Alt namesPolensource: Cassell's German Dictionary (1982) p 1288; Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-137
Polish People's Republicsource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) IX, 552-554
Polognesource: Cassell's French Dictionary (1981) p 390; Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-137
Poloniasource: Cassell's Spanish Dictionary (1978) p 929; Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-137
Polskasource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Polska Rzeczpospolitasource: Britannica Book of the Year (1992) p 682
Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowasource: Cambridge World Gazetteer (1990) p 512-514
Republic of Polandsource: Wikipedia
Rzeczpospolita Polskasource: Britannica Book of the Year (1993) p 694
Coordinates52°N 20°E
Contained Places
Commonwealth voivodship
Bełz ( - 1795 )
Bracławskie ( 1569 - 1795 )
Brześć Kujawski ( - 1795 )
Brześć Litewski ( - 1795 )
Chełmińskie ( - 1795 )
Czernihów ( 1635 - 1795 )
Dorpat ( 1598 - 1620 )
Gnieźnieńskie ( 1768 - 1795 )
Inowrocław ( - 1795 )
Kalisz ( 1314 - 1998 )
Kijów ( 1569 - 1795 )
Kraków ( - 1998 )
Livonian ( 1620 - 1772 )
Lubelskie ( 1474 - )
Malbork ( 1454 - 1795 )
Mińsk ( 1413 - 1795 )
Mścisław ( - 1795 )
Nowogródek ( - 1939 )
Parnawskie ( 1598 - 1620 )
Podlaskie ( 1513 - )
Podolskie ( - 1795 )
Pomorze ( 1294 - )
Poznań ( 1300 - 1998 )
Połockie ( 1569 - 1795 )
Płock ( - 1998 )
Rawa ( - 1795 )
Ruthenian ( 1366 - 1772 )
Sandomierz ( - 1795 )
Sieradz ( 1569 - 1998 )
Smoleńsk ( - 1795 )
Trakai ( - 1795 )
Wenden ( 1598 - 1772 )
Witebskie ( - 1795 )
Wołyń ( 1569 - 1939 )
Łęczyca ( - 1795 )
Congress governorate
Kalisz ( 1314 - 1998 )
Kielce ( 1921 - 1998 )
Kraków ( - 1998 )
Lubelskie ( 1474 - )
Lwów ( 1918 - 1939 )
Podlaskie ( 1513 - )
Radom ( 1844 - 1998 )
Siedlce ( 1867 - 1998 )
Suwałki ( 1867 - 1998 )
Warszawa ( 1844 - 1998 )
Historical province
Grodno ( 1917 - )
Volyn′ ( 1569 - 1795 )
Inhabited place
Białystok ( 1921 - 1998 )
Brodsack ( 1314 - 1772 )
Dobrianychi ( 1340 - 1772 )
Elbląg ( 1466 - 1772 )
Heubuden ( - 1772 )
Kobrin ( 1921 - 1939 )
Kucze Wielkie
Kunzendorf ( - 1772 )
Ladekopp ( 1772 - )
Lakendorf ( - 1772 )
Zeyersvorderkampen ( - 1772 )
Modern voivodship
Biala Podlaska ( 1975 - 1998 )
Bielsko ( 1975 - 1998 )
Bydgoszcz ( 1919 - 1998 )
Chelm ( 1975 - 1998 )
Ciechanów ( 1975 - 1998 )
Częstochowa ( 1975 - 1998 )
Dolnoślaskie ( 1999 - )
Elbląg ( 1975 - 1998 )
Gdańsk ( - 1998 )
Gorzów ( 1975 - 1998 )
Jelenia Góra ( 1975 - 1998 )
Kalisz ( 1314 - 1998 )
Katowice ( 1946 - 1998 )
Kielce ( 1921 - 1998 )
Konin ( 1975 - 1998 )
Koszalin ( - 1998 )
Kraków ( - 1998 )
Krosno ( 1975 - 1998 )
Kujawsko-Pomorskie ( 1999 - )
Legnica ( 1975 - 1998 )
Leszno ( 1975 - 1998 )
Lubelskie ( 1474 - )
Lubuskie ( 1999 - )
Małopolskie ( 1999 - )
Nowy S̜acz ( 1975 - 1998 )
Olsztyn ( 1975 - 1998 )
Opolskie ( 1946 - )
Ostrołęka ( 1975 - 1998 )
Piotrków ( 1975 - 1998 )
Piła ( 1975 - 1998 )
Podkarpackie ( 1999 - )
Podlaskie ( 1513 - )
Pomorze ( 1294 - )
Poznań ( 1300 - 1998 )
Przemyśl ( 1975 - 1998 )
Płock ( - 1998 )
Radom ( 1844 - 1998 )
Rzeszów ( 1945 - 1998 )
Siedlce ( 1867 - 1998 )
Sieradz ( 1569 - 1998 )
Suwałki ( 1867 - 1998 )
Szczecin ( 1945 - 1998 )
Słupsk ( 1975 - 1998 )
Tarnobrzeg ( 1975 - 1998 )
Tarnów ( 1975 - 1998 )
Toruń ( 1975 - 1998 )
Warmińsko-Mazurskie ( 1999 - )
Warszawa ( 1844 - 1998 )
Wałbrzych ( 1975 - 1998 )
Wielkopolskie ( 1999 - )
Wrocław ( 1945 - 1998 )
Włocławek ( 1975 - 1998 )
Zachodniopomorskie ( 1999 - )
Zamość ( 1975 - 1998 )
Zielona Góra ( 1945 - 1998 )
Łomża ( 1975 - 1998 )
Łódź ( 1919 - 1999 )
Ślaskie ( 1945 - 1999 )
Świętokrzyskie ( 1999 - )
Mosern voivodship
Skierniewice ( 1975 - 1998 )
Peoople's republic voivodship
Gdańsk ( - 1998 )
People's republic voivodship
Bydgoszcz ( 1919 - 1998 )
Katowice ( 1946 - 1998 )
Kielce ( 1921 - 1998 )
Koszalin ( - 1998 )
Kraków ( - 1998 )
Lubelskie ( 1474 - )
Olsztyn ( 1975 - 1998 )
Opolskie ( 1946 - )
Poznań ( 1300 - 1998 )
Rzeszów ( 1945 - 1998 )
Szczecin ( 1945 - 1998 )
Warszawa ( 1844 - 1998 )
Zielona Góra ( 1945 - 1998 )
Łódź ( 1919 - 1999 )
People's reupblic voivodship
Wrocław ( 1945 - 1998 )
Grodno ( 1917 - )
Black Ruthenia
Central Lithuania
Chełmno Land
Curzon Line
Ducal Prussia
Eastern Pomerania
Grand Duchy of Poznań
Greater Poland
Middle Pomerania
Podlasie Region
Red Ruthenia
Royal Prussia
Sanok Land
Upper Silesia
Vilnius region
Second repbulic voivodship
Wileńskie ( 1922 - 1939 )
Second republic voivodship
Kielce ( 1921 - 1998 )
Kraków ( - 1998 )
Lubelskie ( 1474 - )
Lwów ( 1918 - 1939 )
Nowogródek ( - 1939 )
Poleskie ( 1921 - 1939 )
Pomorze ( 1294 - )
Poznań ( 1300 - 1998 )
Stanisławów ( 1920 - 1939 )
Tarnopol ( 1920 - 1939 )
Warszawa ( 1844 - 1998 )
Wołyń ( 1569 - 1939 )
Łódź ( 1919 - 1999 )
Ślaskie ( 1945 - 1999 )
Kucze Male
Wartheland ( - )
Vernichtungslager (nazi germany)
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north. The total area of Poland is ,[1] making it the 71st largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people,[1] Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world,[2] the sixth most populous member of the European Union, and the most populous post-communist member of the European Union. Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions.

Many historians trace the establishment of a Polish state to 966, when Mieszko I,[3] ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth gradually ceased to exist in the years 1772–1795, when the Polish territory was partitioned among Prussia, the Russian Empire, and Austria. Poland regained its independence (as the Second Polish Republic) at the end of World War I, in 1918.

Two decades later, in September 1939, World War II started with the invasions of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (as part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact). More than six million Polish citizens died in the war. In 1944, a Soviet-backed Polish provisional government was formed, which, after a period of conflict, falsified a referendum and an election, gave rise to a satellite state of the Soviet Union, Polish Republic (Rzeczpospolita Polska), renamed to the People's Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa) in 1952. During the Revolutions of 1989, Poland's Marxist–Leninist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy under the name Rzeczpospolita Polska, often referred to as the "Third Polish Republic" (III Rzeczpospolita).

Despite the vast destruction the country experienced during World War II, Poland managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth. There are 14 heritage sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage[4] and 54 Historical Monuments and many objects of cultural heritage. Since the end of the communist period, Poland has achieved a "very high" ranking in terms of human development,[5] as well as gradually improving economic freedom.


How places in Poland are organized

Poland has a complicated history.

  • From 1569-1795 it was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. We call the subdivisions during that time commonwealth voivodships.
  • From 1815-1914 it was known as Congress Poland. We call the subdivisions during that time congress governorates.
  • From 1918-1939 it was known as the Second Polish Republic. We call the subdivisions during that time second republic voivodships. This is the time period from which we specify the title of the Place page.
  • From 1945-1989 it was known as the People's Republic of Poland.
    • We call the subdivisions from 1945-1975 People's republic voivodships.
    • We call the subdivisions from 1975-1998, and the ones that replaced them in 1999, "modern voivodships".

The Family History Library Catalog lists some places in Poland according to their second republic voivodships and others according to their people's republic voivodships. We follow their lead and title Polish place pages according to their (1918-1939) second republic voivodship (preferred) or people's republic voivodship if known. Include "Also located in" links to the voivodships for other time periods if known.

All places in Poland

Further information on historical place organization in Poland


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Prehistory and protohistory of Poland

Historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The ethnicity and linguistic affiliation of these groups have been hotly debated; the time and route of the original settlement of Slavic peoples in these regions lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented.

The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement (now reconstructed as an open air museum), dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC. The Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. After the Baptism of Poland the new religion accepted by the Polish ruler was Catholicism. The transition to Christianity was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s.

Piast dynasty

Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Baptism in 966 and adopted Christianity as the new official religion of his subjects. The bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, and Wrocław. The pagan unrest however, led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer.

Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V in the 1109 Battle of Hundsfeld, writes Gallus Anonymus in his 1118 chronicle. In 1138, Poland fragmented into several smaller duchies when Bolesław divided his lands among his sons. In 1226, Konrad I of Masovia, one of the regional Piast dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans; a decision which led to centuries of warfare with the Knights. Elements of what is called now human rights may be found in early times of the Polish state. The Statute of Kalisz or the General Charter of Jewish Liberties (issued in 1264) introduced numerous right for the Jews in Poland, leading to a nearly autonomous "nation within a nation".

In the middle of 13th-century the Silesian branch of the Piast dynasty (Henry I the Bearded and Henry II the Pious, ruled 1238–1241) almost succeeded in uniting the Polish lands, but the Mongols devastated the country and won the Battle of Legnica where Duke Henry II the Pious died (1241). In 1320, after a number of earlier unsuccessful attempts by regional rulers at uniting the Polish dukedoms, Władysław I consolidated his power, took the throne and became the first King of a reunified Poland. His son, Casimir III (reigned 1333–1370), has a reputation as one of the greatest Polish kings, and gained wide recognition for improving the country's infrastructure. Casimir also extended royal protection to Jews, and encouraged their immigration to Poland.[6]

The education of Polish society was a goal of rulers as early as the 12th century, and Polish nobility became one of the most educated groups in Europe. The library catalogue of the Cathedral Chapter of Kraków dating back to 1110 shows that in the early 12th-century Polish intellectuals had access to European literature.

Casimir III realized that the nation needed a class of educated people, especially lawyers, who could codify the country's laws and administer the courts and offices. His efforts to found an institution of higher learning in Poland were finally rewarded when Pope Urban V granted him permission to open the University of Kraków.

The Golden Liberty of the nobles began to develop under Casimir's rule, when in return for their military support, the king made serious concessions to the aristocrats, finally establishing their status as superior to that of the townsmen, and aiding their rise to power. When Casimir died in 1370 he left no legitimate male heir and, considering his other male descendants either too young or unsuitable, was laid to rest as the last of the nation's Piast rulers.

Poland also became a magnet for migrants. Germans settled in the towns; the Jewish community began to settle and flourish in Poland during this era (see History of the Jews in Poland); the same applies in smaller number to Armenians. The Black Death which afflicted most parts of Europe from 1347 to 1351 affected Poland less severely.[7]

Jagiellon dynasty

The rule of the Jagiellon dynasty spanned the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era of Polish history. Beginning with the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila (Władysław II Jagiełło), the Jagiellon dynasty (1386–1572) formed the Polish–Lithuanian union. The partnership brought vast Lithuania-controlled Rus' areas into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for the Poles and Lithuanians, who coexisted and cooperated in one of the largest political entities in Europe for the next four centuries. In the Baltic Sea region Poland's struggle with the Teutonic Knights continued and included the Battle of Grunwald (1410), where a Polish-Lithuanian army inflicted a decisive defeat on the Teutonic Knights, both countries' main adversary, allowing Poland's and Lithuania's territorial expansion into the far north region of Livonia.[8] In 1466, after the Thirteen Years' War, King Casimir IV Jagiellon gave royal consent to the milestone Peace of Thorn, which created the future Duchy of Prussia, a Polish vassal. The Jagiellons at one point also established dynastic control over the kingdoms of Bohemia (1471 onwards) and Hungary.[9][10] In the south Poland confronted the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Tatars (by whom they were attacked on 75 separate occasions between 1474 and 1569),[11] and in the east helped Lithuania fight the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Some historians estimate that Crimean Tatar slave-raiding cost Poland one million of its population from 1494 to 1694.[12]

Poland was developing as a feudal state, with a predominantly agricultural economy and an increasingly powerful landed nobility. The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Sejm (parliament) in 1505, transferred most of the legislative power from the monarch to the Sejm, an event which marked the beginning of the period known as "Golden Liberty", when the state was ruled by the "free and equal" Polish nobility. Protestant Reformation movements made deep inroads into Polish Christianity, which resulted in the establishment of policies promoting religious tolerance, unique in Europe at that time.[13] This tolerance allowed the country to avoid most the religious turmoil that spread over Europe during the late Middle Ages. The European Renaissance evoked in late Jagiellon Poland (kings Sigismund I the Old and Sigismund II Augustus) a sense of urgency in the need to promote a cultural awakening, and during this period Polish culture and the nation's economy flourished. In 1543 the Pole, Nicolaus Copernicus, an astronomer from Toruń, published his epochal works, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), and thus became the first proponent of a predictive mathematical model confirming heliocentric theory which became the accepted basic model for the practice of modern astronomy. Another major figure associated with the era is classicist poet Jan Kochanowski.[14]

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The 1569 Union of Lublin established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state with an elective monarchy, but which was governed largely by the nobility, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament. The Warsaw Confederation (1573) confirmed the religious freedom of all residents of Poland, which was extremely important for the stability of the multiethnic Polish society of the time.[15] Serfdom was banned in 1588. The establishment of the Commonwealth coincided with a period of stability and prosperity in Poland, with the union thereafter becoming a European power and a major cultural entity, occupying approximately one million square kilometers of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as an agent for the dissemination of 'Western culture' through Polonization in modern-day Ukraine, Belarus and Western Russia. Poland suffered from a number of dynastic crises during the reigns of the Vasa kings Sigismund III and Władysław IV and found itself engaged in major conflicts with Russia, Sweden and the Ottoman Empire, as well as a series of minor Cossack uprisings.[16] In 1610 Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski seized Moscow after winning the Battle of Klushino.

From the middle of the 17th century, the nobles' democracy, suffering from internal disorder, gradually declined, thus leaving the once powerful Commonwealth vulnerable to foreign intervention.

From 1648, the Cossack Khmelnytsky Uprising engulfed the south and east eventually leaving Ukraine divided, with the eastern part, lost by the Commonwealth, becoming a dependency of the Tsardom of Russia. This was followed by the 'Deluge', a Swedish invasion, which marched through the Polish heartlands and damaged Poland's population, culture and infrastructure. Around four million of Poland's eleven million population died in famines and epidemics in this period.[17]

However, under John III Sobieski the Commonwealth's military prowess was re-established, and in 1683 Polish forces played a major part in relieving Vienna of a Turkish siege which was being conducted by Kara Mustafa in hope of eventually marching his troops further into Europe to spread Islam.

Sobieski's reign marked the end of the nation's golden-era. Finding itself subjected to almost constant warfare and suffering enormous population losses as well as massive damage to its economy, the Commonwealth fell into decline. The government became ineffective as a result of large-scale internal conflicts (e.g. Lubomirski Rebellion against John II Casimir and rebellious confederations) and corrupted legislative processes. The nobility fell under the control of a handful of magnats, and this, compounded with two relatively weak kings of the Saxon Wettin dynasty, Augustus II and Augustus III, as well as the rise of Russia and Prussia after the Great Northern War only served to worsen the Commonwealth's plight. Despite this The Commonwealth-Saxony personal union gave rise to the emergence of the Commonwealth's first reform movement, and laid the foundations for the Polish Enlightenment.[18]

During the later part of the 18th century, the Commonwealth made attempts to implement fundamental internal reforms; with the second half of the century bringing a much improved economy, significant population growth and far-reaching progress in the areas of education, intellectual life, art, and especially toward the end of the period, evolution of the social and political system. The most populous capital city of Warsaw replaced Gdańsk (Danzig) as the leading centre of commerce, and the role of the more prosperous townsfolk increased.

The royal election of 1764 resulted in the elevation of Stanisław II August, a refined and worldly aristocrat connected to a major magnate faction, to the monarchy. However, a one-time lover of Empress Catherine II of Russia, the new king spent much of his reign torn between his desire to implement reforms necessary to save his nation, and his perceived necessity to remain in a relationship with his Russian sponsor. This led to the formation of the 1768 Bar Confederation, a szlachta rebellion directed against Russia and the Polish king that fought to preserve Poland's independence and the szlachta's traditional privileges. Attempts at reform provoked the union's neighbours, and in 1772 the First Partition of the Commonwealth by Russia, Austria and Prussia took place; an act which the "Partition Sejm", under considerable duress, eventually "ratified" fait accompli.[19] Disregarding this loss, in 1773 the king established the Commission of National Education, the first government education authority in Europe. Corporal punishment of children was officially prohibited in 1783 as first in the world at all schools.

The Great Sejm convened by Stanisław II August in 1788 successfully adopted the 3 May Constitution, the first set of modern supreme national laws in Europe. However, this document, accused by detractors of harbouring revolutionary sympathies, generated strong opposition from the Commonwealth's nobles and conservatives as well as from Catherine II, who, determined to prevent the rebirth of a strong Commonwealth set about planning the final dismemberment of the Polish-Lithuanian state. Russia was aided in achieving its goal when the Targowica Confederation, an organisation of Polish nobles, appealed to the Empress for help. In May 1792 Russian forces crossed the Commonwealth's frontier, thus beginning the Polish-Russian War.

The defensive war fought by the Poles ended prematurely when the King, convinced of the futility of resistance, capitulated and joined the Targowica Confederation. The Confederation then took over the government. Russia and Prussia, fearing the mere existence of a Polish state, arranged for, and in 1793 executed, the Second Partition of the Commonwealth, which left the country deprived of so much territory that it was practically incapable of independent existence. Eventually, in 1795, following the failed Kościuszko Uprising, the Commonwealth was partitioned one last time by all three of its more powerful neighbours, and with this, effectively ceased to exist.[20]

The Age of Partitions

Poles rebelled several times against the partitioners, particularly near the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. An unsuccessful attempt at defending Poland's sovereignty took place in 1794 during the Kościuszko Uprising, where a popular and distinguished general Tadeusz Kosciuszko, who had served under Washington in America, led Polish insurgents against numerically superior Russian forces. Despite the victory at the Battle of Racławice, his ultimate defeat ended Poland's independent existence for 123 years. In 1807, Napoleon I of France temporarily recreated a Polish state as a satellite Duchy of Warsaw, but after the failed Napoleonic Wars, Poland was again split between the victorious Allies at the Congress of Vienna of 1815. The eastern part was ruled by the Russian tsar as a Congress Kingdom which possessed a very liberal constitution. However, the tsars reduced Polish freedoms, and Russia annexed the country in virtually all but name. Thus in the latter half of the 19th century, only Austrian-ruled Galicia, and particularly the Free City of Kraków, created good environment for free Polish cultural life to flourish.

Throughout the period of the partitions, political and cultural repression of the Polish nation led to the organisation of a number of uprisings against the authorities of the occupying Russian, Prussian and Austrian governments. Notable among these are the November Uprising of 1830 and January Uprising of 1863, both of which were attempts to free Poland from the rule of tsarist Russia. The November uprising began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw when, led by Lieutenant Piotr Wysocki, young non-commissioned officers at the Imperial Russian Army's military academy in that city revolted. They were joined by large segments of Polish society, and together forced Warsaw's Russian garrison to withdraw north of the city.

Over the course of the next seven months, Polish forces successfully defeated the Russian armies of Field Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch and a number of other Russian commanders; however, finding themselves in a position unsupported by any other foreign powers, save distant France and the newborn United States, and with Prussia and Austria refusing to allow the import of military supplies through their territories, the Poles accepted that the uprising was doomed to failure. Upon the surrender of Warsaw to General Ivan Paskievich, many Polish troops, feeling they could not go on, withdrew into Germany and there laid down their arms. Poles would have to wait another 32 years for another opportunity to free their homeland.

When in January 1863 a new Polish uprising against Russian rule began, it did so as a spontaneous protest by young Poles against conscription into the Imperial Russian Army. However, the insurrectionists, despite being joined by high-ranking Polish-Lithuanian officers and numerous politicians were still severely outnumbered and lacking in foreign support. They were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare tactics. They failed to win any major military victories. Afterwards no major uprising was witnessed in the Russian controlled Congress Poland and Poles resorted instead to fostering economic and cultural self-improvement.

Despite the political unrest experienced during the partitions, Poland did benefit from large-scale industrialisation and modernisation programs, instituted by the occupying powers, which helped it develop into a more economically coherent and viable entity. This was particularly true in the Greater Poland, Pomerania and Warmia annexed by Prussia (later becoming a part of the German Empire); an area which eventually, thanks largely to the Greater Poland Uprising, was reconstituted as a part of the Second Polish Republic and became one of its most productive regions.

Reconstitution of Poland

During World War I, all the Allies agreed on the reconstitution of Poland that United States President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed in Point 13 of his Fourteen Points. A total of 2 million Polish troops fought with the armies of the three occupying powers, and 450,000 died.[21] Shortly after the armistice with Germany in November 1918, Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic (II Rzeczpospolita Polska). It reaffirmed its independence after a series of military conflicts, the most notable being the Polish–Soviet War (1919–1921) when Poland inflicted a crushing defeat on the Red Army at the Battle of Warsaw, an event which is considered to have halted the advance of Communism into Europe and forced Vladimir Lenin to rethink his objective of achieving global socialism. Nowadays the event is often referred to as the "Miracle at the Vistula".[22]

During this period, Poland successfully managed to fuse the territories of the three former partitioning powers into a cohesive nation state. Railways were restructured to direct traffic towards Warsaw instead of the former imperial capitals, a new network of national roads was gradually built up and a major seaport was opened on the Baltic Coast, so as to allow Polish exports and imports to bypass the politically charged Free City of Danzig.

The inter-war period heralded in a new era of Polish politics. Whilst Polish political activists had faced heavy censorship in the decades up until the First World War, the country now found itself trying to establish a new political tradition. For this reason, many exiled Polish activists, such as Ignacy Paderewski (who would later become Prime Minister) returned home to help; a significant number of them then went on to take key positions in the newly formed political and governmental structures. Tragedy struck in 1922 when Gabriel Narutowicz, inaugural holder of the Presidency, was assassinated at the Zachęta Gallery in Warsaw by painter and right-wing nationalist Eligiusz Niewiadomski.[23]

The 1926 May Coup of Józef Piłsudski turned rule of the Second Polish Republic over to the Sanacja movement. By the 1930s Poland had become increasingly authoritarian; a number of 'undesirable' political parties, such as the Polish Communists, had been banned and following Piłsudski's death, the regime, unable to appoint a new leader, began to show its inherent internal weaknesses and unwillingness to cooperate in any way with other political parties.

World War II

The beginning of World War II was marked by the Nazi German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939, followed by the Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September in violation of the Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact. On 28 September 1939 Warsaw capitulated. As agreed earlier in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Poland was split into two occupied zones, one subdivided by Nazi Germany, while the other, including all of eastern Kresy fell under the control of the Soviet Union. In 1939–1941, the Soviets had deported hundreds of thousands of Poles out to the most distant parts of the Soviet Union. The Soviet NKVD secretly executed thousands of Polish prisoners of war (inter alia Katyn massacre) ahead of the Operation Barbarossa.[24]

All in all, Poland made the fourth-largest troop contribution to the Allied war effort, after the Soviets, the British, and the Americans. Polish troops fought under the command of both the Polish Government in Exile in the theatre of war west of Germany and under Soviet leadership in the theatre of war east of Germany. The Polish expeditionary corps, which was controlled by the exiled pre-war government based in London, played an important role in the Italian and North African Campaigns.[25][26] They are particularly well remembered for their conduct at the Battle of Monte Cassino, a conflict which culminated in the raising of a Polish flag over the ruins of the mountain-top abbey by the 12th Podolian Uhlans. The Polish forces in the theatre of war east of Germany were commanded by Lieutenant General Władysław Anders who had received his command from Prime Minister of the exiled government Władysław Sikorski. On the east of Germany, the Soviet-backed Polish 1st Army distinguished itself in the battles for Berlin and Warsaw,[27] although its actions in support of the latter have often been criticized.

Polish servicemen were also active in the theatres of naval and air warfare; during the Battle of Britain Polish squadrons such as the No. 303 "Kościuszko" fighter squadron[28] achieved considerable success, and by the end of the war the exiled Polish Air Forces could claim 769 confirmed kills. Meanwhile, the Polish Navy was active in the protection of convoys in the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean.[29]

In addition to the organised units of the 1st Army and the Forces in the Nazi-occupied Europe, the domestic underground resistance movement, the Armia Krajowa, or Home Army, fought to free Poland from German occupation and establish an independent Polish state. The wartime resistance movement in Poland was one of the three largest resistance movements of the entire war, and encompassed an unusually broad range of clandestine activities, which essentially functioned as an underground state complete with degree-awarding universities and a court system.[30] The resistance was, however, largely loyal to the exiled government and generally resented the idea of a communist Poland; for this reason, in the summer of 1944 they initiated Operation Tempest, of which the Warsaw Uprising that begun on 1 August 1944 was the best know operation.[31][32] The objective of the uprising was to drive the German occupiers from the city and help with the larger fight against Germany and the Axis powers, however secondary motives for the uprising sought to see Warsaw liberated before the Soviets could reach the capital, so as to underscore Polish sovereignty by empowering the Polish Underground State before the Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation could assume control. However, a lack of available allied military aid and Stalin's reluctance to allow the 1st Army to help their fellow countrymen take the city, led to the uprising's failure and subsequent planned destruction of the city.

During the war, German forces under direct order from Adolf Hitler set up six major extermination camps, all of which operated in the heart of Poland. They included the notorious Treblinka and Auschwitz killing grounds. This allowed the Germans to transport the condemned Jews away from public eye in the Third Reich or across occupied Europe and – under the guise of resettlement – murder them in the General Government and in brand new Warthegau among other annexed areas. The Nazi crimes against the Polish nation claimed the lives of 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews, and 2.77 million ethnic Poles, including Polish intelligentsia, doctors, lawyers, nobility, priests and numerous others. Since 3,5 million Jews lived in pre-war Poland, Jewish victims make up the largest percentage of all victims of the Nazis' extermination program. It is estimated that, of pre-war Poland's Jewry, approximately 90% were killed. Throughout the occupation, many members of the Armia Krajowa, supported by the Polish government in exile, and millions of ordinary Poles – at great risk to themselves and their families – engaged in rescuing Jews from the Nazi Germans. Grouped by nationality, Poles represent the largest number of people who rescued Jews during the Holocaust.[33][34] To date, 6,394 Poles have been awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel–more than any other nation.[34] Some estimates put the number of Poles involved in rescue efforts at up to 3 million, and credit Poles with sheltering up to 450,000 Jews.[33]

At the war's conclusion in 1945, Poland's borders were shifted westwards, resulting in considerable territorial lossess. Most of the Polish inhabitants of Kresy were expelled along the Curzon Line in accordance with Stalin's agreements. The western border was moved to the Oder-Neisse line. As a result, Poland's territory was reduced by 20%, or . The shift forced the migration of millions of other people, most of whom were Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, and Jews.[35] Of all the countries involved in the war, Poland lost the highest percentage of its citizens: over 6 million perished – nearly one-fifth of Poland's population — half of them Polish Jews. Over 90% of deaths were non-military in nature. Population numbers did not recover until the 1970s. An estimated 600,000 Soviet soldiers died fighting Germans on Polish soil during World War II.

Postwar communist Poland

At the insistence of Joseph Stalin, the Yalta Conference sanctioned the formation of a new provisional pro-Communist coalition government in Moscow, which ignored the Polish government-in-exile based in London; a move which angered many Poles who considered it a betrayal by the Allies. In 1944, Stalin had made guarantees to Churchill and Roosevelt that he would maintain Poland's sovereignty and allow democratic elections to take place. However, upon achieving victory in 1945, the elections organized by the occupying Soviet authorities were falsified and were used to provide a veneer of 'legitimacy' for Soviet hegemony over Polish affairs. The Soviet Union instituted a new communist government in Poland, analogous to much of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. As elsewhere in Communist Europe the Soviet occupation of Poland met with armed resistance from the outset which continued into the fifties.

Despite widespread objections, the new Polish government accepted the Soviet annexation of the pre-war eastern regions of Poland[36] (in particular the cities of Wilno and Lwów) and agreed to the permanent garrisoning of Red Army units on Poland's territory. Military alignment within the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War came about as a direct result of this change in Poland's political culture and in the European scene came to characterise the full-fledged integration of Poland into the brotherhood of communist nations.

The People's Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa) was officially proclaimed in 1952. In 1956 after the death of Bolesław Bierut, the régime of Władysław Gomułka became temporarily more liberal, freeing many people from prison and expanding some personal freedoms. A similar situation repeated itself in the 1970s under Edward Gierek, but most of the time persecution of anti-communist opposition groups persisted. Despite this, Poland was at the time considered to be one of the least oppressive states of the Soviet Bloc.[37]

Labour turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" ("Solidarność"), which over time became a political force. Despite persecution and imposition of martial law in 1981, it eroded the dominance of the Polish United Workers' Party and by 1989 had triumphed in Poland's first partially free and democratic parliamentary elections since the end of the Second World War. Lech Wałęsa, a Solidarity candidate, eventually won the presidency in 1990. The Solidarity movement heralded the collapse of communist regimes and parties across Europe.

Present-day Poland

A shock therapy programme, initiated by Leszek Balcerowicz in the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its socialist-style planned economy into a market economy. As with all other post-communist countries, Poland suffered temporary slumps in social and economic standards, but it became the first post-communist country to reach its pre-1989 GDP levels, which it achieved by 1995 largely thanks to its booming economy.[38][39]

Most visibly, there were numerous improvements in human rights, such as the freedom of speech, internet freedom (no censorship), civil liberties (1st class) and political rights (1st class), according to Freedom House. In 1991, Poland became a member of the Visegrád Group and joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance in 1999 along with the Czech Republic and Hungary. Poles then voted to join the European Union in a referendum in June 2003, with Poland becoming a full member on 1 May 2004. Poland joined the Schengen Area in 2007, as a result of which, the country's borders with other member states of the European Union have been dismantled, allowing for full freedom of movement within most of the EU.[40] In contrast to this, a section of Poland's eastern border now comprises the external EU border with Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. That border has become increasingly well protected, and has led in part to the coining of the phrase 'Fortress Europe', in reference to the seeming 'impossibility' of gaining entry to the EU for citizens of the former Soviet Union.

Poland has been one of the most prominent voices of establishing a common European Armed Forces, with Poland's Premier along with Chancellor Angela Merkel and President Francois Hollande (collectively also part of Weimar Triangle) taking steps to negotiate such a deal, in hope of drastically reducing dependence on NATO and increasing readiness. Poland has already built several commands of a common battle group with Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, with a total of 12,000 troops ready for deployment. Poland is seeking to build more battle groups with Lithuania and Ukraine. These battle groups have vowed to serve under the European Union, and not NATO. Eurosceptics criticize such moves as further unnecessary integration and a new major step towards a federalized European Union under one government. Military integration is judged to be the most significant step after a monetary union.

On 10 April 2010, the President of the Republic of Poland, Lech Kaczyński, along with 89 other high-ranking Polish officials died in a plane crash near Smolensk, Russia. The president's party were on their way to attend an annual service of commemoration for the victims of the Katyń massacre when the tragedy took place.

In 2011, the Presidency of the Council of the European Union responsible for the functioning of the Council was awarded to Poland. The same year parliamentary elections took place to both the Senate and the Sejm. They were won by the ruling Civic Platform. Poland joined European Space Agency in 2012, as well as organised the UEFA Euro 2012 (along with Ukraine). In 2013, Poland also became a member of the Development Assistance Committee. In 2014 the Prime Minister of Poland, Donald Tusk, was elected President of the European Council.

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