Place:Sachsen, Germany

Watchers
NameSachsen
Alt namesSaxony
Free State of Saxonysource: Wikipedia
Freistaat Sachsensource: Wikipedia
Sachsensource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Saxesource: folg
TypeFormer State, Modern State
Coordinates52.833°N 10°E
Located inGermany     (1990 - )
Also located inEast Germany     (1945 - 1990)
See alsoSachsen, Preußen, GermanyParent
Schlesien, Preußen, GermanyParent
Contained Places
Unknown
Saxe-Meininger
Amtsgericht
Auerbach
Neusalza
Ölsnitz
District
Flöha
Grimma
Historical district
Öderan
Inhabited place
Burg bei Magdeburg
Dahlen
Falkenhain
Gorschmitz
Kleinwelka
Mockritz
Moritzburg
Ramsdorf
Scheergrund
Kreis
Hermsdorf
Regierungsbezirk
Chemnitz
Dresden
Leipzig
Region
Saxon triangle
Unknown
Abend
Abhorn
Ablaß
Abtnaundorf
Adelsdorf
Adorf
Affalter
Albernau
Alberoda
Albersdorf
Albertsthal
Albrechtshain
Altbernsdorf
Altchemnitz
Altchoren
Altendorf
Altensalz
Altfranken
Altgeising
Althen
Althöfgen
Altlauba
Altleis
Altlommatzsch
Altlöbau
Altoschatz
Altsattel
Altsattel-Barmenitz
Altstadt
Altstadt-Borna
Altzschillen
Ammelsdorf
Ammelshain
Anger-Crottendorf
Ansprung
Apelt
Arnoldsgrün
Arnsdorf
Arntitz
Arras
Audigast
Aue
Auerhammer
Auerschütz
Auerswalde
Augustusberg
Auligk
Auterwitz
Baalsdorf
Baderitz
Bahra
Ballendorf
Barmenitz
Barneck
Barnitz
Baselitz
Batzdorf
Bauda
Baßlitz
Beerwalde
Belgershain
Bellwitz
Belmsdorf
Benndorf
Berbersdorf
Berbisdorf
Berglas
Bergwerk
Bernitzgrün
Berreuth
Berzdorf
Beucha
Beutha
Bieberach
Bieberstein
Biehla
Binnewitz
Birkigt
Birmenitz
Bischdorf
Bischheim
Blankenhain
Blattersleben
Bloßwitz
Blumberg
Blumenau
Bobenneukirchen
Bockau
Bockendorf
Bocksdorf
Bockwa
Bodenbach
Bohnitzsch
Bohra
Boritz
Borlas
Bornitz
Borsberg
Boxdorf
Brabschütz
Brambach
Brand
Brausenstein
Braußwig
Breitenbach
Breitenborn
Breitendorf
Breitenfeld
Breitingen
Briesnitz
Brockau
Brotenfeld
Brunn
Brösen
Brößnitz
Brünlos
Bubendorf
Bucha
Buchheim
Buchholz
Buchwald
Bulleritz
Burgberg
Burghausen
Burglehn
Burkhardtsgrün
Bärenburg
Bärenfels
Bärenklause
Bärenwalde
Bärnsdorf
Bärwalde
Böhlen
Börnersdorf
Börtewitz
Bösdorf
Bösenbrunn
Bühlau
Callnberg
Carlsbrunn
Casabra
Cauritz
Choren-Toppschädel
Christgrün
Churschütz
Chursdorf
Clieben
Collm
Collmen
Commichau
Connewitz
Conradsdorf
Constappel
Cosel
Cospuden
Cossen
Costewitz
Cranzahl
Crellenhain
Crossen
Crostewitz
Crostwitz
Crotenlaide
Crumbach
Cröbern
Culitzsch
Cunnertswalde
Cunnewitz
Cunsdorf
Cölln
Dahlitzsch
Dallwitz
Daubnitz
Deila
Delmschütz
Demeusel
Dennheritz
Deuben
Deutschbaselitz
Deutscheinsiedel
Deutschenbora
Diensdorf
Diera
Diethensdorf
Dippelsdorf
Dittrich
Dobeneck
Doberschwitz
Dobrig
Dolgowitz
Domselwitz
Dorfhain
Dorfschellenberg
Dorfstadt
Dornhennersdorf
Dorotheenberg
Draisdorf
Drebach
Dreiskau
Dreiwerden
Drochaus
Droßdorf
Dröda
Däbritz
Döben
Döbern
Dölitz
Döltzschen
Dönschten
Dörfel
Dörnthal
Dörschnitz
Döschütz
Dösen
Dösitz
Dürrhennersdorf
Dürrweitzschen
Ebenheit
Eckersbach
Eckersberg
Eibenberg
Eich
Eicha
Eichardt
Eichigt
Eisenberg-Moritzburg
Eiserode
Elbe
Elend
Elgersdorf
Elster
Elsterberg
Elstertrebnitz
Elterlein
Elzenberg
Eppendorf
Erdmannsdorf
Erdmannshain
Erfenschlag
Erlau
Erlbach
Erlebach
Erlicht
Ermendorf
Ernstthal
Eschenbach
Etzoldshain
Euba
Eubabrunn
Eula
Eulendorf
Eulitz
Eutritzsch
Eutschütz
Falkenberg
Fasendorf
Fichtenbach
Fichtigsthal
Fischendorf
Flößberg
Folbern
Forchheim
Foschenroda
Frankenau
Frankenberg
Frankenhausen
Frankenheim
Frankenstein
Frankenthal
Frauenhain
Frauwalde
Freibergsdorf
Freitelsdorf
Fremdiswalde
Friedeburg
Friedrichsgrün
Friedrichstadt
Friesen
Frohnau
Fuchshain
Furth
Fürstenau
Fürstenhain
Fürstenwalde
Gadewitz
Gahlenz
Gallschütz
Gansgrün
Ganzig
Garnsdorf
Gaschütz
Gasern
Gaudlitz
Gauernitz
Gaumnitz
Gaunitz
Gautzsch
Gaußig
Gebirge
Geilsdorf
Geising
Gelenau
Georgenfeld
Georgenthal
Georgewitz
Gerichshain
Gersdorf bei Rosswein
Gesau
Geyersdorf
Giegengrün
Gießmannsdorf
Gittersee
Glasten
Glaucha
Glauschnitz
Gleina
Gleisberg
Glösa
Gnandstein
Gnaundorf
Gohla
Gohris
Gohrisch
Golberode
Goldbach
Goldhausen
Golk
Goltzscha
Golzern
Gomlitz
Gopplasgrün
Gornewitz
Gornsdorf
Goselitz
Gospersgrün
Gottesberg
Gottgetreu
Gotthelffriedrichsgrund
Gottschdorf
Goßberg
Goßwitz
Graumnitz
Graupzig
Grauschwitz
Grauswitz
Greifenhain
Greitschütz
Grethen
Grobau
Groptitz
Großbauchlitz
Großbuch
Großböhla
Großdittmannsdorf
Großdobritz
Großdrebnitz
Großdölzig
Großerkmannsdorf
Großfriesen
Großgrabe
Großharthau
Großhermsdorf
Großhänchen
Großkagen
Großluga
Großmilkau
Großmiltitz
Großnaundorf
Großokrilla
Großpelsen
Großpriesligk
Großpösna
Großröhrsdorf
Großschlatitz
Großschweidnitz
Großsermuth
Großsteinberg
Großvoigtsberg
Großwaltersdorf
Großweitzschen
Großwiederitzsch
Großwüstalbertitz
Großzschocher-Windorf
Großzöbern
Großzössen
Großölsa
Grube
Gruben
Grubnitz
Grumbach
Grund
Gränitz
Gränze
Gröbern
Gröblitz
Gröppendorf
Grün
Grünau
Grüneburg
Grüngräbchen
Grünlichtenberg
Grünthal
Gundorf
Gunnersdorf
Gunzen
Gutenfürst
Gärnitz
Gävernitz
Göbschelwitz
Gödelitz
Gödlau
Göhra
Göhren
Göhrenz
Göldnitz
Göltzschen
Gönnsdorf
Göppersdorf
Görbersdorf
Görschnitz
Görsdorf
Görtitz
Gösau
Göttwitz
Götzenthal
Gückelsberg
Güldengossa
Günsdorf
Haara
Hahnefeld
Haida
Hainichen
Halbau
Hallbach
Hals
Halsbach
Hammerbrücke
Hammerunterwiesenthal
Hartmannsgrün
Haselbach
Hauptmannsgrün
Hauswalde
Heidelberg
Heidersdorf
Heiersdorf
Heinersgrün
Heinrichsort
Heinrichsthal
Helbersdorf
Helbigsdorf
Helbra
Helenenberg
Helmsgrün
Helsdorf
Hemmendorf
Hennersbach
Hermannsdorf
Herrenwalde
Herrndorf
Herwigsdorf
Hetzwalde
Heyda
Heyersdorf
Heynitz
Hilmsdorf
Hirschbach
Hirschberg
Hirschleite
Hirschsprung
Hochkirch
Hof
Hoflößnitz
Hoheneck
Hohenfichte
Hohengrün
Hohenheida
Hohenkirchen
Hohenlinde
Hohenstein
Hohentanne
Hohnbach
Hohnstädt
Holzhau
Holzhausen
Hopfgarten
Hormersdorf
Hosterwitz
Hoyersdorf
Hubertusburg
Hundshübel
Hutha
Häslich
Höfchen
Höfgen
Höflein
Hölzel
Hühndorf
Hütten
Ilkendorf
Irbersdorf
Irfersgrün
Jahna
Jahnsdorf
Jauernick
Jerisau
Jesseritz
Jiedlitz
Jockischberg
Johnsbach
Josephsdorf
Judenstein
Jugel
Jugelsburg
Jößnitz
Jüdenhain
Kaditz
Kahnsdorf
Kaltenborn
Kaltofen
Kappel
Kattnitz
Katzenberg
Kaufungen
Kauscha
Kauschwitz
Kegel
Kemmlitz
Kemtau
Kesselsdorf
Kettewitz
Ketzergasse
Keuern
Kiebitz
Kiesdorf
Kindisch
Kirchbach
Kittlitz
Klaffenbach
Klappendorf
Kleinbardau
Kleinbauchlitz
Kleinbobritzsch
Kleinburgk
Kleinböhla
Kleincarsdorf
Kleindehsa
Kleindrebnitz
Kleindölzig
Kleineschefeld
Kleingera
Kleinhartmannsdorf
Kleinhennersdorf
Kleinhermsdorf
Kleinhessen
Kleinhänchen
Kleinlimbach
Kleinmilkau
Kleinmiltitz
Kleinneuschönberg
Kleinolbersdorf
Kleinopitz
Kleinpelsen
Kleinpostwitz
Kleinpösna
Kleinpötzschau
Kleinquerbitzsch
Kleinradmeritz
Kleinraschütz
Kleinrückerswalde
Kleinschirma
Kleinschlatitz
Kleinschweidnitz
Kleinschönberg
Kleinsermuth
Kleinsteinberg
Kleinthiemig
Kleinvoigtsberg
Kleinweitzschen
Kleinwiederitzsch
Kleinwüstalbertitz
Kleinzschocher
Kleinölsa
Klessig
Klinga
Klingenhain
Kloschwitz
Klosterbuch
Klostergeringswalde
Klostermansfeld
Klotzsche
Klösterlein
Klötitz
Kmehlen
Knauthain
Knautkleeberg
Knautnaundorf
Kobitzsch
Kobitzschwalde
Kockisch
Kohren
Koitzsch
Koltzschen
Koppelsdorf
Kopschien
Kornbach
Korpitzsch
Koselitz
Kotitz
Kottewitz
Kottmarsdorf
Krakau
Kralapp
Krappe
Krauschütz
Kraußnitz
Krebes
Kreißa
Krepta
Kretscham-Rothensehma
Kriebethal
Krieschendorf
Kroptewitz
Krost
Krumbach
Krumhermsdorf
Krummenhennersdorf
Kröstau
Kuckau
Kuhschnappel
Kulkwitz
Kuppritz
Kändler
Köblitz
Köhra
Kömmlitz
Königsfeld
Körbigsdorf
Kössern
Köthensdorf-Reitzenhain
Kötteritzsch
Kötzschau
Kötzschenbroda
Kühnhaide
Kürbitz
Laas
Lampersdorf
Landwüst
Langenau
Langenberg
Langenchursdorf
Langenhennersdorf
Langenleuba-Oberhain
Langenreinsdorf
Langenrinne
Langenstriegis
Langhennersdorf
Lastau
Lauba
Laucha
Lauer
Lausa mit Friedersdorf
Lausa
Lauschgrün
Lausen
Lauske
Lauterhofen
Lauterholz
Lautzschen
Laußnitz
Lawalde
Leckwitz
Lehn
Lehndorf
Leipnitz
Leippen
Leisenau
Leisnitz
Lenkersdorf
Lenz
Lerchenberg
Leschen
Leuba
Leubnitz
Leukersdorf
Leupoldishain
Leutenhain
Leuteritz
Leutersbach
Leuterwitz
Leutzsch
Lichtenau
Lichteneichen
Lichtenwalde
Liebau
Liebschütz
Liegau
Lieske
Limmritz
Linda
Lindennaundorf
Lindhardt
Linz
Lippersdorf
Lipprandis
Liptitz
Lobsdorf
Lockwitz
Lomnitz
Lonnewitz
Lottengrün
Luchau
Luga
Lungkwitz
Löbnitz
Löbnitz-Bennewitz
Lösten
Löthain
Lötzschen
Löwenhain
Lößnig
Lübschütz
Lückersdorf
Lüttichau
Lützschera
Lützschnitz
Magwitz
Mahlis
Mahlitzsch
Malkwitz
Malschendorf
Malter
Mannschatz
Marieney
Mark Köllsdorf
Mark Wüstungsstein
Markersbach
Markranstädt
Markritz
Marschau
Marschwitz
Marsdorf
Mauersberg
Mauna
Mautitz
Mechelgrün
Medessen
Medingen
Mehltheuer
Mehren
Meinitz
Meinsdorf
Memmendorf
Mergenthal
Merkwitz
Merschwitz
Merzdorf
Messa
Mettelwitz
Metzdorf
Meusen
Mickten
Miera
Milstrich
Miltitz
Minkwitz
Mischütz
Mittelbach
Mittelcunewalde
Mitteldorf
Mittelfriedersdorf
Mittelfrohna
Mittelhöhe
Mittelleutersdorf
Mittelreutnitz
Mittelrosenhain
Mittelschmiedeberg
Mittelsohland
Mittelweigsdorf
Mißlareuth
Mobendorf
Mobschatz
Mochau
Mockau
Mohlis
Moosheim
Morgenröthe-Rautenkranz
Motterwitz
Möbertitz
Möckern
Möckwitz
Mögen
Möhrsdorf
Mölbis
Möschwitz
Möseln
Müdisdorf
Müglitz
Mühlhausen
Mühlleithen
Mühltroff
Mülbitz
Mülsen Sankt Jacob
Mülsen Sankt Micheln
Mülsen Sankt Niclas
Narsdorf
Nauenhain
Nauhain
Nauleis
Naundörfel
Nauslitz
Naustadt
Nauwalde
Naußlitz
Nebelschütz
Nebitzschen
Nechen
Neckanitz
Nehmitz
Neidberg
Neidhardsthal
Nenkersdorf
Nenntmansdorf
Netzschkau
Neubaderitz
Neuchoren
Neucoswig
Neudorf-Lauba
Neueibau
Neuer Anbau
Neufriedersdorf
Neugeising
Neugersdorf
Neugreußnig
Neuheide
Neuhof
Neuhöfgen
Neukirch
Neulauba
Neuleutersdorf
Neunimptsch
Neunzehnhain
Neureudnitz
Neuscherbitz
Neuschmölln
Neuschönau
Neuschönberg
Neuschönefeld
Neusellerhausen
Neusornzig
Neustädtel
Neuwalde
Neuwernsdorf
Neuwiese
Neuzaschendorf
Nickern
Niebra
Nieda
Nieder Forchheim
Nieder Haselbach
Nieder Hermsdorf
Nieder-Lausitz
Niederaffalter
Niederalbertsdorf
Niederauerbach
Niedercolmnitz
Niedercrinitz
Niedercrossen
Niedercunewalde
Niedercunnersdorf
Niederdorf
Niederebersbach
Niedereula
Niederforchheim
Niederfrauendorf
Niederfriedersdorf
Niederfähre
Niedergersdorf
Niedergoseln
Niedergrauschwitz
Niederhermersdorf
Niederhohndorf
Niederhäslich
Niederjahna
Niederkittlitz
Niederlauterstein
Niederleuba
Niederleutersdorf
Niederlungwitz
Niederlößnitz
Niedermülsen
Niederneukirch
Niederneuschönberg
Niederottendorf
Niederottenhain
Niederpesterwitz
Niederpfannenstiel
Niederpolenz
Niederpoyritz
Niederpretzschendorf
Niederputzkau
Niederranschütz
Niederrennersdorf
Niederreutnitz
Niederrossau
Niederruppersdorf
Niederrödern
Niedersaida
Niederschindmaas
Niederschlag
Niederschlema
Niederschmiedeberg
Niederschöna
Niedersedlitz
Niederseiffenbach
Niedersohland
Niederspaar
Niederstaucha
Niedersteina
Niedersteinbach
Niederstrahwalde
Niedertoppschädel
Niederwartha
Niederwiesa
Niederwinkel
Niederzwönitz
Niegeroda
Nieschütz
Niethen
Niklasgasse
Nikolsdorf
Nimbschen
Nimtitz
Nordhausen
Noschkowitz
Nostitz
Noßlitz
Noßwitz
Nucknitz
Nössige
Nöthnitz
Ober Döhlen
Ober Forchheim
Ober Haselbach
Ober- und Mittelebersbach
Oberaffalter
Oberalbertsdorf
Oberau
Oberbobritzsch
Obercarsdorf
Obercolmnitz
Obercrinitz
Obercrossen
Obercunnersdorf
Oberdorf
Obereula
Oberfrauendorf
Oberfriedersdorf
Oberfrohna
Obergersdorf
Obergrauschwitz
Obergruna
Obergöltzsch
Oberheinsdorf
Oberhermersdorf
Oberhäslich
Oberhütten
Oberkittlitz
Oberlauterbach
Oberleuba
Oberleutersdorf
Oberlommatzsch
Oberlosa
Oberlößnitz
Oberlützschera
Obermarxgrün
Obermylau
Oberneukirch
Oberneuschönberg
Oberottendorf
Oberottenhain
Oberpesterwitz
Oberpfannenstiel
Oberpolenz
Oberpoyritz
Oberpretzschendorf
Oberputzkau
Oberreichenbach
Oberrennersdorf
Oberrossau
Oberruppersdorf
Oberröblingen
Oberrödern
Obersachsenberg
Obersachsenfeld
Obersaida
Oberscheibe
Oberschindmaas
Oberschmiedeberg
Oberschöna
Oberseiffenbach
Obersohland
Oberspaar
Oberstaucha
Obersteinbach
Oberstrahwalde
Oberstößwitz
Oberstützengrün
Oberthalheim
Oberwartha
Oberweigsdorf
Oberweischlitz
Oberwiesa
Oberwinkel
Oberwutzschwitz
Oberwürschnitz
Oberzschörnewitz
Ochsensaal
Ockerwitz
Ockrilla
Ockritz
Olganitz
Omsewitz
Oppeln
Oppelsdorf
Ortelsdorf
Ossa
Ostrau
Ostro
Ottengrün
Ottenhain
Otterschütz
Otterwisch
Ottewig
Pabstleithen
Paltzschen
Pappendorf
Pappritz
Papstdorf
Paschkowitz
Paulsdorf
Paulshain
Paunsdorf
Pausa
Paßditz
Pechtelsgrün
Pegenau
Penna
Perlas
Peschen
Pesterwitz
Petersberg
Petershain
Petzschwitz
Pfaffendorf
Pfaffengrün
Pfaffenhain
Pflug
Pillnitz
Pinkowitz
Pinnewitz
Pitschütz
Plagwitz
Planitz
Planschwitz
Plaue-Bernsdorf
Plaußig
Plohn
Plotitz
Plotzen
Podemus
Poischwitz
Poititz
Polditz
Polkenberg
Ponickau
Porschnitz
Porschütz
Portitz
Poselitz
Posseck
Potschappel
Pottschapplitz
Prautitz
Pretzschendorf
Priesa
Priesen
Priesteblich
Prietitz
Prießnitz
Probstheida
Proschwitz
Prossen
Präbschütz
Pröda
Prösitz
Pulsitz
Pöhl
Pöhla
Pöhlau
Pöhsig
Püchau
Quasnitz
Quersa
Quesitz
Questenberg
Quohren
Quoosdorf
Rabenstein
Raden
Radewitz
Radibor
Ralbitz
Rammenau
Randeck
Raschau
Rathen
Rauba
Rauenstein
Raun
Raunergrund
Rauschwitz
Rautenberge
Raußlitz
Rechau
Rechenberg
Reckwitz
Rehbach
Rehnsdorf
Reibersdorf
Reichenberg
Reichenbrand
Reichenhain
Reichersdorf
Reichstein
Reichstädt
Reifland
Reimersgrün
Reinberg
Reinersdorf
Reinhardtsgrimma
Reitzendorf
Reppen
Reppina
Reppis
Reppnitz
Reudnitz
Reukersdorf
Reuth
Reutnitz
Rhäsa
Riechberg
Riemsdorf
Riesa
Ringenhain
Ringethal
Rippien
Rittersberg
Rittmitz
Robschütz
Rochsburg
Rochwitz
Rockau
Rodau
Rodersdorf
Rodewitz
Rohna
Roitzsch
Rosenhain
Rostig
Rothenbach
Rothenfurth
Rothenthal
Rothnaußlitz
Rotschau
Rottewitz
Rottluff
Roßthal
Rudelswalde
Rudolphsdorf
Rugiswalde
Ruppendorf
Ruppersdorf
Rusdorf
Rußdorf
Rähnitz
Röda
Röderbrunn
Rödern
Rödgen
Rödlitz
Röllingshain
Rötha
Röttis
Rößgen
Rößnitz
Rückerswalde
Rückmarsdorf
Rüdigsdorf
Rüdigsdorf-Neuhof mit Pflug
Rüsseina
Rützengrün
Rüx
Saalendorf
Sachsenburg
Sachsgrün
Sacka
Sadisdorf
Sahlassan
Sahlis
Salbitz
Sanct Michaelis
Sand
Sankt Marienstern
Sankt Marienthal
Satzung
Saultitz
Saupersdorf
Sayda
Schaddel
Schanzenmühle
Scharfenberg
Schaudorf
Schedewitz
Scheerau
Scheibenberg
Schellerhau
Schiedel
Schilbach
Schindelbach
Schirgiswalde
Schlanzschwitz
Schleben
Schleinitz
Schletta
Schlettau
Schleußingen
Schloditz
Schlottwitz
Schloßchemnitz
Schloßhäuser
Schlunzig
Schmalzgrube
Schmeckwitz
Schmerlitz
Schmiedeberg
Schmölln
Schneckengrün
Schneeberg
Schneidenbach
Schneppendorf
Scholas
Schullwitz
Schwand
Schweinfurth
Schweinsburg
Schweinsdorf
Schweta
Schwosdorf
Schänitz
Schönberg bei Brambach
Schönberg
Schönbörnchen
Schöneck
Schönefeld
Schönerstadt
Schönfels
Schönheide
Schönheiderhammer
Schönlind
Schönnewitz
Seebenisch
Seebschütz
Seegeritz
Seehausen
Seeligstadt
Seelingstädt
Sehlis
Seidenberg
Seidewitz
Seiferitz
Seifersbach
Seifertshain
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Wetterwitz
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Wildbach
Wildberg
Wildenau
Wildenfels
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Wurbis
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Wünschendorf
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Wüstenbrand
Zabeltitz
Zadel
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Zeicha
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Zeititz
Zelle
Zerna
Zetta
Zettlitz
Zeuckritz
Ziegra
Zietsch
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Zinnwald
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Zobes
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Zschaitz
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Zschauitz
Zscheila
Zscheilitz
Zschepplitz
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Zschirla
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Zschockau
Zschocken
Zschopau
Zschoppach
Zschoppelshain
Zschornau
Zschöllau
Zuckelhausen
Zug
Zunschwitz
Zweenfurth
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Zwenkau
Zwickau
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Zävertitz
Zöllmen
Zöpen
Zöschau
Zöthain
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source: Family History Library Catalog
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries Poland and the Czech Republic. Its capital is Dresden.

It is the tenth-largest of Germany's sixteen states in area, with an area of , and, with a population of 4.3 million, the sixth most populous German state, .

Located in the middle of a former German-speaking part of Europe, the history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, and twice a republic.

The area of the modern state of Saxony should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony corresponds approximately to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and the Westphalian part of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Saxony has a long history as a duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire (the Electorate of Saxony), and eventually as a kingdom (the Kingdom of Saxony). In 1918, subsequent to Germany's defeat in World War I, its monarchy was overthrown and a republican form of government was established under the current name. The state was broken up into smaller units during communist rule (1949–1989), but was re-established on 3 October 1990 on the reunification of East and West Germany.

Prehistory

In prehistoric times, the territory of Saxony was the site of some of the largest of the ancient Central European monumental temples, dating from the 5th century BC. Notable archaeological sites have been discovered in Dresden and the villages of Eythra and Zwenkau near Leipzig. The Slavic and Germanic presence in the territory of today's Saxony is thought to have begun in the 1st century BC. Parts of Saxony were possibly under the control of the Germanic King Marobod during the Roman era. By the late Roman period, several tribes known as the Saxons emerged, from which the subsequent state(s) draw their name. For the origins of the Saxon tribes, see Saxons.

Duchy of Saxony

The first medieval Duchy of Saxony was a late Early Middle Ages "Carolingian stem duchy", which emerged about the year 700, and grew to cover the greater part of Northern Germany. It covered the area of the modern German states of Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony-Anhalt. The Saxons converted to Christianity during this period.

While the Saxons were facing pressure from Charlemagne's Franks, they were also facing a westward push by Slavs to the east. The territory of the Free State of Saxony was occupied by Slavs before being reconquered by Germans. A legacy of this period is the Sorb population in Saxony.

Holy Roman Empire

The territory of the Free State of Saxony became part of the Holy Roman Empire by the 10th century. In the 10th century, the dukes of Saxony were also kings (or emperors) of the Holy Roman Empire, comprising the Ottonian, or Saxon, Dynasty. Around this time, the Billungs, a Saxon noble family, received extensive fiefs in Saxony. The Emperor eventually gave them the title of Duke of Saxony. After Duke Magnus died in 1106, causing the extinction of the male line of Billungs, oversight of the duchy was given to Lothar of Supplinburg, who also became Emperor for a short time.

In 1137, control of Saxony passed to the Guelph dynasty, descendants of Wulfhild Billung, eldest daughter of the last Billung duke, and the daughter of Lothar of Supplinburg. In 1180 large portions west of the Weser were ceded to the Bishops of Cologne, while some central parts between the Weser and the Elbe remained to the Guelphs, later forming the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The remaining eastern lands, together with the title of Duke of Saxony, passed to an Ascanian dynasty (descended from Eilika Billung, Wulfhild's younger sister) and was divided in 1260 into the two small states of Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg, the former also named Lower Saxony, the latter Upper Saxony, thence the later names of the two Imperial Circles. Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg both claimed the Saxon electoral privilege for their part, but the Golden Bull of 1356 only accepted Wittenberg's claim, with Lauenburg nevertheless maintaining its claim. In 1422, when the Saxon electoral line of the Ascanians was extinct, the Ascanian Eric V of Saxe-Lauenburg tried to reunite the Saxon duchies.

However, Sigismund, King of the Romans, had already granted Margrave Frederick IV the Warlike of Meissen (House of Wettin) an expectancy on the Saxon electorate, in order to remunerate his military support. On 1 August 1425 Sigismund enfeoffed the Wettinian Frederick as Prince-Elector of Saxony, despite protestations of Eric V. Thus the Saxon territories remained separated in permanence. The Electorate of Saxony was then merged in the much bigger Wettinian Margraviate of Meissen, however using the higher ranking name Electorate of Saxony and even the Ascanian coat-of-arms for the entire monarchy. Thus the name Saxony was translated to areas as far as Dresden and Meissen. In the 18th and 19th centuries Saxe-Lauenburg became colloquially called the Duchy of Lauenburg, which in 1876 merged in Prussia as Duchy of Lauenburg district.

Foundation of the second Saxon state

Saxony-Wittenberg, in modern Saxony-Anhalt, became subject to the margravate of Meissen, ruled by the Wettin dynasty in 1423. This established a new and powerful state, occupying large portions of the present Free State of Saxony, Thuringia, and Saxony-Anhalt. Although the centre of this state was far to the southeast of the former Saxony, it came to be referred to as Upper Saxony and then simply Saxony, while the former Saxon territories were now known as Lower Saxony.

In 1485, Saxony was split. A collateral line of the Wettin princes received what later became Thuringia and founded several small states there (see Ernestine duchies). The remaining Saxon state became still more powerful, becoming known in the 18th century for its cultural achievements, although it was politically inferior to Prussia and Austria, which pressed Saxony from either side.

Between the years 1697 and 1763, the Electors of Saxony were also elected Kings of Poland in personal union.

In 1756, Saxony joined the coalition of Austria, France and Russia against Prussia. Frederick II of Prussia chose to attack preemptively and invaded Saxony in August 1756, precipitating the Seven Years War. The Prussians quickly defeated Saxony and incorporated the Saxon army into the Prussian army. At the end of the Seven Years War, Saxony once again became an independent state.

Saxony in the 19th and 20th centuries

19th Century

In 1806, French Emperor Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire and decreed the Electorate of Saxony a kingdom in itself. Elector Frederick Augustus III became King Frederick Augustus I. Frederick Augustus remained loyal to Napoleon during the wars that swept Europe in the following years; he was taken prisoner and his territories declared forfeit by the allies in 1813, who intended the annexation of Saxony by Prussia. Ultimately, the opposition of Austria, France, and the United Kingdom to this plan resulted in the restoration of Frederick Augustus to his throne at the Congress of Vienna. At this time in 1815, Saxony was forced to cede the northern part of the kingdom to Prussia. These lands became the Prussian province of Saxony, incorporated today in Saxony-Anhalt. The remnant of the Kingdom of Saxony was roughly identical with the present federal state.

Meanwhile, in 1815, the southern part of Saxony, now called the "State of Saxony joined the German Confederation. (The German Confederation should not be confused with the North German Confederation mentioned below.) In the politics of the Confederation, Saxony was overshadowed by Prussia. King Anthony of Saxony, came to the throne of Saxony in 1827. Shortly thereafter, liberal pressures in Saxony mounted and broke out in the revolt during 1830—a year of revolution in Europe.[1] The revolution in Saxony resulted in a Constitution for the State of Saxony which served as a basis for the government in Saxony until 1918.[1]

During the 1848–49 constitutionalist revolutions in Germany, Saxony became a hotbed for revolutionaries, with anarchists such as Mikhail Bakunin and democrats including Richard Wagner and Gottfried Semper taking part in the May Uprising in Dresden in 1849. (Scenes of Richard Wagner's participation in the May 1849 Uprising in Dresden are pictured in the 1983 movie, Wagner starring Richard Burton as Richard Wagner.) The May Uprising in Dresden forced King Frederick Augustus II of Saxony to concede further reforms in the Saxon government.[1]

In 1854 Frederick Augustus II's brother, King John of Saxony, succeeded to the throne. A scholar, King John translated Dante.[1] King John followed a federalistic and pro-Austrian policy throughout the early 1860s until the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War. During the war, Prussian troops overran Saxony without a fight and invaded then Austrian (today's Czech) Bohemia. After the war, Saxony was forced to pay an indemnity and to join the North German Confederation in 1867. Under the terms of the North German Confederation, Prussia took over control of the Saxon postal system, railroads, military and foreign affairs.[2] In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Saxon troops fought together with Prussian and other German troops against France.[2] In 1871, Saxony joined the newly formed German Empire.[2]

20th Century

After King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony abdicated on 13 November 1918, Saxony, remaining a constituent state of Germany (Weimar Republic), became the Free State of Saxony under a new constitution enacted on 1 November 1920. In October 1923 the federal govermment under Chancellor Gustav Stresemann overthrew the legally elected SPD-Communist coalition government of Saxony. The state maintained its name and borders during the Nazi era as a Gau, but lost its quasi-autonomous status and its parliamentarian democracy.

As World War II drew to its end, U.S. troops under General George Patton conquered the western part of Saxony in April 1945, while Soviet troops conquered the eastern part. That summer, the entire state was handed over to Soviet forces as agreed in the London Protocol of September 1944. Britain, the USA, and the USSR then negotiated Germany's future at the Potsdam Conference. Under the Potsdam Agreement, all German territory East of the Oder-Neisse line was annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union, and, unlikein the aftermath of World War I, the annexing powers were allowed to expel the inhabitants. During the following three years, Poland and Czechoslovakia forcibly expelled German-speaking people from their territories, and some of these expellees came to Saxony. Only a small area of Saxony lying East of the Neisse River and centred around the town of Reichenau (now called Bogatynia), was annexed by Poland. The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SVAG) merged that part of the Prussian province of Lower Silesia that remained in Germany into Saxony.

On 20 October 1946, the SVAG organised elections for the Saxon state parliament (Landtag), but many people were arbitrarily excluded from candidacy and suffrage, and the Soviet Union openly supported the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED). The new minister-president Rudolf Friedrichs (SED), had been a member of the SPD until April 1946. He met his Bavarian counterparts in the U.S. zone of occupation in October 1946 and May 1947, but died suddenly in mysterious circumstances the following month. He was succeeded by Max Seydewitz, a loyal follower of Joseph Stalin.

The German Democratic Republic (East Germany), including Saxony, was established in 1949 out of the Soviet zone of Occupied Germany, becoming a constitutionally socialist state, part of COMECON and the Warsaw Pact, under the leadership of the SED. In 1952 the government abolished the Free State of Saxony, and divided its territory into three Bezirke: Leipzig, Dresden, and Karl-Marx-Stadt (formerly and presently Chemnitz).

The Free State of Saxony was reconstituted with slightly altered borders in 1990, following German reunification. Besides the formerly Silesian area of Saxony, which was mostly included in the territory of the new Saxony, the free state gained further areas North of Leipzig that had belonged to Saxony-Anhalt until 1952.

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