Place:Uttar Pradesh, India

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NameUttar Pradesh
Alt namesHindustānsource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) XII, 222-223
Madhyadeśasource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) XII, 222-223
Madyadesasource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 349
North-West Provincessource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1279
United Provincessource: Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 977-978
United Provinces of Agra and Oudhsource: Canby, Historic Places (1984) II, 977-978; Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1279
TypeState
Coordinates27.0°N 80.0°E
Located inIndia     (1947 - )
Contained Places
District
Aligarh
Ambedkar Nagar
Auraiya
Badaun
Bagpat
Bahraich
Balarampur
Ballia
Balrampur
Banda
Barabanki
Bijnor
Bulandshahr
Chandauli
Deoria
Devaria
Etah
Etawah
Farrukhabad
Fatehpur
Firozabad
Garhwal
Gautam Buddha Nagar
Ghaziabad
Ghazipur
Gonda
Hamirpur
Hardoi
Jalaun
Jaunpur
Jyotiba Phule Nagar
Kannauj
Kanpur Dehat
Kaushambi
Kushinagar
Lakhimpur Kheri
Lalitpur
Mahamaya Nagar
Maharajganj
Mahoba
Mainpuri
Mathura
Mau
Muzaffarnagar
Pilibhit
Pratapgarh
Raebareli
Rampur
Sant Kabir Nagar
Sant Ravidas Nagar
Shahjahanpur
Shravasti
Siddharth Nagar
Siddharthnagar
Sitapur
Sonbhadra
Sultanpur
Tikamgarh
Unnao
Former nation/state/empire
Kosala
Inhabited place
Achhnera
Afzalgarh
Agāhpur
Ahraura
Akbarabad ( 1000 - )
Akbarpur
Aliganj
Allāhbās
Allāhwardipur
Almora
Amausi
Anupshahr
Aonla
Arthala
Ataur
Atrauli
Atta
Atzalpur
Ayodhya
Babīna
Badarīnāth
Badshahpur
Baghpat
Bah
Baheri
Bahjoi
Bahlolpur
Baijnath
Ballabgarh
Banehra
Bansi
Bara Binki
Baraula
Baraut
Barwa Sagar
Behrāmpur
Bewar
Bhadohi
Bhaironghati
Bharthana
Bhaunja
Bhinga
Bhongaon
Bhopura
Bhowali
Bhuāpur
Bhīkampur
Bidhuna
Bilgram
Bilsi
Bilāspur
Bindki
Birdpur
Bisalpur
Bisrakh
Biswan
Bithoor
Bithur
Budaun
Chakrata
Chamoli
Champawat
Chandan Chauki
Chandausi
Chandpur
Charkhari
Chaukhandi
Chauri Chaura
Chhajārsi
Chhalera Bāngar
Chhibramau
Chhitauni
Chirgaon
Chitrakut Dham
Chopan
Chora Saādatpur
Chunar
Colonelganj
Dadon
Dadri
Dalmau
Daryabad
Dehra Dun ( 1500 - )
Deogarh
Devaprayag
Dhampur
Dhanaura
Dhundi
Dibai
Dogadda
Dohrīghāt
Domariganj
Dundāhera
Faridpur
Farrukhnagar
Farīdnagar
Fatehabad
Fatehpur Sikri ( 1500 - )
Gangoh
Gangotri
Ganj Dundwara
Garautha
Garhi Jasaya
Garhi Katiya
Garhmuktesar
Gaura Barhaj
Gauri Phanta
Gejah
Goichran
Gola Gakaran Nath
Govardhan
Gulaothi
Gursarai
Haibatpur
Haidargarh
Haldwani
Haridwār
Harola
Harpur
Hasanpur
Hoshiarpur
Incholi
Isanagar
Itimādpur
Itwa
Jageshwar
Jahangirabad
Jais
Jalalabad
Jalalpur
Jalesar
Jansath
Jarwa
Jaspur
Jasra
Jaswatnagar
Jauli
Joshimath
Kachhwa
Kadipur
Kaimganj
Kairana
Kaisarganj
Kakrala
Kampil
Kandhla
Kanth
Kara
Karera
Karhal
Kasganj
Kashipur
Kasia
Katarnian Ghat
Kathgodam
Kauriyāla Ghāt
Kedarnath
Kemri
Khair
Khairabad
Khatauli
Kheri
Khurja
Khādar
Kinaūni
Konch
Kopaganj
Kosi
Kotdwāra
Kulpahar
Kuraon
Kurauli
Kīratpur
Laharpur
Lakhimpur
Lakhnauti
Lansdowne
Loni
Machhlishahr
Maharajpur
Mahmudabad
Mahmūdpur
Mahroni
Mailani
Makanapur
Makhdūmnagar
Malihabad
Mandāwar
Manglaur
Manikpur
Marahra
Mariahu
Mataur
Mau Aimma
Maudaha
Maunath Bhanjan
Mauranipur
Mawi
Mawāna
Mehnagar
Mehndawal
Meola Āgri
Misrikh
Morna
Mort
Morta
Moth
Mubarakpur
Mughal Sarai
Muhamdi
Muhammadabad
Mungra Budshah Pur
Muradnagar
Muskira
Mussoorie
Nagina
Nagla
Naini Tal
Najibabad
Nakur
Nanital
Nanpara
Naraini
Narendranagar
Nastauli
Nautanwa
Nawabganj
Nayābās
Nighasan
Nihtaur
Nithāri
Nohjhīl
Orai
Padrauna
Pahasu
Pahlād Garhi
Panwari
Parthala
Pasaunda
Patti
Patwāri
Pauri
Pawayan
Payagpur
Pharenda
Phulpur
Pihani
Pilkhua
Pipalkoti
Pithoragarh
Pukhrayan
Puranpur
Rae Bareli
Raipur
Rajapur
Ramnagar
Ranikhet
Rasra
Rasulpur
Rath
Rishikesh
Roorkee
Rudauli
Rājpur
Sadabad
Sahaswan
Sahibābād
Saidpur
Sambhal
Samthar
Sandi
Sandila
Sardhana
Sarendhi
Sasni
Sehāni Kalān
Sehāni Khurd
Seohara
Shaganj
Shahabad
Shakarpura
Shamli
Shamsabad
Shamsher
Sharafābād
Shikarpur
Shikohabad
Shāhdara
Sidhauli
Sikandarabad
Sikandarpur
Sikandra Rao
Singramau
Sirsaganj
Sisaiya Thana
Siyana
Soharkha
Sonwan
Soron
Srinagar
Suar
Subhepur
Suthiāna
Sādarpur
Tamkuhi
Tanakpur
Tanda
Tappal
Tehri
Tela
Thakurdwara
Tilhar
Tiuni
Tundla
Turtipār
Tājpur
Ujhani
Utraula
Uttarkashi
Vindhyachal
Yamnotri
Zaidpur
Unknown
Agarwal Mandi
Agra
Allahabad
Azamgarh
Bareilly
Basti
Blandshahr
Chitrakoot
Devipatan
Faizabad
Gorakhpur
Jhansi
Kanpur
Lucknow
Meerut
Mirzapur
Moradabad
Saharanpur
Sirsi
Varanasi
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Uttar Pradesh (; IAST: Uttar Pradeś ) is a state in the northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. It is located in the north-central region of the Indian subcontinent. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow. The main ethnic group is the Hindavi people, forming the demographic plurality. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad (Prayagraj) and then flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest, Uttarakhand and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, and touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers , equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, and is the fourth-largest Indian state by area. The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of . Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy. The service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate, insurance and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days.

The natives of the state are generally called Uttar Bhartiya, or more specifically either Awadhi, Bageli, Bhojpuri, Braji, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The state has several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Ayodhya, Vrindavan (Mathura), Varanasi and Allahabad.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Prehistory

Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago. There have also been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC  beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age.

Ancient and classical period

The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (Avatar) of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh.[1] The aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC.[1]

Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya (320–200 BC), Kushan (AD 100–250), Gupta (350–600), and Gurjara-Pratihara (650–1036) empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647), the Kannauj empire reached its zenith.[2] It spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south.[1] It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain.[3] Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj.[4] Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region. Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century.

Delhi Sultanate

Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

Medieval and early modern period

In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern-day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks (with significant Mongol admixture). In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior. After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal. He was bestowed the title of Hemchandra Vikramaditya (title of Vikramāditya adopted from Vedic Period) at his formal coronation took place at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7 October 1556.A month later, Hemu died in the Second Battle of Panipat, and Uttar Pradesh came under Emperor Akbar's rule. Akbar ruled from Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. In the 18th century, after the fall of Mughal authority, the power vacuum was filled by the Maratha Empire, in the mid-18th century, the Maratha army invaded the Uttar Pradesh region, which resulted in Rohillas losing control of Rohilkhand to the Maratha forces led by Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. In 1803, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War, when the British East India Company defeated the Maratha Empire, much of the region came under British suzerainty.

British India era

Starting from Bengal in the second half of the 18th century, a series of battles for north Indian lands finally gave the British East India Company accession over the state's territories. Ajmer and Jaipur kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was named the "North-Western Provinces" (of Agra). Although UP later became the fifth-largest state of India, NWPA was one of the smallest states of the British Indian empire. Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad.

Due to dissatisfaction with British rule, a serious rebellion erupted in various parts of North India, which became known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857; Bengal regiment's sepoy stationed at Meerut cantonment, Mangal Pandey, is widely considered as its starting point. After the revolt failed, the British divided the most rebellious regions by reorganising their administrative boundaries, splitting the Delhi region from 'NWFP of Agra' and merging it with Punjab, while the Ajmer- Marwar region was merged with Rajputana and Oudh was incorporated into the state. The new state was called the North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh, which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP.

In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters. Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of the Indian independence movement. Uttar Pradesh hosted modern educational institutions such as the Benaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University and the Darul Uloom Deoband. Nationally known figures such as Ram Prasad Bismil and Chandra Shekhar Azad were among the leaders of the movement in Uttar Pradesh, and Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malaviya and Gobind Ballabh Pant were important national leaders of the Indian National Congress. The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, with the famous nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President, in order to address the longstanding grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers movements in India. During the Quit India Movement of 1942, Ballia district overthrew the colonial authority and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey. Ballia became known as "Baghi Ballia" (Rebel Ballia) for this significant role in India's independence movement.

Post-independence

After India's independence, the United Provinces were renamed "Uttar Pradesh" ("northern province"), preserving UP as the acronym, notification regarding this was done in union gazette on 24 January 1950. The state has provided nine of India's prime ministers, including current Prime Minister Narendra Modi who is MP from Varanasi, which is more than any other state and is the source of the largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. Despite its political influence since ancient times, its poor record in economic development and administration, poor governance, organised crime and corruption have kept it amongst India's backward states. The state has been affected by repeated episodes of caste and communal violence. In Ayodhya in December 1992 the disputed Babri Mosque was demolished by radical Hindu activists, leading to widespread violence across India. In 2000, northern districts of the state were separated to form the state of Uttarakhand.

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