Salzburg (; Austro-Bavarian: Såizburg; ) is a state (Land) of Austria. It is officially named Land Salzburg, colloquially Salzburgerland, to distinguish it from its eponymous capital, the City of Salzburg. By its centuries-long history as an independent Prince-Bishopric, Salzburg's tradition differs from the other Austrian lands.
Salt has played an important role in the region's development; Salzburg means "salt castle".
Salzburg as an independent country
Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an independent prince-bishopric and State of the Holy Roman Empire until German Mediatisation in 1813.
Electorate of Salzburg
The end of the independence
Following the Austrian defeat at Austerlitz in 1805, Salzburg was annexed by Austria as compensation for the loss of Tyrol to the Kingdom of Bavaria, and Ferdinand was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.
After Austria's defeat in 1809, the province was handed over to Bavaria in 1810.
The country divided between Bavaria and Austria
In 1816, following the defeat of Napoleon and the provision of adequate compensation to Bavaria at the Congress of Vienna, it was returned to Austria with the exception of the north-western 'Rupertigau' which remained Bavarian. The Salzburger Land was administered as the department of Salzach from Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. In 1849 the Duchy of Salzburg was established as a crown land of the Austrian Empire and, after 1866, Austria-Hungary.
World War I
Salzburg participated in World War I, as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. 49,000 Salzburgers were called to arms, of whom 6,000 were killed.
Post-World War I Austrian Republics
In 1918 after World War I, the Duchy of Salzburg was dissolved and replaced with the State of Salzburg, as a component part initially of German Austria and subsequently of the First Republic of Austria, the separate state which was mandated by the Allied powers. (However, in the November Plebiscite 99% of Salzburgers voted in favor of union with Germany.)
Salzburg in Germany
After the plebiscite of 1938, Salzburg and all the territory of Austria was annexed to the Third Reich.
After the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the Allies occupied the territory of Austria, being recognised as an independent territory under their rule. Salzburgerland was occupied by the United States.
Salzburg as an Austrian State
In 1955 Austria was declared independent of the Allies and Salzburg was once again one of the reconstituted federal-states of the second Republik Österreich.