Settlers of the Calfpasture in Augusta County, Virginia



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The Calfpasture River originates on the slopes of Gordons Peak, in Augusta County, near Shenandoah Mountain, in George Washington National Forest. Its headwater tributaries drain Bald Ridge. The river flows generally southwest for most of its course.

The tributary Braley Branch joins just before the Calfpasture River flows by the small settlement of West Augusta. U.S. Route 250 crosses the river at West Augusta. Continuing southwest, the river is joined by West Dry Branch from the east, then it enters Deerfield Valley, where the tributaries Tizzle Branch and Still Run join. Deerfield Valley is flanked by Shenandoah Mountain to the west and Great North Mountain to the east. The Calfpasture River flows by the small town of Little Baltimore after which one of its main tributaries, Hamilton Branch, joins. The Calfpasture River then flows out of Deerfield Valley and through Fridley Cove, where Fridley Branch joins.

Below Fridley Cove, the Calfpasture River continues flowing southwest, through the valley between Walker Mountain to the west and Great North Mountain to the east. The river passes the small town of Marble Valley, then Clayton Mill Creek joins, after which the river leaves Augusta County and enters Rockbridge County.

Near the town of Goshen, Virginia the Calfpasture River is joined by Mill Creek from the west and Goshen Branch from the east. State Route 42 crosses the river at Goshen, and State Route 39 follows the river from Goshen downstream to the Maury River.

Just south of Goshen the tributary Brattons Run joins the Calfpasture River, which then turns eastward, passing through a gap between Bratton Mountain and Knob Mountain. The Calfpasture River then joins the Little Calfpasture River. The confluence of the two marks the beginning of the Maury River.[5] (Source:, )


The Calfpasture Valley

Information from "Annals of Bath County, Virginia", by Oren Frederic Morton and "A History of Rockbridge County, Virginia", by Oren Frederic Morton:

Though not a portion of Bath, the main valley of the Calfpasture is closely associated with this county. At the time of early settlement it was undoubtedly open ground, and was shut off from the country around Staunton by timbered mountains. Access to the Cowpasture was rendered easy by Panther Gap and by the great depression at the south end of Shenandoah Mountain. Some of the pioneers, or members of their households, speedily began to move in this direction, thus establishing ties of relationship and interest with the people of Bath.

The valley of the Little Calfpasture is more distinctly a part of the great Valley of Virginia, and is not considered in the present chapter. On the other hand, Mill Creek, though coursing mainly in Bath, is a tributary of the Great Calfpasture. Locally, the two Calfpasture streams are known as Great River and Little River.

Actual settlement on Great River can scarcely have begun much earlier than 1743. The author of Annals of Augusta claims that this valley was settled quite as early as the district around Staunton, yet offers no evidence in proof. The records of Augusta, especially the muster rolls of 1742, do not support the statement.

The first constables were Robert Graham and William Hodge, appointed February 28, 1745. William Jameson was made a captain the same year to succeed Alexander Dunlap, appointed in August, 1743. In 1744 Henry Gay was made a lieutenant.

Acting under an order of council, John Lewis and James Patton surveyed in 1744 a tract nearly fifteen miles long, but nowhere more than about one and one-eighth miles broad. Their map shows it cross-sectioned into twenty-three lots, the first lying where Goshen now stands and the last rather to the north of Deerfield. With a single exception, every lot had already been taken by some settler. The following tabular statement shows consecutively the number of the lot, the name of the settler, the acreage, the purchase price, when stated in the deed, and the early transfers of title. In those instances where the deed was issued to some other individual than the original settler, the name is given in brackets. The name of a wife is also thus given.

In 1743, John Lewis and James Patton obtained a grant for 10,500 acres on Calfpasture River in western Augusta County. (Source: "Ulster Scots in Virginia", by Richard McMaster)

In 1744, an early settlement on 16,500 acres on the Calfpasture granted to James Patton and John Lewis was very closely associated with the James River and Roanoke settlements. The original settlers were Alexander Dunlap, William Jameson, Thomas Gilham, Robert Crockett, David Davis, Thomas Weems, Henry Gray, Francis Donally, Robert Gay, Samuel Hodge, John Miller, Robert Bratton, James Lockridge, John Graham, Robert Gwin, John Preston, William Warwick, James Carlisle, Jacob Clements, John Campbell, James Carter, Loftus Pullen (Pullin), John Wilson, John Kincaid, William Elliott, Jr., William Hamilton, William Gay, Samuel Gay, John Ward.

In 1750, as listed in the following citation in Chalkley's, early settlers petitioned for a road for eaiser travel:

  • Petition of inhabitants of Little River, in Calfpasture, for road from William Gay's to Robert McCutchen's Mill, from thence to Robert Campbell's. Ask only a bridle road to travel with loads on horseback and oblige themselves to cut it and keep in repair. William Elliott, Thomas Fulton, John Meek, John Gay, William Gay, Thomas Meek, James Gay, John Fulton, James Stenson [Stevenson].


Listed by Tract Number: (Note: amounts listed in pounds were taken from "Chalkley's" or Orange County Deed Books)

  • 1. John Dunlap (622/625 acres—$68.69 in 1745) —295 acres sold to Robert Dunlap, 1761, for £100. (Note: Robert Dunlap was John's nephew, son of his brother Alexander Dunlap, who was apparently the original settler of this land, but died in 1744 prior to its conveyance).
  • 3. Thomas Gilham, (168 acres—$18.86) —sold, 1752, by Thomas (Margaret) Gilham to James Lockridge for same price—resold, 1767, by John Dickenson (Dickinson) to William Thompson for $200.
  • 4. Robert Crockett, (370 acres—$41.15) —sold, 1760, by pioneer's sons:—James (Martha) and Robert, Jr. (Janet), both of Mecklenburg County, N. C., to William Thompson for $200—295 acres sold by Thompson, 1767, for $166.67.
  • 5. David Davis, (290 acres—$29) —sold, 1749, by Lewis and Patton to John Poage.
  • 7. Henry Gay — (694 acres —$33.39); — 100 acres sold, 1769, to James Frasier for $33.33.
  • 10. Samuel Hodge (700 acres on Calfpasture, from William Beverley, 13th August, 1743), 350 acres of which was sold by Samuel Hodge and Elizabeth to William Kinkead, ₤20, 21 August, 1765.
  • 12. Loftus Pullin, (252 acres (240?)—$26.92) —sold to James Shaw, 1760, for $30—sold by Shaw to John Ramsey, 1768, for $150.
  • 13. Robert Bratton, (834 acres—$96.67) —400 acres sold to James Bratton, 1771, for $133.33.
  • 15. John Graham — (696 acres on Great River of Calfpasture, on east side, corner to James Lockridge, corner to Given's land, from James Patton & John Lewis — ₤23.9.6 currency money Virginia, 14th April, 1746), $79.58—150 acres sold to James Graham (son). 1763, for $16.67.
  • 17. John Preston, (1,054 acres—$31.15) —520 acres sold by William Preston (and Susanna) to Mary Preston, 1762, for $333.33. The same sold by Mary Preston to Robert Lockridge, 1763, for $366.67.
  • 19. James Carlisle — (600 acres on Great River of Calfpasture; corner to Jacob Clemens, corner to Wm. Worwick's land; black birch; black oak and thorn, from James Patton & John Lewis — ₤19.18.4, 2nd April, 1748), $65.39—250 sold, 1753, to John Carlile, and sold by him, 1762, to Thomas Hughart for $166.67—200 acres sold by John (Mary) Carlile to Thomas Adams, 1796, for $391.67.
  • 20. Jacob Clements, (457 acres—$51.67) —202 acres sold, 1751, by Jacob (Mary) Clements to John Campbell for $66.67, and sold by John (Ann) Campbell, 1768, to James Carlile for $250.
  • 21. John Campbell, (308 acres—$34.17) —208 acres sold by Samuel Campbell to William Lockridge, 1769, for $713.33.

Not all the original claimants were actual settlers on the survey, but lived on the Beverly or Borden grants and took lands here for speculation or for their sons. This seems to be the case with Crockett, Davis, Donally, Miller, and Preston. Miller is named as a resident of Albemarle. John Kincaid "Clerk, County of Chester, Pennsylvania" (also referred to as "Rev. John Kincaid), acquired 1,061 acres in the Calfpasture from James Patton and John Lewis on 17 July, 1745. He apparently stayed in Pennsylvania for several years and appears to have sold this land to David Kincaid.

The first deeds were issued mainly in April and July, 1745, and in Orange County. Carlile, Graham, and Weems did not take deeds until 1748.

Other Settlers

Listed in Alphabetical Order:

  • Thomas Adams, — (1) (190 acres, 1769)— Bratton's Run. (2) (235 acres, 1769)— Calf pasture.
  • James Bratton, (90 acres, 1769) —Bratton's Run. James was a son of Col. Robert Bratton.
  • John & Samuel Campbell, (100 acres, 1761) —branch of Great River.
  • William Campbell, (308 acres, 1745) - "beginning James Carter's line, Jacob Clemmon's line", brother of Robert Campbell, another Calfpasture settler.
  • Margaret & Andrew Crockett, (1) (48 acres, 1749) —David Mill place on Calfpasture. (2) (44 acres, 1749) —adjoining James Poague. (Note: this Andrew Crockett is thought by some Crockett researchers to be a younger son of Robert Crockett, Sr., additional research necessary).
  • John Dunlap, (125 acres, 1760) —Dunlap Creek (Bratton's Run).
  • Archibald Elliott (213 acres in Little Calfpasture, prior to 1755) Archibald was a brother of William Elliott, listed below.
  • William Elliott, Jr. acquired land in the Calfpasture (acreage not listed) from William Beverley, corner James Carlisle, 4 Feb. 1748. William was a brother of Archibald Elliott, listed above.
  • John Fletcher, Sr. acquired 460 acres of land on the Little Calfpasture River, near Goshen.
  • Samuel Gay, (354 acres in Calf Pasture on Little River from William Beverley; corner Wm. Elliot's land; corner Wm. Gay), from Chalkley's, 15th May, 1754, was one of the five Gay brothers in early Augusta County, Virginia. .
  • William Gay, (490 acres in Col. Beverley's part of Calfpasture, Little Calfpasture, from Chalkley's, 27 Feb. 1749), (b. abt. 1720, d. 1755, Calfpasture, Augusta County, VA), married Margaret 'Mary' Walkup, daughter of Samuel Walkup and Nancy Agnes Alexander, was one of the five Gay brothers in early Augusta County, Virginia.
  • William Gay, (410 Acres from William Beverley in Calf Pasture on both sides of Little River; cor. Wm. Gay's land; line of Rev. Mr. Hindman's land (Augusta Deeds 6:279)). This William Gay has been identified as a different William Gay than the above, and not one of the five Gay brothers in Augusta County; he is related to Henry Gay, from Pennsylvania, another early settler in Augusta County.
  • William Givens, (552 acres on both sides of Great River Cowpasture; corner Henry Gay's; corner David Davis, sold by William Givens and Agnes to Robert Lockridge for ₤172, 19th August, 1766.
  • Robert Graham (acres not stated) Grant from William Beverley to Robert Graham, planter. On Little Calfpasture; Beverley Manor Patent Line; Grassy Lick Tract, 1753. Robert Graham was a son of Christopher Graham, Sr.
  • William Hamilton, Grant from William Beverley to William Hamilton, farmer. (578 acres in Calfpasture, 30th August, 1753).
  • John Hindman, grant from William Beverley on Little Calf pasture for 460 acres on 9-10 April, 1745.
  • John Johnson (213 acres "on Little Calfpasture patent line", 27 Feb. 1749 from Chalkley's)
  • John Kincaid, "Clerk" from Chester County, PA - (1,061 acres Great River of the Calfpasture, acquired 17 July, 1745, neighbors John Preston, James Carole. Witnesses: David Kinkead, Robt Patton, Loftis Pullin. There is a record of a sale to David Kincaid "of Albemarle" on 17 July, 1745, but he then sold 530 acres to John "The Weaver" Kincaid on 17 Oct. 1754 and 530 acres to Gabriel Jones on 23 NOv. 1760. One source claims that there was a provision in the original deed that the land would revert back to John Kincaid under certain circumstances.
  • Thomas Kincaid - (263 acres on the Calfpasture, adjoining John Preston, Robert Lockridge, Robert Gwin, 19 Nov. 1747 from Chalkley's), (b. 1704, prob. Ireland/Scotland, d. 1750, Augusta County, VA), married Margaret Lockhart on 21 June 1735 prob. in Pennsylvania. Father of Andrew Kincaid, listed above.)
  • James McCutcheon, (Deed from (William) Beverley to James McCutcheon tract on Calfpasture (acres not listed), 26 Nov 1747.
  • Robert McCutcheon had an early survey (# of acres not specified) by William Beverley on 11 Nov. 1746 on "side of Black Oak Hill" (which is located in the Calfpasture), his land appears to be near his brother, James McCutcheon, listed above.
  • William McCutcheon was granted 585 acres by William Beverley "on Smith's Creek, a branch of little Calfpasture" on 10 Nov. 1746. His brother, Robert McCutcheon (listed above) had land adjoining this tract by 1761, and his other brother James (listed above) also had acquired land in the same area of the Calfpasture by 1747.
  • Robert McKittrick, (110 acres, 1759) - branch of Great River. Robert had previously acquired 200 acres "on Jennings Branch of Cathey's River" (located in Calfpasture) from deed by George & Elizabeth Anderson to Robert McKittrick May 15, 1754.
  • David Martin acquired from James Gay, on 19 April 1763 from 354 acres on Little River of Calf Pasture; corner William Elliot's land; corner Wm. Gay; same purchased by said James from Samuel Gay, who purchased from William Beverley [Chalkley's].
  • Sampson Matthews and his brother George Matthews received a patent from Robert Beverley for £220, 1,200 acres in Calfpasture on a branch of Calf Pasture called Elk Branch (Elk Run) on 23 May 1765.
  • Thomas Meek (purchased 310 acres for £40 "on Little River in Calf Pasture" from William McCutcheon (part of William's 895-acre tract) on 28 May 1755; purchased 200 acres for £10 on "foot of Brown Hill in line of Wm. McCutchen" from William Smith on 16 March 1758; purchased 254 acres for £73.15 "conveyed by Beverley to Moses Mann 4th February, 1748. and descended to John as eldest brother and heir-at-law of Moses; corner Wm. McCutchen's land. Grassy Lick Run" on 10 Sept. 1763).
  • Moses Moore purchased 582 acres "on Little River of Calfpasture, corner Alex. Dunlop's land" for £210 on 18th August, 1767, from William Ramsey.
  • William Ramsey received a patent for 582 acres "in Calf Pasture on Little River. Cor. Alex Dunlap" on 14 May 1754., this land was later sold to Moses Moore in 1767.
  • James Rhea received a patent on the Calfpasture "on Mill Creek" on 27 August 1770, later sold to James Bratton in 1779.
  • William Rhea acquired 600 acres from Col. John Wilson land on Elk Creek of Calfpasture in 1767. (Note: in 1775, William Rhea deeded tracts on Mill Creek to sons James, William, and John, From "Bicentennial History of Bath County Virginia (1791-1991)", pg. 324).
  • James Risk was an early setter of the Calfpasture, prior to his death on 26 September 1763, when he was killed by Indians at William Mann's Mill in Augusta County.
  • Joseph Walkup (Vachub), 15th May, 1754. (William) Beverley to Joseph Vachub. 378 acres in Calfpasture, on the head of Meeting Branch, cor. to meeting house land Thomas Smith's land; William McCutcheon's land.
  • John Warwick, brother of William Warwick, acquired 149 acres in a lease on the Calfpasture "bounded by Jno. Gay and Wm. Eliot", from James Gay (possibly the wife of John Warwick's wife according to some sources).

Still other early settlers were the Armstrongs, Blacks, Blairs, Clarks, Craigs, Elliotts, Fultons, Hamiltons, Hendersons, Johnstons, McConnells, McCutchens, McKnights, Meeks, Mateers, Moores, Risks, Smiths, Stevensons, Walkups, and Youells.


From "Annals of Bath County":

Thomas Adams came from New Kent County and was a local magnate. He was one of the exceedingly few men of his time to own a "chariot." By his will he freed a slave, "as there is no man to whom I consider myself under greater obligations than to my slave, Joe."

James Carter was a millwright, and his mill is named in early road orders. He was in the Carolinas in 1748, but must have returned. He died in 1768.

The Calfpasture families not only took a very prominent part in settling the valleys of Bath and Highland, and afterward those of Greenbrier and Pocahontas, but they helped to people the uplands of the Carolinas. They were also prompt in taking a share in the settling of Kentucky. In 1779, Captain James Gay and Alexander Dunlap, Jr., headed a party which settled in the blue-grass region of that state and founded Pisgah church, said to be the first Presbyterian organization in Kentucky. The school which grew up by the side of the church developed into Transylvania University.

[James] Gay, who was but twenty-one years old when he turned westward, had served under Andrew Lockridge. His second wife was Elizabeth, a daughter of John Dunlap. He was himself a son of James Gay, who married Jean Warwick. Alexander Dunlap, Jr., married his sister, Agnes. Major Samuel Stevenson, whose mother was a daughter of John Warwick, was a third member of the emigrating party, and he also wedded a Gay. Thus the Gays, Dunlaps, and Stevensons, as well as the Hamiltons, Kinkeads, Warwicks, and other Calfpasture families, have gained both affluence and prominence in the Bluegrass State and other commonwealths of the Great West. A Warwick gave his name in a changed spelling to Warrick County, Indiana. Lieutenant-Governor Walkup, of California, was a descendant of Captain John Walkup, who came to the Calfpasture about 1760.

So great was this exodus that in time it nearly extinguished the Calfpasture surnames of the Revolutionary period.

Because of the homogeneity between the early populations of Bath and the Calfpasture, there were many persons who thought the latter region should be included in the new county. Geographic considerations appeared to link it with Bath rather than Augusta. But there was a difference of opinion on this matter among the inhabitants of the Calfpasture itself, and the stronger voice prevailed.

Rocky Spring church was built on an acre deeded in 1773 by Andrew Kincaid, Jr., to the "trustees of a congregation of dissenters." These trustees were James Bratton, Lancelot Graham, Andrew Hamilton, Thomas Hughart, William Kincaid, and Andrew Lockridge.

It seems to have been on the Calfpasture that Charles Knight was to have $60 for teaching one year, every half Saturday or every other Saturday to be free time. In case of an Indian alarm Knight was to have the privilege of being lodged in the neighborhood.

From "History of Rockbridge County":

Alexander Dunlap, a man of some means, was appointed a captain of horse in 1743, but died the following year. He was succeeded in this position by William Jameson. Thomas Gilham qualified as captain of foot in 1752, and James Lockridge and Robert Bratton in 1755. James Lockridge and William Jameson are named as members of the first county court of Augusta in 1745. The latter acted as a justice in 1747, but it is not known whether Lockridge qualified.

According to a statement by a daughter of James Gay, the pioneer, there was a stockade on the Calfpasture during the French and Indian war.

The first mill seems to have been that of James Carter. It was probably built about 1745. Some ten years later, Andrew Lockridge had a gristmill.

Charles Knight is mentioned as a schoolmaster in 1755. He was to have $60.00 a year, every half Saturday or every other Saturday to be free time. In case of an Indian alarm he was to enjoy the privilege of being lodged in the settlement. But it is not probable that he was the first teacher.

Rocky Spring Church was built on an acre deeded by Andrew Kincaid, 1773, to the "trustees of a congregation of dissenters." These trustees were James Bratton, Lancelot Graham, Andrew Hamilton, Thomas Hughart, William Kincaid, and Andrew Lockridge. Lebanon Church was organized in 1784 at the home of William Hodge. The first elders were William Youell, Alexander Craig, John Montgomery, John McCutchen, Joseph McCutchen, and Samuel McCutchen. The first meeting house stood close to the Augusta line, the second a half-mile to the south and in Rockbridge. As a consequence there are two cemeteries. The will of John Dunlap, written in 1804, provides a sum to build a gallery for the negro worshippers. John Montgomery, for a while a teacher in Liberty Hall Academy, was the first minister. John S. McCutchen was a successor. But the first congregation on the Calfpasture was that of Little River. The "meeting house land" is mentioned in deeds about 1754. John Hindman preached in the vicinity as early as 1745.

Partly as a result of its only moderate fertility, the Calfpasture has been a great fountain-head of emigration to newer localities, especially Kentucky and Tennessee. Some of the pioneer names have thus been nearly or quite extinguished. Not a few of the men who went from the Calfpasture, or their descendants, have achieved some renown in Western history.

Major Samuel Stevenson, who had lately moved to the Greenbrier, headed in 1776 an expedition to the Bluegrass region of Kentucky. He was accompanied by James Gay, William Elliott, and Benjamin Blackburn. William Campbell, a wheelwright, was picked up as the party went through the wilderness. One of the members said "Blackburn was so stiff with fear we could hardly get him along." In the spring of 1784, Stevenson settled in Woodford county, the "Asparagus Bed" of the Bluegrass State. He was preceded a few weeks by Alexander Dunlap, Jr., and James Gay, Jr. The wives of Stevenson and Dunlap were sisters to Gay, who was a son of James Gay and his wife, Jean Warwick. Pisgah Church, said to be the first Presbyterian organization in Kentucky, was founded the same year. Its first minister was Adam Rankin, who came from Rockbridge. Pisgah Academy, founded by Gay, Dunlap, and Stevenson, developed into Transylvania University, as Liberty Hall Academy developed into Washington and Lee University. The region around was settled almost wholly from Rockbridge and its neighboring counties. The following names, from the membership of Pisgah Church in 1808-1826, will be recognized as occurring in the pioneer annals of Rockbridge: Aiken, Alexander, Allen, Brown, Campbell, Carr, Dunlap, Elliott, Gay, Hamilton, Holman, Kinkead, Kirkham, Logan, Long, Martin, McClung, McClure, McCullough, McPheeters, Renick, Ritchie, Smith, Steele, and Taylor.

We close this chapter with special mention of several of the Calfpasture families.

The Bears sprang from Blastus Baer, a Mennonite who came from Germany in 1740 and settled in Page county in 1763. Jacob, a son, married a daughter of a Mennonite minister and came to the Calfpasture in 1788. Their sect was but slightly represented here, and the Bears attached themselves to other churches.

Robert Bratton, who married the widow of Alexander Dunlap, Sr., was one of four brothers. Samuel Bratton remained in Mifflin county, Pennsylvania; James Bratton, who married Dorothy Fleming, settled near Christiansburg. Three sons of another brother, (William Bratton) went to South Carolina. Captain Robert Bratton was a man of wealth and distinction.

Archibald Clendennin lived in this valley before moving to the lower Cowpasture, where he died in 1749. Archibald, Jr., was the most conspicuous victim in the Greenbrier massacre of 1763. Charles, another son, gave his name to the capital of West Virginia.

Capt. James Coursey came from Orange and married as his second wife the widow of Robert Dunlap. A great grandson is Major O. W. Coursey, of South Dakota, a soldier, educator, and historian.

Robert Crockett, son of the pioneer of that name, was one of the "Long Hunters" spoken of in Chapter VIII. The eccentric Davy Crockett, of Tennessee and Texas history, was of another family, although in his youth he worked for a German farmer in this county.

Samuel Ebberd came from Maryland.

Captain Thomas Gilham had seven sons and two sons-in-law in the armies of the Revolution. The family moved first to South Carolina, but afterwards to the north of Illinois.

John Graham and his family experienced a great storm during their voyage from Ulster. John appears to have been a brother-in-law to William Elliott and John Armstrong of the Calfpasture. Elliott was born in 1699. William and Graham was a brother to John. Christopher Graham, who died in 1748, was probably the father of Robert Graham of the Bullpasture, and the wife of Joseph Walkup.

John Hepler came from Pennsylvania.

Daniel Kite—otherwise Hight—was a son of Daniel Heydt, a German who settled in the Luray valley.

William Jameson was commissioned coroner in 1753, and seems to have died the same year. A grandson of the same name owned valuable property on the border of the city of St. Louis. Timothy Flint, the historian, calls one of his daughters a "rose of the prairie," and says of the Jameson family, "a group of more beautiful children I have never known."

The pioneer Lockridges were the brothers, James, Robert, and William. William lived first in the Borden grant. (Note (error): the William Lockridge that lived in the Borden Grant was the Uncle of the three Lockridge brothers listed). The descendants are most numerous in the West. Colonel John Lockridge was a pioneer of Sangamon county, Illinois. Another Colonel Lockridge figures in early Texas history. Andrew Y. Lockridge, a grandson of Major Andrew Lockridge, son of James, was a noted missionary to the Cherokee Indians.

Five brothers of the name of McCutchen came to this part of Virginia. Robert settled on Little River, Samuel in the Borden grant, and William, James, and John in Beverly Manor. James died in 1759, and his sons, James, John, and Patrick went to Washington county. The descendants of the five pioneers are numerous, widely scattered, and include persons of mark. One of these is Robert Barr McCutchen, a distinguished writer.

The McConnells, who founded McConnell's Station, now Lexington, Kentucky, previously lived on Kerr's Creek, as well as the Calfpasture.

Moses McElvain (McIllvain) located in this valley in 1763. While prospecting in the Bluegrass region of Kentucky, in 1779, he was captured by Indians, but was released at the intercession of a trader by the name of McCormick, who had known Mcllvain in Ireland. Mcllvain married Margaret, a daughter of Samuel Hodge, of the Calfpasture, and settled anew in Woodford county, Kentucky.

Timothy McKnight came from Ulster. His son John, merchant of St. Louis and trader to Santa Fe, was a heavy owner of realty in and near the Missouri metropolis. Robert, another son, settled in Chihuahua, Mexico, as a merchant and mine owner, and married a Spanish lady. Thomas settled in Iowa and was the first candidate for governor of that state on the Whig ticket. James remained on the Calfpasture, but his son John joined his uncle at Chihuahua and became a wealthy merchant. Rebecca, a daughter, married William McCutchen, and the wife of William W. Rucker, Congressman from Missouri, is a great- granddaughter.

Five Walkups, James, Joseph, John, Margaret, and (Florence Walkup) the wife of John Graham, Jr., were brothers and sisters and came to Little River about 1748. Captain James moved to the Waxhaw settlement, North Carolina, 1755, where he was a large planter and slaveholder. Samuel M., a grandson, was an antiquarian of that state. Joseph, son of John, was a lieutenant-governor of California, and is said to have refused an election to the senate of the United States. For several decades there was much confusion in the spelling of the family surname. Professor Wauchope, a distinguished literary critic of the South, has returned to the orthodox Scotch orthography. The appropriateness of doing so is very much open to question. The form Walkup is free from strangeness, and to the American ear is the closest possible approximation to the Scottish pronunciation. The phonographic value of the word Wauchope is unmistakable in Scotland, but not in America. In this connection it may be remarked that those German families who in years past modified the spelling of their surnames pursued a wise course. It was a practical step in Americanization.

William Warwick had four children. Jean and Martha were killed by the Indians about 1759. John Warwick settled in Kentucky in 1784. Jacob Warwick was an extensive owner of realty and livestock in Pocahontas. The widow of William Warwick married Andrew Sittlington of Bath.

J. Fulton Whitlock, otherwise Tarleton Whitlock, came from the east of Virginia.

William Youell settled on the Calfpasture about 1771.

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