Saratoga County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 219,607, representing a 9.5% increase from the 200,635 counted in 2000. Saratoga County is part of New York State's Capital District, referring to the Albany-Schenectady-Troy Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county seat is Ballston Spa. The name is a corruption of an Indian word "sah-rah-ka" or "Sarach-togue," that means "the hill beside the river."
When counties were established in the Province of New York in 1683, the present Saratoga County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.
Then, on March 12, 1772, Albany County was divided into the counties of Albany, Tryon (now Montgomery), and Charlotte (now Washington). From 1772 to 1786 Albany County included, besides the present territory of Albany County, all of the present Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, and Schenectady counties, parts of the present Greene and Washington counties, and a piece of what is now southwestern Vermont.
In 1786, Albany County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Columbia County.
In 1791, Saratoga County (as well as Rensselaer County) was split off from Albany County.
During the nineteenth century, Saratoga County was an important industrial center. Its location 30 miles north of Albany on the Delaware and Hudson Railway and its proximity to water power from the Hudson River and Kayaderosseras Creek led to rapid industrial development beginning in 1810. Some of the most important industries were paper mills, tanneries, foundries, and textile mills.