Place:Maharashtra, India

Watchers


NameMaharashtra
Alt namesGreat Nationsource: Wikipedia
Mahārāshtrasource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeState
Coordinates19.5°N 75.0°E
Located inIndia     (1960 - )
Contained Places
District
Ahmednagar
Akola
Amravati
Aurangabad
Beed
Belgaum
Bhandara
Buldhana
Chandrapur
Dhule
Gadchiroli
Gondia
Hingoli
Jalna
Kolhapur
Mumbai City
Mumbai suburban
Nagpur
Nanded
Nandurbar
Nashik
Osmanabad
Parbhani
Pune
Raigad
Ratnagiri
Sangli
Satara
Sindhudurg
Solapur
Thane
Wardha
Washim
Yavatmal
Inhabited place
Achalpur ( 1000 - )
Adai
Adauli
Afaspida
Agasan
Airoli
Ajanta
Akalkot
Akot
Akurli
Alandi
Alibag
Amalner
Amarnāth
Ambajogai
Amboshe
Anjangaon
Argaon
Armori
Arvi
Ashta
Aundh
Badlapur
Badnera
Balapur
Bale
Ballālpur
Bambāvi
Baramati
Barsi
Basmat
Belapurpāda
Belpāda
Bhaja
Bhal
Bhendkhal
Bhilkati
Bhimashankar
Bhiwandi
Bhokardan
Bhopar
Bhusawal
Bhutali
Bir
Bokad
Bonsari
Buldana
Burdul
CBD Belapur
Chal
Chalisgaon
Chikhli
Chincholi
Chirad
Chirle
Chopda
Chāndvad
Dabhol
Damotapāda
Darave
Darwha
Daryāpur
Dativli
Daule
Daund
Dayghar
Dehu
Deolali
Deūlgaon Rāja
Dhansar
Dharangaon
Dharmābād
Dhārni
Dighode
Diglur
Digras
Diva
Dive
Dombivli
Dondaicha
Dwarli
Eirauli
Ellora ( 200 - )
Funde
Gangapur
Ganpatipule
Gethaoli
Ghafe
Ghansoli
Ghesar
Ghārāpuri
Gokak
Gāvanpāda
Harnai
Hedutne
Hinganghat
Ichalkaranji
Igatpuri
Jalgaon
Jasai
Jaskhar
Jui
Kalamb
Kalamboli
Kalhe
Kalyan
Kalyan-Dombivali
Kannad
Kanpoli
Kantalvi
Karad
Karanja
Karave
Karjat
Karli
Karmala
Kashid
Katai
Katol
Kausa
Khairna
Khamgaon
Khandala
Khed
Khoni
Khārghar
Kirkee
Kirloskarwadi
Kopar Khairane
Kopargaon
Koparkhairna
Koparpāda
Kopri
Koyna Nagar
Kurduvadi
Kālundri
Kālva
Kāmthi
Latur
Lonar
Lonavala
Lonāvale
Mahabaleshwar
Mahabaleswar
Mahad
Mahape
Mahur
Malegaon
Malkapur
Malvan
Mangalvedha
Mangrul Pir
Manmad
Manwat
Matheran
Mehekar
Mhasvad
Miraj
Mora
Morsi
Mukhed
Mul
Mumbai
Mumbra
Murtajapur
Murud
Nandura
Nanoshi
Narayangaon
Narhan
Nashik Road
Naude
Navi Mumbai
Navāpur
Nerul
Nerur
Nevali
New Panvel
Nitalas
Nāndgaon
Owe
Pachora
Padeghar
Padghe
Padle
Pagote
Palghar
Panchavati
Panchgani
Pandharpur
Panje
Panvel
Parli Vaijnāth
Patipāda
Patur
Pauni
Pavne
Pendhar
Phaltan
Pimpri
Pisarve
Pulgaon
Pusad
Pāndharkawada
Pārgaon
Pārola
Pātnoli
Rahimatpur
Rajapur
Ramtek
Ravalgaon
Raver
Rohinjan
Rānsai
Rānvād
Sabe
Sagaon
Sakoli
Sakri
Sangamner
Sanpāda
Saoner
Sarsol
Satana
Selghar
Sendhwa
Sendurjana
Sevagram
Shahpur
Shegaon
Shet Bandar
Sheva Nhava
Sheva
Shil
Shiraone
Shirpur
Sholapur
Shāhābād
Sinnar
Sonari
Srivardhan
Srīrampur
Sāngole
Sāngurli
Sāvantvādi
Taloda
Taloje
Tasgaon
Thākurvādi
Tondhre
Tumsar
Turambhe
Turbhe
Udgi
Ulhasnagar
Ulva
Umargān
Umbroli
Umrer
Uran
Urun-Islāmpur
Vaijapur
Vaklan
Vala Ull
Valap
Vani
Vasai
Vasai-Virar
Vasar
Vashi
Velapāda
Vengurla
Vite
Vādi
Wani
Warud
Yeola
Yeshvi
Yāval
Region
Berar
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India. It is the second most populous state after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state in India, contributing 15% of the country's industrial output and 13.3% of its GDP (2006–2007 figures).

Maharashtra is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Gujarat and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the northwest, Madhya Pradesh to the north and northeast, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the south, Andhra Pradesh to the southeast and Goa to the southwest. The state covers an area of or 9.84% of the total geographical area of India. Mumbai, the capital city of the state, is India's largest city and the financial capital of the nation. Maharashtra is the world's second most populous first-level administrative country sub-division. Were it a nation in its own right, Maharashtra would be the world's twelfth most populous country ahead of Philippines.

In the 16th century, the Marathas rose under the leadership of Shivaji against the Mughals, who ruled a large part of India. By 1760, the Maratha Empire had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent. After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the empire ended and most of Maharashtra became part of Bombay State under the British Raj. After Indian independence, Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti demanded unification of all Marathi-speaking regions under one state. At that time, Babasaheb Ambedkar was of the opinion that linguistic reorganisation of states should be done on a "One state – One language" principle and not on a "One language – One state" principle. He submitted a memorandum to the reorganisation commission stating that a "single government can not administer such a huge state as United Maharashtra". The first state reorganisation committee created the current Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960 (known as Maharashtra Day). The Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, Deccan states and Vidarbha (which was part of Central Provinces and Berar) united, under the agreement known as Nagpur Pact, to form the current state.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The Nashik Gazetteer states that in 246 BC Maharashtra is mentioned as one of the places to which Mauryan emperor Asoka sent an embassy, and it is recorded in a Chalukyan inscription of 580 CE as including three provinces and 99,000 villages. The name Maharashtra also appeared in a 7th-century inscription and in the account of a Chinese traveller, Hiuen-Tsang.[1] In 90 AD Vedishri, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, thirty miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom. It was also ruled by Kharavela, Satavahana dynasty, Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Vakataka, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, and Western Chalukya before Yadava rule. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the 4th and 3rd century BC. Around 230 BCE Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty which ruled the region for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. The Chalukya dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the 6th century to the 8th century and the two prominent rulers were Pulakesi II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha and Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the 8th century. The Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the 8th to the 10th century. The Arab traveler Sulaiman called the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Amoghavarsha) as "one of the 4 great kings of the world". From the early 11th century to the 12th century the Deccan Plateau was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Somesvara I and Vikramaditya VI.

In the early 14th century the Yadava dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Later, Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, and temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughlaqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate, in 1518, Maharashtra split into and was ruled by five Deccan Sultanates: namely Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Berar. These kingdoms often fought amongst each other. United, they decisively defeated the Vijayanagara Empire of the south in 1565. Also present area of Mumbai was ruled by Sultanate of Gujarat before capturing by Portugal in 1535 and Faruqi dynasty ruled Khandesh region between 1382 and 1601 before Mughal annexation. Malik Ambar was the regent of the Nizamshahi dynasty of Ahmednagar from 1607 to 1626. During this period he increased the strength and power of Murtaza Nizam Shah and raised a large army. Malik Ambar is said to be the one of proponent of guerilla warfare in the Deccan region. Malik Ambar assisted Shah Jahan wrestle power in Delhi from his stepmother, Nur Jahan, who had ambitions of seating her son-in-law on the throne.


By the early 17th century, Shahaji Bhosale, an ambitious local general in the service of the Mughals and Adil Shah of Bijapur, attempted to establish his independent rule. His son Shivaji succeeded in establishing Maratha Empire which was further expanded by Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Holkar of Indore, Scindia of Gwalior and Peshwas (prime ministers). The Marathas defeated the Mughals, and conquered large territories in Northern and Central parts of the Indian subcontinent. After the defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Maratha restored their supremacy and ruled central and north India including New Delhi till the end of the eighteenth century. The Third Anglo-Maratha war (1817–1818) led to the end of the Maratha Empire and East India Company ruled the country in 1819.

The British governed the region as part of the Bombay Presidency, which spanned an area from Karachi in Pakistan to northern Deccan. A number of the Maratha states persisted as princely states, retaining autonomy in return for acknowledging British suzerainty. The largest princely states in the territory of present-day Maharashtra were Nagpur, Satara and Kolhapur; Satara was annexed to Bombay Presidency in 1848, and Nagpur was annexed in 1853 to become Nagpur Province, later part of the Central Provinces. Berar, which had been part of the Nizam of Hyderabad's kingdom, was occupied by the British in 1853 and annexed to the Central Provinces in 1903. However, a large part of present-day Maharashtra, called Marathwada, remained part of the Nizam's Hyderabad State throughout the British period. The British rule was marked by social reforms and an improvement in infrastructure as well as revolts due to their discriminatory policies. At the beginning of the 20th century, the struggle for independence took shape led by extremists like Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and the moderates like Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Pherozeshah Mehta and Dadabhai Naoroji. In 1942, the Quit India Movement was called by Gandhi which was marked by a non-violent civil disobedience movement and strikes in the region. The ultimatum to the British to "Quit India" was given in Mumbai, and culminated in the transfer of power and the independence of India in 1947. BG Kher was the first Chief Minister of the tri-lingual Bombay Presidency.

After India's independence, the Deccan States, including Kolhapur were integrated into Bombay State, which was created from the former Bombay Presidency in 1950. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act reorganised the Indian states along linguistic lines, and Bombay Presidency State was enlarged by the addition of the predominantly Marathi-speaking regions of Marathwada (Aurangabad Division) from erstwhile Hyderabad state and Vidarbha region from the Central Provinces and Berar. Also, southernmost part of Bombay State was ceded to Mysore one. From 1954–1955 the people of Maharashtra strongly protested against bilingual Bombay state and Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti under the leadership of Dr. Gopalrao Khedkar was formed. Mahagujarat Movement was also started for separate Gujarat state. Gopalrao Khedkar, S.M. Joshi, S.A. Dange, P.K. Atre and other leaders fought for a separate state of Maharashtra with Mumbai as its capital. On 1 May 1960, following mass protests and sacrifice of 105 human lives the separate Marathi-speaking state was formed by dividing earlier Bombay state into new states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The demand of the local people of merging some of the Marathi speaking areas of Karnataka namely Belgaum, Karwar and Nipani is still pending.

Research Tips


This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Maharashtra. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.