Place:Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Watchers
NameSchleswig-Holstein
Alt namesSchleswig Holsteinsource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1984)
TypeModern State
Coordinates53.75°N 10.0°E
Located inGermany     (1946 - )
See alsoSchleswig-Holstein, Preußen, GermanyParent
Contained Places
Deserted settlement
Hedeby
District
Dithmarschen
Leck
Niebüll
Nordfriesland
Ostholstein
Pinneberg
Plön
Rendsburg-Eckernförde
Schleswig-Flensburg
Segeberg
Steinburg
Stormarn
Duchy
Lauenburg ( 1945 - )
Former district
Holstein
General region
Wagrien
Independent city
Flensburg ( 1150 - )
Kiel ( 800 - )
Lübeck
Neumünster ( 1000 - )
Inhabited place
Ahrensbök
Altenholz
Altenkrempe
Appen
Arnis
Ascheberg
Bad Bramstedt
Bad Schwartau
Bannesdorf
Barkelsby
Barmstedt
Blekendorf
Born
Bornhöved
Bosau
Braderup
Brande-Hörnerkirchen
Bredstedt
Breitenfelde
Brokdorf
Brunsbüttel
Brunsbüttelkoog
Burg
Busdorf
Böklund
Büchen
Büdelsdorf
Bünningstedt
Büsum
Cismar
Damp
Dannewerk
Dersau
Diekhof
Dollerup
Dollrott
Dänisch Nienhof
Eggebek
Elisabeth-Sophien-Koog
Elmshorn
Emkendorf
Emmelsbüll-Horsbüll
Erfde
Fagel
Fleckeby
Fockbek
Friedrichstadt
Garding
Garstedt
Geesthacht
Gelting
Gettorf
Glashütte
Gleschendorf
Glücksburg
Glückstadt
Gottorp ( 500 - )
Gremersdorf
Gross Gladbrügge
Gross Gronau
Gross Hansdorf
Gross-Kollmar
Gross-Sarau
Gross-Wittensee
Grossenbrode
Grossendorf
Grossensee
Grossenwiehe
Grube
Grömitz
Grönwohld
Gudow
Göhl
Güby
Halstenbek
Harrislee
Hartenholm
Hattstedt
Heikendorf
Heiligenhafen
Henstedt-Ulzburg
Heringsdorf
Herreninsel
Hohwacht
Hoisdorf
Hollingstedt
Horst
Idstedt
Jagel
Jörlfeld
Kaltenkirchen
Kappeln
Kastorf
Kellenhusen
Klausdorf
Klein Gladbrügge
Klixbüll
Kopperby
Kosel
Kraksdorf
Krempe
Kronshagen
Kropp
Krummbek
Krummendiek
Kupfermühle
Laboe
Landkirchen
Langenhorn
Lensahn
Lindau
Loose
Lund
Lunden
Lägerdorf
Lütjenburg
Lütjensee
Maasholm
Malente
Marienwolde
Marne
Meldorf
Moorrege
Munkbrarup
Münstertal
Neukirchen
Neumühle
Neustadt in Holstein
Nieblum
Niedermarschacht
Niendorf
Noer
Norderstapel
Nortorf
Ockholm
Oeversee
Oldenburg in Holstein
Oldenburg
Oldenswort
Orth
Osterrönefeld
Osterwohld
Panker
Petersdorf
Preetz
Puttgarden
Pönitz
Quarnbek
Quickborn
Raisdorf
Rantzau
Rastorf
Ratekau
Reinfeld
Rellingen
Rettin
Rickling
Rieseby
Risum-Lindholm
Russee
Sandesneben
Sankt Peter-Oring
Satrup
Scharbeutz
Schenefeld
Schierensee
Schleswig
Schmalfeld
Schnakenbek
Schobüll
Schuby
Schwabstedt
Schwarzenbek
Schwedeneck
Schönberg
Schönberger Strand
Schönhagen
Schönkirchen
Schönningstedt
Schönwalde
Seebüll
Seedorf
Selent
Sielbeck
Sierksdorf
Sieverstedt
Stadum
Stapelfeld
Sterup
Stockelsdorf
Stocksee
Strande
Surendorf
Sörup
Süderbrarup
Süderlügum
Sülfeld
Sünderup
Süsel
Tarp
Tating
Tesperhude
Thumby
Timmendorfer Strand
Tornesch
Trappenkamp
Treia
Tremsbüttel
Uetersen
Utersum
Waabs
Wacken
Wahlstedt
Wallsbüll
Wanderup
Wangels
Wankendorf
Warder
Weddingstedt
Wedel
Weesby
Wentorf
Westerland
Wewelsfleth
Wilster
Wohlde
Wyk
Municipality
Hamdorf
Parish
Lübeck
Wesenberg
Peninsula
Angeln
Schwansen
Region
Holsteinische Schweiz
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the sixteen states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck, Flensburg and Neumünster.

The former English name was Sleswick-Holsatia, the Danish name is Slesvig-Holsten, the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, and the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig) in Denmark.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon, Holseta Land, meaning "the land of those who dwell in the wood" (Holz and Holt mean wood in modern Standardised German and in literary English respectively). Originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the Elbe river, Tedmarsgoi, Holstein, and Sturmarii. The area of the Holstein was between the Stör river and Hamburg, and after Christianization their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811 the northern frontier of Holstein (and thus the Empire) was marked by the river Eider.

The term Schleswig takes its name from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet or settlement in Old Saxon and Old Norse. The name is similar to the place-names ending in the "-wick" or "-wich" element along the coast in the United Kingdom.

The Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was originally an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg.

Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, or have been virtually independent of both nations. The exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein, the Duke of Saxony. Essentially, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721 all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, and the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, and consequently Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark.

The German national awakening following the Napoleonic Wars led to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. However, this development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig. It called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would not only give rights to all Danes, i.e., not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes (and Germans) living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig since the dominant language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the 19th century.

A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen, since it was a well-known fact that the political élite of Holstein had been far more conservative than Copenhagen's. This proved to be true, as the politicians of Holstein demanded that the Constitution of Denmark be scrapped — not only in Schleswig but also in Denmark. They also demanded that Schleswig immediately follow Holstein and become a member of the German Confederation, and eventually a part of the new united Germany. These demands were rejected and in 1848 the Germans of Holstein and Southern Schleswig rebelled. This was the beginning of the First Schleswig War (1848–51) which ended in a Danish victory at Idstedt.

In 1863, conflict broke out again as King Frederick VII of Denmark died leaving no heir. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would now pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg (the future King Christian IX); the crown of Holstein was considered to be more problematic. This decision was challenged by a rival pro-German branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg who demanded, as in 1848, the crowns of both Schleswig and Holstein. The passing of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 then gave Otto von Bismarck a chance to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig which ended in a Danish defeat. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, and Denmark lost Schleswig (Northern and Southern Schleswig), Holstein, and Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria.

Following the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, section five of the Peace of Prague stated that the people in Northern Schleswig should be granted the right to a referendum on whether they would remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule. This promise was never fulfilled by Prussia.

Following the defeat of Germany in World War I, the Allied powers arranged a plebiscite in northern and central Schleswig. In Northern Schleswig (10 February 1920) 75% voted for reunification with Denmark and 25% voted for Germany. In central Schleswig (14 March 1920) the results were reversed; 80% voted for Germany and just 20% for Denmark, primarily in Flensburg. No vote ever took place in the southern third of Schleswig, although it was planned. For the referendum under authority of an international commission (CIS, Commission Internationale de Surveillance du Plébiscite au Slesvig) two (primarily three) election-zones were created. Primarily three zones were planned, Zone III should involve the rest of Southern Schleswig. Denmark passed on an election in this zone. Just the votes for the whole zone were crucial, not the dissenting votes in a single Kreis (district) or city:

Electorate German name Danish name For Germany For Denmark
percent votes percent votes
Zone I (Northern Schleswig), 10 February 1920 25.1 %25,329 74.9 % 75,431
District of Hadersleben Haderslev 16.0% 6,585 84.0% 34,653
Town of Hadersleben Haderslev 38.6% 3,275 61.4% 5,209
District of Apenrade Aabenraa 32.3% 6,030 67.7% 12,653
Town of Apenrade Aabenraa 55.1% 2,725 44.9% 2,224
District of Sonderburg Sønderborg 22.9% 5,083 77.1% 17,100
Town of Sonderburg Sønderborg 56.2% 2,601 43.8 %2,029
Town of Augustenburg Augustenborg 48.0% 236 52.0% 256
Northern part of District of Tondern Tønder 40.9% 7,083 59.1% 10,223
Town of Tondern Tønder 76.5% 2,448 23.5% 750
Town of Hoyer Højer 72.6% 581 27.4% 219
Town of Lügumkloster Løgumkloster 48.8% 516 51.2% 542
Northern part of District of Flensburg Flensborg 40.6% 548 59.4% 802
Zone II (Central Schleswig), 14 March 192080.2 % 51,74219.8 %12,800
Southern part of District of Tondern Tønder 87.9% 17,283 12.1% 2,376
Southern part of District of Flensburg Flensborg 82.6% 6,688 17.4% 1,405
Town of Flensburg Flensborg 75.2% 27,081 24.8% 8,944
Northern part of District of Husum Husum 90.0% 672 10.0% 75

On 15 June 1920, Northern Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. The Danish/German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I which was never challenged by Adolf Hitler.

In 1937, the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz), where the nearby Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg was expanded, to encompass towns that had formally belonged to the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. To compensate Prussia for these losses (and partly because Hitler had a personal dislike for Lübeck), the 711-year-long independence of the Hansestadt Lübeck came to an end, and almost all its territory was incorporated into Schleswig-Holstein.

After the World War II, the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein came under British occupation. On 23 August 1946, the Military Government abolished the province and reconstituted it as a separate Land.

Because of the forced migrations of Germans in 1944 to 1950, the population of Schleswig-Holstein increased by 33 percent (860,000 people).

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