one of the 13 original States. Kentucky was part of Virginia until 1792, and a small part of Virginia was included in the District of Columbia from 1791 to 1846. West Virginia was separated from Virginia in 1862, becoming a State in 1863 and adding two more counties in 1866. Since then Virginia's boundaries have remained essentially unchanged, with slight modifications as early surveys were reviewed and corrected. Details of the Virginia-Tennessee boundary were not settled until 1901. In 1790 census coverage included all of Virginia's present-day territory; Kentucky was reported separately. The populations for 1800-1840 include the area that was then part of the District of Columbia, and the populations for 1790-1860 exclude the counties entirely or primarily included in what is now West Virginia.

Research Guides

See the Virginia Research Guide

Outstanding guide to Virginia family history and genealogy (FamilySearch Research Wiki). Birth, marriage, and death records, wills, deeds, county records, archives, Bible records, cemeteries, churches, censuses, directories, immigration lists, naturalizations, maps, history, newspapers, and societies.

Lost or burned county info

Northern Neck, Virginia Research Guide

Early Maps

Virginia County Maps and Atlases shows county formation year by year.

Map showing Virginia/West Virginia is 1850: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/wv/map.htm

Births, Marriages, and Deaths

FamilySearch.org has a variety of collections available for free online:

Records of specific counties include:

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Virginia. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.