Peterborough is a city with a cathedral dedicated to St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew (commonly known as St Peter's Cathedral. Historically the city was part of Northamptonshire, but when County Councils were created in 1889 Peterborough was made part of the Soke of Peterborough administrative county, which was nominally still part of Northamptonshire, but independent of Northamptonshire County Council.
The Soke of Peterborough was merged with Huntingdonshire in 1965 to form the modern county of Huntingdon and Peterborough, which was itself abolished in 1974 and absorbed into Cambridgeshire. Since 1998, Peterborough has been a unitary authority, although it remains part of the ceremonial county of Cambridgeshire.
Peterborough ( or ) is a Cathedral City and Unitary Authority Area in the East of England, with a population estimated in 2012 to be 186,400, of which 137,910 were residents in the urban area of the city. Although traditionally part of Northamptonshire, for ceremonial purposes it falls within the county of Cambridgeshire. It is the 27th largest in the United Kingdom, excluding urban zones. Situated north of London, the city stands on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea approximately to the north-east. The railway station is an important stop on the East Coast Main Line between London and Edinburgh. The unitary authority borders Northamptonshire and Rutland to the west, Lincolnshire to the north, and non-metropolitan Cambridgeshire to the south and east.
The local topography is flat and low-lying, and in some places lies below sea level, for example in the Fens that lie to the east of Peterborough. Human settlement in the area began before the Bronze Age, as can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the current city centre also with evidence of Roman occupation. The Anglo-Saxon period saw the establishment of a monastery, Medeshamstede, which later became Peterborough Cathedral. Peterborough was until 1965 part of Northamptonshire, although the city with its surrounding rural area was from medieval times administered separately as the Soke of Peterborough.
The population grew rapidly following the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, and Peterborough became an industrial centre, particularly noted for its brick manufacture. Following the Second World War, growth was limited until designation as a New Town in the 1960s. Housing and population are expanding and a £1 billion regeneration of the city centre and immediately surrounding area is underway. In common with much of the United Kingdom, industrial employment has fallen, with a significant proportion of new jobs in financial services and distribution.
For more information, see the EN Wikipedia article Peterborough.
For more information, see the EN Wikipedia article Local Government in Peterborough.