Place:Maharashtra, India

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NameMaharashtra
Alt namesGreat Nationsource: Wikipedia
Mahārāshtrasource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeState
Coordinates19.5°N 75.0°E
Located inIndia     (1960 - )
Contained Places
District
Ahmednagar
Akola
Amravati
Aurangabad
Beed
Belgaum
Bhandara
Buldhana
Chandrapur
Dhule
Gadchiroli
Gondia
Hingoli
Jalna
Kolhapur
Mumbai City
Mumbai suburban
Nagpur
Nanded
Nandurbar
Nashik
Osmanabad
Parbhani
Pune
Raigad
Ratnagiri
Sangli
Satara
Sindhudurg
Solapur
Thane
Wardha
Washim
Yavatmal
Inhabited place
Achalpur ( 1000 - )
Adai
Adauli
Afaspida
Agasan
Airoli
Ajanta
Akalkot
Akot
Akurli
Alandi
Alibag
Amalner
Amarnāth
Ambajogai
Amboshe
Anjangaon
Argaon
Armori
Arvi
Ashta
Aundh
Badlapur
Badnera
Balapur
Bale
Ballālpur
Bambāvi
Baramati
Barsi
Basmat
Belapurpāda
Belpāda
Bhaja
Bhal
Bhendkhal
Bhilkati
Bhimashankar
Bhiwandi
Bhokardan
Bhopar
Bhusawal
Bhutali
Bir
Bokad
Bonsari
Buldana
Burdul
CBD Belapur
Chal
Chalisgaon
Chikhli
Chincholi
Chirad
Chirle
Chopda
Chāndvad
Dabhol
Damotapāda
Darave
Darwha
Daryāpur
Dativli
Daule
Daund
Dayghar
Dehu
Deolali
Deūlgaon Rāja
Dhansar
Dharangaon
Dharmābād
Dhārni
Dighode
Diglur
Digras
Diva
Dive
Dombivli
Dondaicha
Dwarli
Eirauli
Ellora ( 200 - )
Funde
Gangapur
Ganpatipule
Gethaoli
Ghafe
Ghansoli
Ghesar
Ghārāpuri
Gokak
Gāvanpāda
Harnai
Hedutne
Hinganghat
Ichalkaranji
Igatpuri
Jalgaon
Jasai
Jaskhar
Jui
Kalamb
Kalamboli
Kalhe
Kalyan
Kalyan-Dombivali
Kannad
Kanpoli
Kantalvi
Karad
Karanja
Karave
Karjat
Karli
Karmala
Kashid
Katai
Katol
Kausa
Khairna
Khamgaon
Khandala
Khed
Khoni
Khārghar
Kirkee
Kirloskarwadi
Kopar Khairane
Kopargaon
Koparkhairna
Koparpāda
Kopri
Koyna Nagar
Kurduvadi
Kālundri
Kālva
Kāmthi
Latur
Lonar
Lonavala
Lonāvale
Mahabaleshwar
Mahabaleswar
Mahad
Mahape
Mahur
Malegaon
Malkapur
Malvan
Mangalvedha
Mangrul Pir
Manmad
Manwat
Matheran
Mehekar
Mhasvad
Miraj
Mora
Morsi
Mukhed
Mul
Mumbai
Mumbra
Murtajapur
Murud
Nandura
Nanoshi
Narayangaon
Narhan
Nashik Road
Naude
Navi Mumbai
Navāpur
Nerul
Nerur
Nevali
New Panvel
Nitalas
Nāndgaon
Owe
Pachora
Padeghar
Padghe
Padle
Pagote
Palghar
Panchavati
Panchgani
Pandharpur
Panje
Panvel
Parli Vaijnāth
Patipāda
Patur
Pauni
Pavne
Pendhar
Phaltan
Pimpri
Pisarve
Pulgaon
Pusad
Pāndharkawada
Pārgaon
Pārola
Pātnoli
Rahimatpur
Rajapur
Ramtek
Ravalgaon
Raver
Rohinjan
Rānsai
Rānvād
Sabe
Sagaon
Sakoli
Sakri
Sangamner
Sanpāda
Saoner
Sarsol
Satana
Selghar
Sendhwa
Sendurjana
Sevagram
Shahpur
Shegaon
Shet Bandar
Sheva Nhava
Sheva
Shil
Shiraone
Shirpur
Sholapur
Shāhābād
Sinnar
Sonari
Srivardhan
Srīrampur
Sāngole
Sāngurli
Sāvantvādi
Taloda
Taloje
Tasgaon
Thākurvādi
Tondhre
Tumsar
Turambhe
Turbhe
Udgi
Ulhasnagar
Ulva
Umargān
Umbroli
Umrer
Uran
Urun-Islāmpur
Vaijapur
Vaklan
Vala Ull
Valap
Vani
Vasai
Vasai-Virar
Vasar
Vashi
Velapāda
Vengurla
Vite
Vādi
Wani
Warud
Yeola
Yeshvi
Yāval
Region
Berar
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India. It is the second-most populous state and third-largest state by area in India. Spread over , it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south, Telangana and Chhattisgarh to the east, Gujarat and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, and Madhya Pradesh to the north. It is also the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State, Berar and Vidarbha, and the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra (in present-day Gujarat) by the States Reorganisation Act. It has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, Mumbai, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as 'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions.

The Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state. The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near the border between Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates, Mughals and Marathas, and the British. Ruins, monuments, tombs, forts, and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state. They include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ajanta and Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and also the most industrialized state in India. The state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output. The economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with in GDP and a per capita GDP of .[1][2]

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture (circa 1300–700 BCE) have been discovered throughout the state.

Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE. Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, Vedishri, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom. The state was also ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Vakataka, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, and Western Chalukya before finally, the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style. The caves were possibly excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, and the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, and Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century. The Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Amoghavarsha) as "one of the four great kings of the world". Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, and Vikramaditya VI.

In the early 14th century, the Yadava dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Later, Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, and temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur. These kingdoms often fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the Vijayanagara Empire of the south in 1565. The present area of Mumbai was ruled by the Sultanate of Gujarat before its capture by Portugal in 1535 and the Faruqi dynasty ruled the Khandesh region between 1382 and 1601 before finally getting annexed by the Mughal Empire. Malik Ambar, the regent of the Nizamshahi dynasty of Ahmednagar from 1607 to 1626. increased the strength and power of Murtaza Nizam Shah and raised a large army. Malik Ambar is said to have been a proponent of guerilla warfare in the Deccan region. Malik Ambar assisted Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Delhi against his stepmother, Nur Jahan, who had ambitions of seating her son-in-law on the throne.

By the early 17th century, Shahaji Bhosale, an ambitious local general who had served Ahmadnagar Nizamshahi, the Mughals and Adil Shah of Bijapur at different periods during his career, attempted to establish his independent rule. His son Shivaji Maharaj succeeded in establishing the Maratha Empire which was further expanded during the 18th century by the Bhat family Peshwas based in Pune, Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Holkar of Indore, Scindia of Gwalior. At its peak, the empire covered much of the subcontinent, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km². The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India. The Marathas defeated the Mughals, and conquered large territories in northern and central parts of the Indian subcontinent. After their defeat at the hand of Ahmad Shah Abdali's Afghan forces in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Maratha suffered a setback. However, the Marathas soon regained lost influence and ruled central and north India including New Delhi until the end of the eighteenth century. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818) led to the end of the Maratha Empire and East India Company ruled the country in 1819. The Marathas also developed a potent Navy circa 1660s, which at its peak, dominated the territorial waters of the western coast of India from Mumbai to Savantwadi. It would engage in attacking the British, Portuguese, Dutch, and Siddi Naval ships and kept a check on their naval ambitions. The Maratha Navy dominated till around the 1730s, was in a state of decline by 1770s, and ceased to exist by 1818.


The British governed western Maharashtra as part of the Bombay Presidency, which spanned an area from Karachi in Pakistan to northern Deccan. A number of the Maratha states persisted as princely states, retaining autonomy in return for acknowledging British suzerainty. The largest princely states in the territory were Nagpur, Satara and Kolhapur; Satara was annexed to the Bombay Presidency in 1848, and Nagpur was annexed in 1853 to become Nagpur Province, later part of the Central Provinces. Berar, which had been part of the Nizam of Hyderabad's kingdom, was occupied by the British in 1853 and annexed to the Central Provinces in 1903. However, a large part called Marathwada remained part of the Nizam's Hyderabad State throughout the British period.

The period of British rule was marked by social reforms and an improvement in infrastructure as well as revolts due to their discriminatory policies. At the turn of the 20th century, the struggle for independence took shape, led by radical nationalist Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the moderates like Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Pherozeshah Mehta and Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Jyotirao Phule – social reformers who were all born in this region. After the partial autonomy given to the states by the Government of India Act of 1935, B. G. Kher became the first Chief Minister of the Congress party led Government of tri-lingual Bombay Presidency. The ultimatum to the British during the Quit India Movement was given in Mumbai, and culminated in the transfer of power and independence in 1947.

After India's independence, the Deccan States, including Kolhapur were integrated into Bombay State, which was created from the former Bombay Presidency in 1950. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act reorganised the Indian states along linguistic lines, and Bombay Presidency State was enlarged by the addition of the predominantly Marathi-speaking regions of Marathwada (Aurangabad Division) from erstwhile Hyderabad state and Vidarbha region from the Central Provinces and Berar. The southernmost part of Bombay State was ceded to Mysore. From 1954 to 1955 the people of Maharashtra strongly protested against bilingual Bombay state and Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti, was formed. The Mahagujarat Movement was started, seeking a separate Gujarat state. Keshavrao Jedhe, S.M. Joshi, Shripad Amrit Dange, Pralhad Keshav Atre and Gopalrao Khedkar fought for a separate state of Maharashtra with Mumbai as its capital under the banner of Samyukta Maharashtra Movement. On 1 May 1960, following mass protests and 105 deaths, the separate Marathi-speaking state was formed by dividing earlier Bombay State into the new states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The state continues to have a dispute with Karnataka regarding the region of Belgaum and Karwar.

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