The Town of Wilton is in the northeastern part of the county, northeast of Saratoga Springs, which it borders.
The region, once called "Palmertown," was first settled around 1764. The Town of Wilton was created in 1818 from the Town of Northumberland.
The Grant Cottage State Historic Site is located in Wilton, in an area known as Mount McGregor, which is the highest peak of the Palmertown Range, mostly north of Wilton. This site is the place where Ulysses S. Grant died of throat cancer in 1885 just after completing his memoirs.
A narrow-gauge railway built in 1882, the Saratoga, Mount McGregor and Lake George Railroad, ran through Wilton.