Place:Madhya Pradesh, India

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NameMadhya Pradesh
Alt namesCentral Provincessource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 340
Central Provinces and Berarsource: Cambridge World Gazetteer (1990) p 382
TypeState
Coordinates22.0°N 79.0°E
Located inIndia     (1956 - )
Contained Places
District
Ashoknagar
Balaghat
Banswara
Barwani
Betul
Bhind
Bhopal
Burhanpur
Chhatarpur
Chhindwara
Damoh
Datia
Dewas
Dhar
Dindori
Guna
Gwalior
Harda
Hoshangabad
Indore
Jabalpur
Jalgaon
Jhabua
Katni
Khandwa
Khargone
Mandla
Mandsaur
Morena
Narsinghpur
Neemuch
Panna
Raisen
Rajgarh
Ratlam
Rewa
Sagar
Satna
Sehore
Seoni
Shahdol
Shajapur
Sheopur
Shivpuri
Sidhi
Umaria
Vidisha
Historical region
Avanti
Inhabited place
Agar
Ahmadpur
Akaltara
Akodia
Alīrājpur
Amanganj
Amarkantak
Amarpatam
Amarwara
Ambah
Ambikapur
Amla
Anjad
Arang
Ashta
Bacheli
Badnur
Baihar
Baikunthpur
Bakaruma
Baloda Bazar
Banda
Baraily
Barkuhi
Barnagar
Baroda
Barwah
Batiāgarh
Begamganj
Beherāsi
Beohari
Berasia
Besāni
Bhander
Bhatapara
Bhikangaon
Bhilai
Bhojpur
Bhonrāsa
Biaora
Bichhia
Bijaipura
Bijawar
Bijeypur
Bilaspur
Bina
Burda
Burhar
Bāgli
Bāri
Bāsoda
Bījāpur
Chabi
Champa
Chandla
Chhota-Chhindwāra
Chicholi
Chilpi
Chirmiri Colliery
Chāchora
Dabra
Dalli Rajhara
Dantewara
Deori Khās
Deori
Deosil
Dhakauli
Dhamtari
Dharmjaygarh
Dongargarh
Durg ( 100 - )
Fategarh
Gadarwara
Garhakota
Garhi Malehra
Gaurela
Ghairatganj
Gharghoda
Godarpura
Gohad
Goras
Govindarh
Harpālpur
Harrai
Harsud
Hatta
Hirapur
Hāt Pīplia
Ichhāwar
Isagarh
Itarsi
Jagdalpur
Jashpurnagar
Jobat
Jora
Kanaoudi
Kanker
Kannod
Karaia
Karelī
Katangi
Katghora
Kawardha
Kendai
Keonchi
Khairagarh
Khajrāho
Khargon
Kharsia
Khetia
Khilchipur
Khurai
Khātegaon
Kolaras
Kondagaon
Korba
Korwai
Kota
Kukshi
Kundam
Kunkuri
Kāntāphor
Lahar
Lakhnādon
Lamta
Lashkar
Mahagawan
Maharajpur
Mahasamund
Maheshwar
Mahidpur
Makrai
Maksudangarh
Malehra
Mandasor
Mandleshwar
Mandu
Manendragarh
Mangawan
Manāwar
Mauganj
Mehidpur
Mhow
Mohana
Multai
Mungaoli
Mungeli
Māchalpur
Mānpur
Nagda
Nainpur
Naogaon
Narsimhapur
Narwar
Nawāpāra
Nepa Nagar
Nimach
Nohata
Nohta
Orchha
Pachmarhi
Pachor
Pali
Panagar
Pandaria
Parasia
Partabpur
Pasān
Pathalgaon
Patharia
Pauri
Picchor
Pichor
Piparia
Pipri
Pāndhurna
Pātan
Rahatgaon
Raigarh
Raipur
Raj Nandgaon
Rajpur
Ramanuj Ganj
Rampura
Rehli
Rehti
Rāghogarh
Rāhatgarh
Sabalgarh
Sailana
Sakti
Sanchi
Sankra
Saraipāli
Sarangarh
Sarangpur
Sausar
Semaria
Semli Kalān
Seoni-Malwa
Seorinarayan
Shahgarh
Shahpura
Shujalpur
Sihora
Singrampur
Sirmaur
Sitamau
Sohāgpur
Sonkach
Soyet
Suātala
Sānāwad
Sūpkhār
Takhatpur
Tikamgarh
Timarni Muafi
Tirodi
Tāla
Ubaidullahganj
Unao
Unchahra
Waidhān
Wārāseoni
Zirāpur
Unknown
Bastar
Ujjain
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Madhya Pradesh (MP) (, literally "Central Province") is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore. Nicknamed the "heart of India" due to its geographical location in India, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million inhabitants, it is the sixth largest state in India by population. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest.

The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avanti) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India, including the Mauryans, Satvahanas, Rashtrakutas, the Mughals and the Marathas. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and north-eastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state with Bhopal as its capital; the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the then Bombay State. This state was the largest in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was made a separate state.

Madhya Pradesh is home to a large tribal population, who have been largely cut-off from the mainstream development. This makes Madhya Pradesh one of the least developed states in India, with an HDI (Human Development Index) value of 0.375 (2011), which is well below the national average. The state's per-capita gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) is the fourth lowest in the country (2010–11).[1] MP is also the lowest-ranked state on the India State Hunger Index. In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under the forest cover. Its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited since the Middle Pleistocene era, around 500,000 years ago. Painted pottery dated to the later mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture (2100–1800 BCE) and Malwa culture (1700–1500 BCE) have been discovered in the Western part of the state.


The city of Ujjain arose as a major center in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti Kingdom and mahajanapada. The area covered by several other ancient kingdoms such as Chedi, Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada has also been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh.


Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the Maurya empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial center of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports. The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.

The south Indian king Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka rulers and conquered parts of Malwa and Gujarat in the 2nd century CE.

Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the Vakatakas. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states. The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. Later, Harsha (c. 590—647) ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century. When the south Indian Emperor Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara.

The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Paramara king Bhoja (c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Gondwana and Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara Rajput kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.

The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531. In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently to Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the Gwalior Fort during 1553–56. After his defeat in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 to Akbar, most of Madhya Pradesh came under the Mughal rule. Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy.

The Mughal control weakend considerably after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. Between 1720 and 1760, the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, resulting in the establishment of semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Peshwa of Pune: the Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, Puars ruled Dewas and Dhar, the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal-Gondwana area, while the Scindias of Gwalior controlled the northern parts of the state. The most notable Maratha rulers of the region were Mahadji Shinde, Ahilyabai Holkar and Yashwantrao Holkar. Besides these, there were several other , including Bhopal, Orchha, and Rewa. The Bhopal state, which paid tribute to both the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad, was founded by Dost Mohammed Khan, a former General in the Mughal army.

After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the British took control of the entire region. All the sovereign states in the region became princely states of British India, governed by the Central India Agency. The Mahakoshal region became a British province: the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1861, the British merged the Nagpur Province with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces.

During the 1857 uprising, rebellions happened in the northern parts of the state, led by leaders like Tatya Tope. However, these were crushed by the British and the princes loyal to them. The state witnessed a number of anti-British activities and protests during the Indian independence movement. Several notable leaders such as Chandra Shekhar Azad, B. R. Ambedkar, Shankar Dayal Sharma and Atal Bihari Vajpayee were born in what is now Madhya Pradesh.

After the independence of India, Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state. In November 2000, as part of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, the southeastern portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh.

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