Place:Bayern, Germany

NameBayern
Alt namesBavaria
Bayernsource: Wikipedia
Free State of Bavariasource: Wikipedia
Freistaat Bayernsource: Wikipedia
TypeModern State, Former State
Coordinates48.5°N 11.5°E
Located inGermany
See alsoRheinhessen-Pfalz, Rheinland-Pfalz, GermanyChild
Contained Places
Unknown
Bingert
Rüdenhausen
Cemetery
Munich Waldfriedhof ( 1907 - )
District
Garmisch
Kaiserslautern
Fürstentum (principality)
Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach
General region
Hallertau
Pfalz
Historical region
Franken
Hohenlohe
Independent city
Frankenthal
Landau
Ludwigshafen
Pirmasens
Speyer
Inhabited place
Aibling
Alsenz
Annweiler
Bad Bergzabern
Bad Dürkheim
Bellheim
Bosenbach
Bundenthal
Burgkirchen am Wald
Dahn
Deidesheim
Edenkoben
Edesheim
Einöd
Elmstein
Enkenbach
Frankenstein
Freinsheim
Godramstein
Griesbach bei Dingolfing
Grünstadt
Hassloch
Herxheim
Hettenleidelheim
Hinter Weidenthal
Hochspeyer
Hornbach
Höchstädt
Impflingen
Jockgrim
Kandel
Kirchheimbolanden
Klingenmünster
Kulmain
Kusel
Lambrecht
Landstuhl
Lauterecken
Lindenberg bei Neustadt an der Weinstrasse
Marth
Martinsried
Mutterstadt
Neuburg an der Donau
Neupotz
Neustadt am Saale
Neustadt an der Aisch
Niederaltaich
Obermoschel
Oggersheim
Otterberg
Rhodt
Rinnthal
Rockenhausen
Rodalben
Rülzheim
Sachsen
Schifferstadt
Schopp
Schwegenheim
Schönbrunn
Stetten
Theilheim
Unterschleißheim
Unteruhldingen
Wachenheim
Waldfischbach
Waldmohr
Weilerbach
Winnweiler
Wolfstein
Municipality
Burgkirchen an der Alz
Eisenheim
Friedelsheim
Holzhausen
Minfeld
Neustadt an der Waldnaab
Rutsweiler am Glan
Rutsweiler an der Lauter
Simmershofen
Thaleischweiler
Weisenheim am Berg
Weisenheim am Sand
National district
Upper Palatinate
Place
Loeching
Regierungsbezirk
Mittelfranken
Niederbayern
Oberbayern
Oberfranken
Oberpfalz
Schwaben
Unterfranken
Rural district/district seat
Berchtesgaden
Town/district seat
Germersheim
Unknown
Aach
Abens
Achsheim
Adelhofen
Adelsberg
Adelshausen
Adelsried
Adenbach
Affalterbach
Affaltern
Agawang
Aich
Aichen
Aidhausen
Aidling
Ainau
Ainertshofen
Aitrang
Akams
Albaching
Albersbach
Albersweiler
Albertaich
Albeßen
Albisheim
Albsheim
Alesheim
Aletshausen
Allersheim
Alschbach
Alsenborn
Alsenbrück-Langmeil
Alsheim
Alsmoos
Alsterweiler
Altenbaindt
Altenbamberg
Altenglan
Altenkirchen
Altenmünster
Altenschneeberg
Altglashütten
Althegnenberg
Altheim
Althornbach
Altisheim
Altleiningen
Altmummen
Altrip
Altstadt
Altstädten
Altötting
Alzgern
Ambach
Amendingen
Amerdingen
Ammerndorf
Ampermoching
Anger
Anhausen
Anhofen
Anried
Antdorf
Anzing
Apfeldorf
Apfeltrach
Apfeltrang
Appenhofen
Appersdorf
Appertshofen
Arbing
Aretsried
Arnbach
Arrach
Arzheim
Aschach
Aschau
Aschbach
Asselheim
Assenheim
Attenhausen
Attenhofen
Auchsesheim
Auernhofen
Aufham
Aufhausen
Aufheim
Aufkirch
Aulzhausen
Autenried
Aying
Aystetten
Baalborn
Babensham
Bachern
Bachhagel
Bad Reichenhall
Baiern
Baiershofen
Baindlkirch
Baisweil
Ballhausen
Balzhausen
Bamberg
Bann
Barbelroth
Barthelmesaurach
Bastheim
Battenberg
Battweiler
Batzenhofen
Bayerdilling
Bayerfeld
Bayerniederhofen
Bayersried
Bayersried-Ursberg
Bayreuth
Bayrisch-Eisenstein
Baümemheim
Bebelsheim
Bebenhausen
Becherbach
Beckstetten
Bedernau
Bedesbach
Beeden-Schwarzenbach
Behlingen
Beiderwies
Beindersheim
Bellenberg
Belzheim
Bennhausen
Benningen
Berbling
Berg im Gau
Bergel
Bergen
Berghausen
Bergheim
Bergkirchen
Berneck
Bernhof
Bertholdsdorf
Bertoldsheim
Bertoldshofen
Berzweiler
Betlinshausen
Bettbrunn
Bettenhausen
Betzigau
Beuerbach
Beuern
Beuren
Biberach
Biberachzell
Biberbach
Biburg
Bidingen
Biebergau
Biedershausen
Biedesheim
Bierbach
Biesingen
Billenhausen
Billigheim
Billingsdorf
Bindersbach
Binswangen
Binzwangen
Birkenhördt
Birkhausen
Birkland
Birkweiler
Bischheim
Bischofsheim
Bischwind
Bisseroy
Bissersheim
Bisterschied
Bittenbrunn
Bitzenhofen
Blankenborn
Blaubach
Bledesbach
Blickweiler
Bliensbach
Bliesbergerhof
Bliesbolchen
Bliesdalheim
Blieskastel
Bliesmengen
Bliesmengen-Bolchen
Blumenthal
Blöcktach
Bobenheim am Berg
Bobenheim am Rhein
Bocksberg
Bolanden
Bollstadt
Bonnland
Bonsal
Bonstetten
Boos
Bornheim
Bottenbach
Boßweiler
Brackenlohr
Branchweilerhof
Brand
Brandenburg-Ansbach
Brandenburg-Onolzbach
Breitbrunn
Breitenbach
Breitenbronn
Breitenbrunn
Breitenthal
Breitfurt
Brenschelbach
Breunigweiler
Brodswinden
Bronnen
Bruchhof-Sanddorf
Bruchmühlbach
Bruchweiler-Bärenbach
Bruckberg
Brücken
Brünsee
Bubach
Bubenheim
Bubenreuth
Bubesheim
Buch am Wald
Buching
Bug
Bullenheim
Burgalben
Burgau
Burgberg
Burggen
Burghagel
Burgkundstadt
Burgmannshofen
Burk
Burlafingen
Burrweiler
Busenberg
Buttenwiesen
Bächingen an der Brenz
Bärenhütte
Bärnbach
Böbing
Böbingen
Böchingen
Böhen
Böhl
Böllenborn
Börrstadt
Börsborn
Bösenreutin
Büchelberg
Büchold
Bühl im Ries
Bühl
Bürglein
Bütthart
Cadolzburg
Callbach
Carlsberg
Castell
Chieming
Chiemsee
Christertshofen
Clausen
Colgenstein
Colmberg
Contwig
Cronenberg
Cölln
Dachsbach
Dackenheim
Daiting
Dammheim
Dannenfels
Dannstadt
Dansenberg
Darstein
Dattenhausen
Deffingen
Deggingen
Deimhausen
Deiningen
Deisenhausen
Deisenhofen
Dellfeld
Dennweiler-Frohnbach
Dentlein
Derching
Dernbach
Derndorf
Dettenschwang
Deubach
Deuringen
Dezenacker
Diedelkopf
Diedesfeld
Diedorf
Dielkirchen
Diemantstein
Diepolz
Dierbach
Dietenhofen
Dietersdorf
Dietershofen
Dietkirch
Dietrichingen
Dietschweiler
Dillishausen
Dimbach
Dinkelshausen
Dirlewang
Dirmstein
Disibodenbergerhof
Dittenheim
Dittweiler
Donsieders
Dornstadt
Dorschhausen
Dreisen
Druisheim
Drusweiler
Drößling
Duchroth-Oberhausen
Dudenhofen
Dunzweiler
Durach
Durrhausen
Dusenbrücken
Duttweiler
Döpshofen
Dörnbach
Dörrenbach
Dörrmoschel
Dösingen
Dünzelbach
Dürnbach
Dürnhausen
Dürrlauingen
Dürrwangen
Ebenhausen
Ebenhofen
Ebenried
Eberberg
Eberfing
Ebermergen
Ebernburg
Ebersbach
Ebershausen
Ebertshausen
Ebertsheim
Ebratshofen
Eching
Echsheim
Eckarts
Ecknach
Edelstetten
Edenhausen
Edenried
Edigheim
Edling
Egelhofen
Egenhofen
Egern
Egerndach
Egg
Eggelstetten
Eggenthal
Eggstätt
Eglfing
Egling
Egloffstein
Egmating
Ehrenberg
Ehweiler
Eichenhausen
Eichstock
Eichstätt
Eigelsberg
Einberg
Einsbach
Einselthum
Einsiedlerhof
Einöd-Ingweiler
Einöllen
Eiselfing
Eisenärzt
Eismerszell
Eitensheim
Elbach
Ellerbach
Ellerstadt
Ellgau
Ellhofen
Ellzee
Elpersdorf
Elsbeth
Elschbach
Elzweiler
Emersacker
Emershofen
Emertsham
Emmenhausen
Emmering
Endorf
Engelbrechtsmünster
Engelthal
Engetried
Engishausen
Enheim
Ensheim
Entraching
Epfach
Epfenhausen
Eppisburg
Eppishausen
Eppishofen
Eppstein
Erbach-Reiskirchen
Erbshausen
Erdesbach
Eresing
Eresried
Erfenbach
Erfweiler
Erfweiler-Ehlingen
Erharting
Erisried
Erlbach
Erling
Erlingshofen
Ermetzhofen
Ernfels
Ernhüll
Ernsgaden
Ernstweiler
Erpfting
Erpolzheim
Erzenhausen
Eschachthal
Eschbach
Eschenbach
Eschenfelden
Eschlbach
Eschringen
Essingen
Esthal
Etschberg
Ettelried
Ettenbeuren
Ettensberg
Etterschlag
Etzelwang
Euben
Euerdorf
Euernbach
Eulenbis
Eulenried
Eurishofen
Eutenhausen
Eutenhofen
Eußerthal
Evenhausen
Eyb
Eyrichshof
Eßweiler
Fahlenbach
Faimingen
Falkenstein
Fechheim
Fehrbach
Feichten
Feil
Feldheim
Feldkirchen Rott am Inn
Feldkirchen
Feldmoching
Fellheim
Fessenheim
Feuchtwangen
Finkenbach-Gersweiler
Finningen
Fischach
Fischbach
Flachslanden
Fleinhausen
Flemlingen
Flintsbach
Flomersheim
Forstinning
Forstkastl
Forth
Fraham
Frankelbach
Frankeneck
Frankenhofen
Frankenried
Frankweiler
Frauenberg
Frauenneuharting
Frauenriedhausen
Frauenstetten
Frauenzell
Frechenrieden
Freckenfeld
Freihalden
Freimersheim
Freinhausen
Freisbach
Friedelhausen
Frieding
Friesenheim
Fristingen
Frohnbach
Frohnhofen
Frommetsfelden
Fronhofen
Frutzweiler
Fuchsberg
Fußgönheim
Föching
Föckelberg
Fürholz
Fürnried
Gabelbach
Gabelbachergreut
Gaisthal
Gallenbach
Gambach
Gammelsdorf
Gandelfingen
Gangloff
Gannertshofen
Gansheim
Ganzesried
Gauersheim
Gaugrehweiler
Gebenhofen
Gebrontshausen
Gehrweiler
Geinsheim
Geiselberg
Geisenried
Geißlingen
Gelting
Gempfing
Genderkingen
Gennach
Geratskirchen
Gerbach
Geretshausen
Gerhardsbrunn
Gerhardshofen
Geroldshausen
Gerolfing
Gerolsheim
Gersheim
Gersweiler
Geslau
Gestratz
Giebing
Gimbsbach
Gimmeldingen-Lobloch
Ginsweiler
Gittenbach
Glan-Münchweiler
Gleiritsch
Gleisweiler
Gleiszellen-Gleishorbach
Glött
Gnodstadt
Godelhausen
Goldach
Goldbach
Gommersheim
Gonbach
Gosseltshausen
Gottmannshofen
Gottschall
Goßersweiler
Graben
Grafenreuth
Grafertshofen
Grafing
Grainet
Graisbach
Gremertshausen
Gremheim
Grethen
Grevenhausen
Gries
Griesbäckerzell
Griesstätt
Grimoldsried
Grimolzhausen
Großanhausen
Großbockenheim
Großbundenbach
Großfischlingen
Großgründlach
Großhabersdorf
Großhartpenning
Großhaslach
Großhausen
Großholzhausen
Großinzemoos
Großkarlbach
Großkarolinenfeld
Großkissendorf
Großkitzighofen
Großkötz
Großniedesheim
Großohrenbronn
Großsteinhausen
Gräfenhausen
Gräfenstein
Grünberg
Grünenbach
Grünenbaindt
Grünsberg
Grünthal
Gstadt
Gufflham
Gumbsweiler
Gundamsried
Gundelsdorf
Gundersweiler
Gundremmingen
Gunzesried
Gustenfelden
Gutenberg
Gutenbrunnen
Guttenberg
Göbelsbach
Göcklingen
Göllheim
Gönnheim
Görisried
Götting
Götzendorf
Güntersdorf
Güntersleben
Günz
Haardt
Habach
Haberskirch
Habkirchen
Hachenbach
Hadorf
Hafenhofen
Hafenreut
Hagau
Hagen
Hagenheim
Haiming
Haindlfing
Hainfeld
Hainhofen
Hallbergmoos
Hallgarten
Hambach
Hammel
Handzell
Hanhofen
Hannesried
Happurg
Hardenburg
Harmating
Hart
Hartpenning
Harxheim
Hasberg
Haschbach
Haselbach bei Kirchheim
Haslach
Haslangkreit
Hassel
Hatzenbühl
Hauenstein
Haunshofen
Haunswies
Hauptstuhl
Hausen bei Geltendorf
Hausen bei Hofhegernberg
Hawangen
Hayna
Haßmoning
Hebertshausen
Heckendalheim
Hefersweiler
Hegelhofen
Hegnenbach
Heidemuhl District
Heidigsfeld
Heilig Kreuz
Heiligenmoschel
Heiligenstein
Heimertingen
Heimkirchen
Heindlschlag
Heining
Heinrichsheim
Heinrichskirchen
Heinzenhausen
Helfendorf
Hellengerst
Heltersberg
Hemhausen
Hengstbach
Hennhofen
Herbertshofen
Herbitzheim
Herblingen
Herchweiler
Heretshausen
Heretsried
Hergensweiler
Hergersweiler
Hermersberg
Herrenstetten
Herretshofen
Herrnberchtheim
Herrnneuses
Herschberg
Herschweiler-Petersheim
Hertlingshausen
Herxheimweyher
Hettenbach
Heudorf
Heßheim
Hilgertshausen
Hilst
Hiltenfingen
Hiltersried
Hinzweiler
Hirblingen
Hirschbach
Hirschbrunn
Hirschenhausen
Hirschhorn
Hirschlach
Hirschthal
Hirschzell
Hirtlbach
Hochaltingen
Hochgreut
Hochstein
Hochstätt
Hochstätten
Hochwang
Hof
Hofhegnenberg
Hofstetten
Hofstätten
Hohenbercha
Hohenecken
Hohenried
Hohenstadt
Hohentrüdingen
Hohenzell
Hohenöllen
Holzgünz
Holzkirchen
Homburg
Honsolgen
Hoof
Hopfen
Hopfenohe
Hopferbach
Hoppingen
Horgau
Horschbach
Huberhof
Huglfing
Hundheim
Hurlach
Huttenwang
Häder
Höchen
Höfen
Högling
Höhenrain
Hördt
Hörgertshausen
Höringen
Hörstein
Hörzhausen
Höslwang
Hüffler
Hürben
Hütschenhausen
Iffeldorf
Igenhausen
Iggelheim
Illdorf
Illerberg
Illerbeuren
Illereichen-Altenstadt
Illerzell
Illschwang
Ilmmünster
Ilzstadt
Immeldorf
Immelstetten
Immenthal
Immesheim
Imsbach
Imsweiler
Inchenhofen
Ingenheim
Ingstetten
Inkofen
Inningen
Insheim
Ippesheim
Ipsheim
Irlach
Irsching
Irsingen
Issing
Ixheim
Jakobsweiler
Jarzt
Jedesheim
Jettenbach
Jetzendorf
Jochsberg
Junkenhofen
Jägersburg
Jägersdorf
Kadeltshofen
Kairlindach
Kalkofen
Kallstadt
Kammerberg
Kapellen-Drusweiler
Kapsweyer
Karlskron
Kasing
Kastl
Katzwalchen
Katzweiler
Kaubenheim
Kaulbach
Kay
Kemmoden
Kemnat
Kerzenheim
Ketterschwang
Kettershausen
Kicklingen
Kienberg
Kimratshofen
Kindenheim
Kindsbach
Kinsau
Kirchdorf a. Inn
Kirchenarnbach
Kirchenreinbach
Kirchensittenbach
Kirchensur
Kirchfembach
Kirchheim a. Eck
Kirchheim-Schwaben
Kirchmohr
Kirchschönbach
Kirkel-Neuhäusel
Kirrberg
Kirrweiler
Kleinaitingen
Kleinanhausen
Kleinbeuren
Kleinbockenheim
Kleinerdlingen
Kleinfischlingen
Kleinhaslach
Kleinkarlbach
Kleinkemnat
Kleinkissendorf
Kleinkitzighofen
Kleinkötz
Kleinniedesheim
Kleinottweiler
Kleinreichertshofen
Kleinsteinhausen
Kleinweiler
Klenau
Klimmach
Kling
Kloster Indersdorf
Klosterberg
Klosterbeuren
Knittelsheim
Knopp-Labach
Knottenried
Knöringen
Kobel
Kohlgrub
Kollbach
Kollweiler
Konken
Konradshofen
Konzenberg
Kottweiler-Schwanden
Kranzberg
Kreimbach
Kreuzholzhausen
Kreuzthal
Krickenbach
Kriegsfeld
Kriegshaber
Kronau
Kronburg
Krottelbach
Krähenberg
Kuhardt
Kulmbach-Bayreuth
Kutzenhausen
Käshofen
Köngetried
Könghausen
Könighausen
Königsbach
Königsfeld
Königshofen
Körborn
Kübelberg
Kühbörncheshof
Kühlenthal
Labach
Lachen
Lachen-Speyerdorf
Laimering
Lambach
Lambsborn
Lambsheim
Lamerdingen
Lampertshausen
Landesberg
Landschellenberg
Landsham
Landshausen
Langau
Langenbach
Langenhaslach
Langenmoosen
Langenpettenbach
Langenreichen
Langenstadt
Langerringen
Langheim
Langweid am Lech
Laub
Lauben
Lauchdorf
Laudenbach
Laugna
Laumersheim
Lauterbrunn
Lautersheim
Lautrach
Lautzkirchen
Lechhausen
Lechsend
Leeder
Leidling
Leidstahler Hube
Leimen
Leimersheim
Leinheim
Leinsweiler
Leistadt
Leitershofen
Leitheim
Lemberg
Lengenwang
Lenzfried
Leobendorf
Leopoldsreuth
Lettweiler
Leuchtenberg
Leutendorf
Leuterschach
Leuzenbronn
Lichtenau
Liebenthann
Liebsthal
Lind
Linden
Lingenfeld
Lohnsfeld
Lohnweiler
Loppenhausen
Lorenzreuth
Ludenhausen
Ludwigsmoos
Lug
Luthersbrunn
Lutzingen
Löffelsterz
Löpsingen
Lützelburg
Machtlfing
Mackenbach
Magnetsried
Maierhof
Maierhöfen
Maihingen
Maikammer-Alsterweiler
Mainstockheim
Maitenbeth
Mannweiler
Marbach
Margarethenberg
Margertshausen
Maria Rain
Maria Thann
Maria-Steinbach
Marienthal
Markt Indersdorf
Markt Wald
Marktoffingen
Marnbach
Marnheim
Martinsheim
Martinshöhe
Martinszell
Marxheim
Marzoll
Mattsies
Matzenbach
Mauchenheim
Maudach
Mauerstetten
Mauren
Mauschbach
Maxdorf
Maximiliansau
Maßbach
Mechtersheim
Meckenheim
Medelsheim
Mehlbach
Mehlingen
Mehring
Memhölz
Memmenhausen
Memmingerberg
Menning
Merching
Meringerau
Mertesheim
Merzalben
Messerschwanderhof
Meßhofen
Michelfeld
Mickhausen
Miesau
Miesenbach
Mimbach
Mindelaltheim
Mindelau
Mindelstetten
Mindelzell
Minderoffingen
Missen
Mistelfeld
Mittbach
Mittelbach
Mittelbexbach
Mittelbrunn
Mitteldachstetten
Mittelneufnach
Mittelsinn
Mittelstetten
Mitten
Mitterfels
Mittergars
Mitterndorf
Modelshausen
Mohrenhausen
Moosach
Moosbach
Moosham
Morbach
Morlautern
Morschheim
Mundenheim
Mundharterhof
Munningen
Munzingen
Muschenried
Muthmannshofen
Mußbach
Mödingen
Mödishofen
Mögeldorf
Mölschbach
Mömlingen
Mönchsondheim
Mörgen
Mörlheim
Mörsbach
Mörsbrunn
Mörsch
Mörsfeld
Mörslingen
Mörzheim
Mühlheim
Mühlhofen
Mühlried
München und Freising
Münchsmünster
Münsterappel
Münsterhausen
Nanzdietschweiler
Nanzdiezweiler
Nanzweiler
Nassenbeuren
Nattenhausen
Neidenfels
Neidstein
Nerzweiler
Neubeuern
Neuburg Kammel
Neuburg am Rhein
Neuhaus am Inn
Neuhausen
Neuhemsbach
Neuhofen
Neuhäusel
Neukirchen a. Alz
Neuleiningen
Neumünster
Neunburg
Neunkirchen am Sand
Neunkirchen
Neuschenau
Neuses a. Berg
Neusitz
Neusäß
Niederaichbach
Niederaschau
Niederaudorf
Niederauerbach
Niederbexbach
Niederdorf
Niedergailbach
Niederhochstadt
Niederhorbach
Niederlustadt
Niedermiesau
Niedermohr
Niedermoschel
Niedermurach
Niederohmbach
Niederotterbach
Niederraunau
Niederrieden
Niederroth
Niederschlettenbach
Niederschönenfeld
Niederstaufen
Niederstaufenbach
Niederstimm
Niederthann
Niederwerrn
Niederwürzbach
Niefernheim
Niklasreuth
Nothweiler
Nottersdorf
Notzing
Nunzenried
Nußbach
Nußdorf am Inn
Nußdorf
Nünschweiler
Obenhausen
Oberalben
Oberalterheim
Oberalting
Oberappersdorf
Oberarnbach
Oberbaar
Oberbechingen
Oberbergen
Oberbernbach
Oberbeuren
Oberbexbach
Oberdachstetten
Oberdießen
Obere Reismühle
Oberegg
Oberelchingen
Oberempfenbach
Oberfahlheim
Oberfinning
Oberfinningen
Oberfischbach
Obergermaringen
Obergessertshausen
Obergriesbach
Oberhaunstadt
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Zillham
Zirgesheim
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source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The Free State of Bavaria (, , , Main-Franconian: Freischdood Bayan) is a state of Germany, located in the southeast. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany. Bavaria is Germany's second most populous state (after North Rhine-Westphalia), with 12.5 million inhabitants. Bavaria's capital and largest city is Munich, the third largest city in Germany.

The oldest uninterruptedly existing state of Europe, it was established as a duchy in the mid first millennium. In the 17th century, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918, and Bavaria has since been a free state (republic). Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps, originally inhabited by the Celts, which had been part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, probably did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Marcomanni, Allemanni, Quadi, Thuringians, Goths, Scirians, Rugians, Heruli. The name "Bavarian" ("Baiuvarii") means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and later of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources c. 520. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early-8th century. Bavaria was, for the most part, unaffected by the Protestant Reformation that happened centuries later.

From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III who was deposed by Charlemagne.

Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555. Their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.

After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy (it is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time). His son, Theudebert, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hucbert.

At Hucbert's death (735) the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia (modern southwest Germany and northern Switzerland). Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organisation in partnership with St. Boniface (739), and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo. He was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748.

Middle Ages

Tassilo III (b. 741 - d. after 796) succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria. He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in 788. The deposition was not entirely legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback, and the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources and he probably died a monk. As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty.


For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east. Among them a mark called "Ostarrichi" which was elevated to a duchy out of own right and given to the Babenberger family. This event marks the birth of Austria. The last, and one of the most important, of these dukes was Henry the Lion of the house of Welf, founder of Munich, de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies. When in 1180, Henry the Lion was deposed as Duke of Saxony and Bavaria by his cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (aka "Barbarossa" for his red beard), Bavaria was awarded as fief to the Wittelsbach family, counts palatinate of Schyren ("Scheyern" in modern German), which set about to rule for 738 years, from 1180 to 1918 that is to say. The Electorate of the Palatinate by Rhine ("Kurpfalz" in German) was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach in 1214.

The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in 1255. With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in 1268 also Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes. Emperor Louis the Bavarian acquired Brandenburg, Tirol, Holland and Hainaut for his House but released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. In 1506 with the Landshut War of Succession the other parts of Bavaria were reunited and Munich became the sole capital.

17th and 18th centuries

In 1623 the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire, determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws. The country became one of the Jesuit supported counter-reformation centers. During the early and mid-18th century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria (Spanish succession, election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger). From 1777 onwards and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph, Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union, now by the Palatinian lines. The new state also comprised the Duchies of Jülich and Berg as these on their part were in personal union with the Palatinate.

Kingdom of Bavaria

When Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire, Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806, and its area doubled after ceding Duchy of Julich to France, dividing of Electorate Palatinate between France and Grand Duchy of Baden and giving Duchy of Berg to Jerome Bonaparte. Tirol was temporarily united, Salzburg temporarily reunited with Bavaria but finally ceded to Austria. In return the Rhenish Palatinate and Franconia were annexed to Bavaria in 1815. Between 1799 and 1817 the leading minister, Count Montgelas followed a strict policy of modernisation and laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived even the monarchy and are (in their core) valid until today. In 1808 a first and in 1818 a more modern constitution (by the standards of the time) was passed, that established a bicameral Parliament with a House of Lords (Kammer der Reichsräte) and a House of Commons (Kammer der Abgeordneten). The constitution would last until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.

Bavaria as a part of the German Empire

After the rise of Prussia to prominence Bavaria managed to preserve its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria. Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War and did not belong to the North German Federation of 1867, but the question of German unity was still alive. When France attacked Prussia in 1870, the south German states Baden, Württemberg, Hessen-Darmstadt and Bavaria joined the Prussian forces and ultimately joined the Federation, which was renamed Deutsches Reich (German Empire) in 1871. Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it even had some special rights within the federation (such as an army, railways and a postal service of its own).

When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire it was very controversial to Bavarian nationalists who rejected the idea that Bavaria should have joined the German Empire. They did not want to be ruled by a Protestant Prussian state, as Bavaria is primarily Catholic. As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud within the German Empire many parties were formed to try and make Bavaria break away and remain an independent separate German state. Although the idea of Bavarian separatism was popular in the late 19th and early 20th century, apart from a small minority such as the Bavaria Party, most Bavarians are accepting that Bavaria is part of Germany.

In the early-20th century Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Henrik Ibsen, and other notable artists were drawn to Bavaria, notably to the Schwabing district of Munich, later devastated by World War II.

20th century

On 12 November 1918, Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration, releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly formed republican government of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner interpreted this as an abdication. To date, however, no member of the house of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. On the other hand, none has ever since officially called upon their Bavarian or Stuart claims. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, HRH Duke Franz in Bavaria. They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by HRH's presence or absence.

Eisner was assassinated in February 1919 ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Socialist Republic being proclaimed 6 April 1919. After violent suppression by elements of the German Army and notably the Freikorps, the Bavarian Socialist Republic fell in May 1919. The Bamberg Constitution was enacted on 12 or 14 August 1919 and came into force on 15 September 1919 creating the Free State of Bavaria within the Weimar Republic. Extremist activity further increased, notably the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch led by the National Socialists, and Munich and Nuremberg became Nazi strongholds under the Third Reich. As a manufacturing centre, Munich was heavily bombed during World War II and occupied by U.S. troops.

The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in 1946 and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate. During the Cold War, Bavaria was part of West Germany. In 1949 The Landtag of Bavaria rejected to ratify the Basic Law of Germany mainly because it was seen as not granting sufficient powers to the individual Länder, but at the same time decided that it would still come into force in Bavaria if two-thirds of the other Länder ratified it.

Bavarian identity

Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second. This feeling started to come about more strongly among Bavarians when the Kingdom of Bavaria joined the Protestant Prussian-dominated German Empire while the Bavarian nationalists wanted to keep Bavaria as Catholic and an independent state. Aside from the minority Bavaria Party, most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany. Another consideration is that Bavarians foster different cultural identities: the northern part (Franconia), speaking central German dialects, is different from Altbayern (so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria before the accquistions through the Vienna Congress, nowadays the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria) and Swabia in the south, where Upper German is spoken. Munich is a cosmopolitan city, where the Old Bavarian dialect is getting close to extinction among those under 25.

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