Place:Uttar Pradesh, India

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NameUttar Pradesh
Alt namesHindustānsource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) XII, 222-223
Madhyadeśasource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) XII, 222-223
Madyadesasource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 349
North-West Provincessource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1279
United Provincessource: Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 977-978
United Provinces of Agra and Oudhsource: Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 977-978; Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1279
TypeState
Coordinates27.0°N 80.0°E
Located inIndia     (1947 - )
Contained Places
District
Aligarh
Ambedkar Nagar
Auraiya
Badaun
Bagpat
Bahraich
Balarampur
Ballia
Balrampur
Banda
Barabanki
Bijnor
Bulandshahr
Chandauli
Deoria
Devaria
Etah
Etawah
Farrukhabad
Fatehpur
Firozabad
Garhwal
Gautam Buddha Nagar
Ghaziabad
Ghazipur
Gonda
Hamirpur
Hardoi
Jalaun
Jaunpur
Jyotiba Phule Nagar
Kannauj
Kanpur Dehat
Kaushambi
Kushinagar
Lakhimpur Kheri
Lalitpur
Mahamaya Nagar
Maharajganj
Mahoba
Mainpuri
Mathura
Mau
Muzaffarnagar
Pilibhit
Pratapgarh
Raebareli
Rampur
Sant Kabir Nagar
Sant Ravidas Nagar
Shahjahanpur
Shravasti
Siddharth Nagar
Siddharthnagar
Sitapur
Sonbhadra
Sultanpur
Tikamgarh
Unnao
Former nation/state/empire
Kosala
Inhabited place
Achhnera
Afzalgarh
Agāhpur
Ahraura
Akbarabad ( 1000 - )
Akbarpur
Aliganj
Allāhbās
Allāhwardipur
Almora
Amausi
Anupshahr
Aonla
Arthala
Ataur
Atrauli
Atta
Atzalpur
Ayodhya
Babīna
Badarīnāth
Badshahpur
Baghpat
Bah
Baheri
Bahjoi
Bahlolpur
Baijnath
Ballabgarh
Banehra
Bansi
Bara Binki
Baraula
Baraut
Barwa Sagar
Behrāmpur
Bewar
Bhadohi
Bhaironghati
Bharthana
Bhaunja
Bhinga
Bhongaon
Bhopura
Bhowali
Bhuāpur
Bhīkampur
Bidhuna
Bilgram
Bilsi
Bilāspur
Bindki
Birdpur
Bisalpur
Bisrakh
Biswan
Bithoor
Bithur
Budaun
Chakrata
Chamoli
Champawat
Chandan Chauki
Chandausi
Chandpur
Charkhari
Chaukhandi
Chauri Chaura
Chhajārsi
Chhalera Bāngar
Chhibramau
Chhitauni
Chirgaon
Chitrakut Dham
Chopan
Chora Saādatpur
Chunar
Colonelganj
Dadon
Dadri
Dalmau
Daryabad
Dehra Dun ( 1500 - )
Deogarh
Devaprayag
Dhampur
Dhanaura
Dhundi
Dibai
Dogadda
Dohrīghāt
Domariganj
Dundāhera
Faridpur
Farrukhnagar
Farīdnagar
Fatehabad
Fatehpur Sikri ( 1500 - )
Gangoh
Gangotri
Ganj Dundwara
Garautha
Garhi Jasaya
Garhi Katiya
Garhmuktesar
Gaura Barhaj
Gauri Phanta
Gejah
Goichran
Gola Gakaran Nath
Govardhan
Gulaothi
Gursarai
Haibatpur
Haidargarh
Haldwani
Haridwār
Harola
Harpur
Hasanpur
Hoshiarpur
Incholi
Isanagar
Itimādpur
Itwa
Jageshwar
Jahangirabad
Jais
Jalalabad
Jalalpur
Jalesar
Jansath
Jarwa
Jaspur
Jasra
Jaswatnagar
Jauli
Joshimath
Kachhwa
Kadipur
Kaimganj
Kairana
Kaisarganj
Kakrala
Kampil
Kandhla
Kanth
Kara
Karera
Karhal
Kasganj
Kashipur
Kasia
Katarnian Ghat
Kathgodam
Kauriyāla Ghāt
Kedarnath
Kemri
Khair
Khairabad
Khatauli
Kheri
Khurja
Khādar
Kinaūni
Konch
Kopaganj
Kosi
Kotdwāra
Kulpahar
Kuraon
Kurauli
Kīratpur
Laharpur
Lakhimpur
Lakhnauti
Lansdowne
Loni
Machhlishahr
Maharajpur
Mahmudabad
Mahmūdpur
Mahroni
Mailani
Makanapur
Makhdūmnagar
Malihabad
Mandāwar
Manglaur
Manikpur
Marahra
Mariahu
Mataur
Mau Aimma
Maudaha
Maunath Bhanjan
Mauranipur
Mawi
Mawāna
Mehnagar
Mehndawal
Meola Āgri
Misrikh
Morna
Mort
Morta
Moth
Mubarakpur
Mughal Sarai
Muhamdi
Muhammadabad
Mungra Budshah Pur
Muradnagar
Muskira
Mussoorie
Nagina
Nagla
Naini Tal
Najibabad
Nakur
Nanital
Nanpara
Naraini
Narendranagar
Nastauli
Nautanwa
Nawabganj
Nayābās
Nighasan
Nihtaur
Nithāri
Nohjhīl
Orai
Padrauna
Pahasu
Pahlād Garhi
Panwari
Parthala
Pasaunda
Patti
Patwāri
Pauri
Pawayan
Payagpur
Pharenda
Phulpur
Pihani
Pilkhua
Pipalkoti
Pithoragarh
Pukhrayan
Puranpur
Rae Bareli
Raipur
Rajapur
Ramnagar
Ranikhet
Rasra
Rasulpur
Rath
Rishikesh
Roorkee
Rudauli
Rājpur
Sadabad
Sahaswan
Sahibābād
Saidpur
Sambhal
Samthar
Sandi
Sandila
Sardhana
Sarendhi
Sasni
Sehāni Kalān
Sehāni Khurd
Seohara
Shaganj
Shahabad
Shakarpura
Shamli
Shamsabad
Shamsher
Sharafābād
Shikarpur
Shikohabad
Shāhdara
Sidhauli
Sikandarabad
Sikandarpur
Sikandra Rao
Singramau
Sirsaganj
Sisaiya Thana
Siyana
Soharkha
Sonwan
Soron
Srinagar
Suar
Subhepur
Suthiāna
Sādarpur
Tamkuhi
Tanakpur
Tanda
Tappal
Tehri
Tela
Thakurdwara
Tilhar
Tiuni
Tundla
Turtipār
Tājpur
Ujhani
Utraula
Uttarkashi
Vindhyachal
Yamnotri
Zaidpur
Unknown
Agarwal Mandi
Agra
Allahabad
Azamgarh
Bareilly
Basti
Blandshahr
Chitrakoot
Devipatan
Faizabad
Gorakhpur
Jhansi
Kanpur
Lucknow
Meerut
Mirzapur
Moradabad
Saharanpur
Sirsi
Varanasi
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Uttar Pradesh (lit. "Northern Province"), abbr. UP, is a state located in northern India. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. Lucknow is the capital and Kanpur is the commercial capital and the largest city of Uttar Pradesh. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved from the mountainous Himalayan region of Uttar Pradesh.

The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Haryana and Delhi to the northwest, Uttarakhand and the country of Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Jharkhand to the southeast, Chhattisgarh to the south and Madhya Pradesh to the southwest. It covers , equal to 6.88% of the total area of India, and is the fifth largest Indian state by area. With over 200 million inhabitants as of 2011, it is the most populous state in the country as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. Hindi is the official and most widely spoken language in its 75 districts. Uttar Pradesh is the fourth largest Indian state by economy, with a GDP of . Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy. The service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate, insurance and financial consultancies.

Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of ancient and medieval India, including Magadha, Nanda, Mauryan, Sunga, Kushan, Gupta, Gurjara, Rashtrakuta, Pala and Mughal empires. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and then flow as the Ganga further east. The state has several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, such as the Taj Mahal, Varanasi, Piprahwa, Kaushambi, Kanpur, Ballia, Shravasti, Kushinagar, Lucknow, Chitrakoot, Jhansi, Allahabad, Budaun, Meerut and Mathura. Its also the area of some of the oldest existing cities of Budaun and Varanasi.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Archeological finds have indicated the presence of Stone Age Homo sapiens hunter-gatherers in Uttar Pradesh between around 85 and 72 thousand years old. Other pre-historical finds have included Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifacts dated to 21–31 thousand years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer's settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC  beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period; extending into the Iron Age.


The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (Avatar) of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh.[1] The aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhisthira. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in North-west India, around 1000 BC.[1]

Most of the invaders of North India passed through the Gangetic plains of what is today Uttar Pradesh. Control over this region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya (320–200 BC), Kushan (100–250 CE), Gupta (350–600 CE), and Gurjara-Pratihara (650–1036 CE) empires. Following the Huns invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647 CE), the Kannauj empire reached its zenith.[2] It spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south.[1] It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain.[3] Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj.[4] Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region. Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the 8th century to the 10th century.


Later, in the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the vast empire of Hindustan, which is used to this day as an alternate name for India. Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior. After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal. He was bestowed the title of Vikramaditya at his coronation or Rajyabhishake at Purana Quila in Delhi and was titled as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya. Hemu died in the Second Battle of Panipat, and Uttar Pradesh came under Emperor Akbar's rule. Akbar ruled from Agra and Fatehpur Sikri.

British rule

Starting from Bengal in the second half of the 18th century, a series of battles for north Indian lands finally gave the British East India Company accession over the state's territories. Following the British victory in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, Daulat Rao Sindhia of the Maratha Empire signed the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon which ceded to the British the Ganges-Jumna Doab, Delhi, and parts of Bundelkhand and Braj. Ajmer and Jaipur kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was christened the "North-Western Provinces" (of Agra). Although UP later became the fifth largest state of India, NWPA was one of the smallest states of the British Indian empire. Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad.

Due to dissatisfaction with British rule, a serious rebellion erupted in various parts of North India; Bengal regiment's sepoy stationed at Meerut cantonment, Mangal Pandey, is widely credited as its starting point. It came to be known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After the revolt failed, the British attempted to divide the most rebellious regions by reorganising the administrative boundaries of the region, splitting the Delhi region from 'NWFP of Agra' and merging it with Punjab, while the Ajmer- Marwar region was merged with Rajputana and Oudh was incorporated into the state. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP.

In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters. Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of the Indian independence movement. Uttar Pradesh hosted modern educational institutions such as the Benaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University and the Darul Uloom Deoband. Nationally known figures such as Chandra Shekhar Azad were among the leaders of the movement in Uttar Pradesh, and Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malaviya and Gobind Ballabh Pant were important national leaders of the Indian National Congress. The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, with the famous nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President, in order to address the longstanding grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers movements in India. During the Quit India Movement of 1942, Ballia district overthrew the colonial authority and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey. Ballia became known as "Baghi Ballia" (Rebel Ballia) for this significant role in India's independence movement.

Post-independence

After India's independence, the United Provinces were reorganised as Uttar Pradesh in 1957. The state has provided seven of India's prime ministers and is the source of the largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. Despite its political influence, it poor economic development and administrative record, organised crime and corruption kept it amongst India's backward state. The state has been affected by repeated episodes of caste and communal violence. In December, 1992 the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya was demolished by radical Hindu activists, leading to widespread violence across India. In 1999, northern districts of the state were separated to form the state of Uttarakhand.

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