Place:Cambridgeshire, England

Watchers
NameCambridgeshire
Alt namesCAMsource: Chapman County Code (GENUKI)
Cambssource: post office abbreviation
Cambridgesource: Family History Library Catalog
Grentebrigesciresource: Domesday Book
TypeHistoric county, Administrative county, Modern county
Coordinates52.5°N 0.167°E
Located inEngland
See alsoIsle of Ely, Englandseparate administration from Cambridgeshire 1988-1965
Huntingdon and Peterborough, Englandcounty with which Cambridgeshire merged in 1972 under the name Cambridgeshire
Contained Places
Inhabited place
Abbots Ripton
Abington Pigotts
Abington
Alwalton ( 1974 - )
America
Arrington
Ashley-cum-Silverley
Balsham
Bar Hill
Barnwell
Bassingbourn
Bottisham
Bourn
Boxworth
Brinkley
Burwell
Caldecote
Cambourne
Cambridge
Carlton
Caxton
Chatteris
Chesterton
Cheveley
Chippenham
Coates
Comberton
Coton
Cottenham
Dillington
Doddington
Downham Market
Dry Drayton
Dullingham
Duxford
East Perry
Eastrea
Eaton Ford
Elm
Eltisley
Ely
Eye Green
Eye
Fordham
Fowlmere
Foxton
Fulbourn
Gamlingay
Girton
Godmanchester
Grantchester
Great Eversden
Great Shelford
Great Wilbraham
Guilden Morden
Guyhirn
Haddenham
Hardwick
Harston
Hilton
Histon
Horningsea
Hunstanton
Huntingdon
Ickleton
Impington
Isleham
Kimbolton
Kirtling
Landbeach
Linton
Little Catworth
Little Eversden
Little Gidding
Little Gransden
Little Shelford
Little Wilbraham
Littleport
Lode
Longstanton
Longthorpe
Madingley
Manea
March
Marholm
Maxey
Melbourn
Meldreth
Mepal
Milton
Northborough
Odsey
Old Fletton
Orton Longueville
Orton Waterville
Orwell
Over
Peterborough ( 1974 - present )
Rampton
Reach
Royston ( - 1989 )
Sawston
Shepreth
Soham
Spaldwick
St Columb Minor
St Neots
Stanground
Stapleford
Steeple Gidding
Stilton
Stuntney
Sutton Gault
Sutton-in-the-Isle
Swaffham Prior
Swavesey
Tadlow
Teversham
The Deepings
Thorney
Tilbrooke
Trumpington
Upend
Upton
Upwell
Waterbeach
Wennington
Wentworth
West Perry
Westwick
Whittlesey
Whittlesford
Wicken
Wilburton
Willingham
Wimpole
Wisbech
Witcham
Woodditton
Woodston
Yelling
Parish
Ailsworth ( 1974 - present )
Bainton ( 1974 - present )
Barnack ( 1974 - present )
Borough Fen ( 1974 - present )
Castor
Ditton-Wood
Peterborough ( 1974 - present )
Royston ( - 1989 )
Southorpe ( 1974 - present )
Stamford Baron St Martins Without ( 1974 - present )
Thornhaugh ( 1974 - present )
Tilbrook ( 1974 - present )
Ufford ( 1974 - present )
Wansford ( 1974 - present )
Wittering ( 1974 - present )
Wothorpe ( 1974 - present )
Unknown
Babraham
Barrington
Bartlow
Barton
Bassingbourne
Benwick
Burrough-Green
Carlton-cum-Willingham
Castle-Camps
Cherry-Hinton
Chettisham
Childerley
Chilford
Church End
Coldham
Conington
Coveney
Crowlands
Croxton
Croydon-cum-Clapton
D'Engoynes
Ditton-Fen
Docwraies
East Hatley
Elsworth
Fen-Drayton
Friday-Bridge
Graveley
Great Abington
Grunty-Fen
Hardwicke
Harleton
Haslingfield
Hatley-St. George
Hauxton
Heydon
Hildersham
Hinxton
Hobbledods
Horseheath
Kennett
Kingston
Knapwell
Kneesworth
Knights
Landwade
Leverington
Limbury
Little Abington
Littlington
Lolworth
Long Stanton All Saints
Long Stanton St. Michael
Longstow
Lyles
Melbourne
Melfords
Mitchell Hall
Murrow
Newton (near Harston)
Newton (near Wisbeach)
Nosterfield
Oakington
Outwell
Oxlode
Pampisford
Papworth-St. Agnes
Papworth-St. Everard
Parson-Drove
Ponders-Bridge
Prickwillow
Pryors
Pymoor
Rings End
Sames
Scales Minchins
Shingay
Shudycamps
Snailwell
Steeple-Morden
Stetchworth
Stow-cum-Quy
Stretham
Swaffham-Bulbeck
Thetford
Thriplow
Toft
Tydd-St. Giles
Tyndalls
Welches-Dam
Wendy
West Wickham
West Wratting
Westley-Waterless
Weston-Colville
Whaddon
Wimblington
Wisbeach-St. Mary
Witchford
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names


the text in this section is based on an article in Wikipedia

Cambridgeshire (known, archaically, as the County of Cambridge and abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. The principal settlement is the city of Cambridge.

Cambridgeshire was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Grantbridgeshire" (or rather Grentebrigescire) (cf the river Granta). The county contains most of the region known as Silicon Fen.

Changes in Administration since 1888

the text in this section is based on an article in Wikipedia

Covering a large part of East Anglia, Cambridgeshire today is the result of several local government unifications. Cambridge was traditionally divided into two sections:

  • the south, around the City of Cambridge, known as Cambridgeshire,
  • and the northern part of the county, known as the Isle of Ely.

In 1888 when county councils were introduced, separate administrations for the two parts were set up.

In 1965, these two administrative counties were merged to form Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely.[2] Under the Local Government Act 1972 this union merged with the county to the west, Huntingdon and Peterborough (which had itself been created in 1965 by the merger of Huntingdonshire with the Soke of Peterborough. Between 1888 and 1965 the Soke of Peterborough had been a part of Northamptonshire with its own county council). The resulting county was called, simply, Cambridgeshire.[3]

Since 1998, the City of Peterborough has been a unitary authority, separately administered or governed, but is associated with Cambridgeshire for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy, and functions such as policing and the fire service.[4]

for references in the section above see Wikipedia

As a modern county Cambridgeshire is divided into six districts: Peterbourough (unitary), Huntingdonshire, East Cambridgeshire, South Cambridgeshire, Fenland, and the City of Cambridge. There is a diagram in Wikipedia.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The area that is now Cambridgeshire was first settled by the English at about the 6th century by bands of Engles, who pushed their way up the Ouse and the Cam, and established themselves in the fen-district, where they became known as the Gyrwas, the districts corresponding to the modern counties of Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire being distinguished as the lands of the North Gyrwas and the South Gyrwas respectively. At this period the fen-district stretched southward as far as Cambridge, and the essential unity which it preserved is illustrated later by its inclusion under one sheriff, chosen in successive years from Cambridgeshire proper and the Liberty of the Isle of Ely.

In 656 numerous lands in the neighborhood of Wisbech were included in the endowment of the abbey of Peterborough, and in the same century religious houses were established at Ely and Thorney, both of which, however, were destroyed during the Danish invasions of the 9th century. After the Treaty of Wedmore, the district became part of the Danelaw. On the expulsion of the Danes by Edward in the 10th century it was included in East Anglia, but in the 11th century was again overrun by the Danes, who in the course of their devastations burnt Cambridge. The first mention of the shire in the Saxon Chronicle records the valiant resistance which it opposed to the invaders in 1010 when the rest of East Anglia had taken ignominious flight. The shire-system of East Anglia was in all probability not definitely settled before the Conquest, but during the Danish occupation of the 9th century the district possessed a certain military and political organization round Cambridge, its chief town, whence probably originated the constitution and demarcation of the later shire.

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

At the time of the Domesday Survey the county was divided as now, except that the Isle of Ely, which then formed two hundreds having their meeting-place at Witchford, is now divided into the four hundreds of Ely, Wisbech, North Witchford and South Witchford, while Cambridge formed a hundred by itself. The hundred of Flendish was then known as Flamingdike. Cambridgeshire was formerly included in the diocese of Lincoln. On the creation of the diocese of Ely in 1109, almost the whole county was placed in that diocese. In 1291 the whole county, with the exception of parishes in the deanery of Fordham and diocese of Norwich, constituted the archdeaconry of Ely, comprising the deaneries of Ely, Wisbech, Chesterton, Shingay, Bourn, Barton and Camps.

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The Isle of Ely formerly constituted an independent franchise in which the bishops exercised quasi-palatinate rights, and offences were held to be committed against the bishop's peace. These privileges were considerably abridged in the reign of Henry VIII, but the Isle still had separate civil officers, appointed by the bishop, chief among whom were the chief justice, chief bailiff, deputy bailiff and two coroners.

Cambridgeshire has always been remarkable for its lack of county families, and for the frequent changes in the ownership of estates. No Englishmen retained lands of any importance after the Conquest, and at the time of the Domesday Survey the chief lay proprietors were Alan, Earl of Brittany, whose descendants the Zouches retained estates in the county until the 15th century; Picot the sheriff, whose estates passed to the families of Peverell and Peche; Aubrey de Vere, whose descendants retained their estates till the 16th century; and Hardwinus de Scalariis, ancestor of the Scales of Whaddon.

From the time of Hereward's famous resistance to William the Conqueror in the fen-district, the Isle of Ely was intimately concerned with the great political struggles of the country.

  • It was defended against King Stephen by Bishop Nigellus of Ely, who fortified Ely and Aldreth, which in 1144 was held for the Empress Matilda by Geoffrey de Mandeville.
  • During the struggles between John and his barons, Faukes de Breaut was made governor of Cambridge Castle, which, however, surrendered to the barons in the same year.
  • The Isle of Ely was seized by the followers of Simon de Montfort in 1266, but in 1267 was taken by Prince Edward.
  • At the Reformation period the county showed much sympathy with the Reformers, and in 1642 the knights, gentry and commoners of Cambridgeshire petitioned for the removal of all unwarrantable orders and dignities, and the banishment of Popish clergy.
  • In the Civil War of the 17th century Cambridgeshire was one of the associated counties in which the King had no visible party, although the University assisted him with contributions of plate and money.

Cambridgeshire returned three members to Parliament in 1290, and in 1295 the county returned two members, the borough of Cambridge two members, and the city of Ely two members, this being the sole return for Ely. The university was summoned to return members in 1300 and again in 1603, but no returns are recorded before 1614, after which it continued to return two members. Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned three members.

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Cambridgeshire is historically an agricultural county. The Domesday Survey mentions over 90 mills and numerous valuable fisheries, especially eel-fisheries, and contains frequent references to wheat, malt and honey. The county had a flourishing wool-industry in the 14th century, and became noted for its worsted cloths. The Black Death of 1349 and the ravages committed during the Wars of the Roses were followed by periods of severe depression, and in 1439 several Cambridgeshire towns obtained a remission of taxation on the plea of poverty. In the 16th century, barley for malt was grown in large quantities in the south, and the manufacture of willow baskets was carried on in the fen-districts. Saffron was extensively cultivated in the 18th century, and paper was manufactured near Sturbridge. Sturbridge fair was at this period reckoned the largest in Europe, the chief articles of merchandise being wool, hops and leather; and the Newmarket races and horse trade were already famous. Large waste areas were brought under cultivation in the 17th century through the drainage of the fen-district, which was brought to completion about 1652 through the labors of Cornelius Vermuyden, a Dutchman. The coprolite industry was very profitable for a short period from 1850 to 1880, and its decline was accompanied by a general industrial and agricultural depression.

Research Tips

Cambridgeshire Council Civil Registration (BMD) index online. Looking up entries is free, but there is a charge for certificates.

source: Family History Library Catalog
This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Cambridgeshire. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.