Place:Jharkhand, India

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NameJharkhand
TypeState
Located inIndia


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of . The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital.

Jharkhand suffers from resource curse: it accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India, but 39.1% of its population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of the children under five years of age are malnourished. The state is primarily rural, with only 24% of the population living in cities.

The civilization in Jharkhand has existed since Mesolithic and Chalcolithic period due to the fact that there are several ancient cave paintig in the state. Even evidence of use of iron was earlier than other part of north-west India as carbon dating indicate that use of iron started in this region early as 1400 BCE. Due to plateau reign and forest tracts, this region most of time remains little affected by outside empire and have distict culture of it's own.

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History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Stone tools have been discovered from Chota Nagpur plateau region which is from Mesolithic and Neolithic period. There are ancient Cave Paintings in Isko, Hazaribagh district which are from Meso-chalcolithic period (9,000-5,000 BC). Several Iron slags, microlith, Potsherds have been iscovered from Singhbhum district which are from 1400 BCE according to Carbon dating age.

According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, Jharkhand state was a part of Magadha and Anga . Jharkhand was part of greater Magadha region and was in some way culturally different from Historical Vedic religion.

Samudragupta, while marching through the present-day Chotanagpur region, directed the first attack against the kingdom of Dakshina Kosala in the Mahanadi valley.

In 7th Century, Chainse traveler Xuanzang passed through the region. He described the kingdom as Karnasuvarna and Shashanka as it's ruler. To the north of Karn-Suberna was Magadha, Champa was in East, Mahendra in the west and Orissa in the south.

During medivial period, the region ruled Chero and Nagvanshi ruler. The Mughal influence reached Palamu during the reign of Emperor Akbar when it was invaded by Raja Mansingh in 1574. Several invasion took place during moghal rule. During region of Nagvanshi King Madhu Singh, Akbar' general invaded Khukhra. Also there was invasion during region of Durjan Sal and Raghunath Shah.

The King Medini Ray , ruled from 1658 to 1674 in Palamau. His rule extended to areas in South Gaya and Hazaribagh. He attacked Navratangarh and defeated the Nagvanshi Maharaja of Chhotanagpur.

Following the death of Medini Ray there was rivalry within the royal family of the Chero dynasty which ultimately lead to its downfall; this was engineered by the ministers and advisers in the court. In 1765, the region came under the control of the British East India Company. Chitrajeet Rai's nephew Gopal Rai betrayed him and facilitated the Patna Council of the British East India Company to attack the fort. When the new fort was attacked by Captain Camac on 28 January 1771, the Chero soldiers fought valiantly but had to retreat to the old fort on account of water shortage. This facilitated the British army to occupy the new fort located on a hill without any struggle. This location was strategic and enabled the British to mount canon supply and the old fort was besieged by the British on 19 March 1771. The fort was finally occupied by the British in 1772. Region under Kings of Chero dynasty, Nagvanshi dynasty and Ramgarh became parts of territories of East India Company.

The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people.

The first revolt against the British East India Company was led by Raghunath Mahato, in 1769.

In 1771,the revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a Paharia leader in Rajmahal Hills.Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum. In 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord from Srinagar. Munda tribe rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813.

Bakhtar Sai and Mundal Singh, two landowners, fought against the British East India company in 1812.


The Princly states in Chota Nagpur Plateau, came within the sphere of influence of the Maratha Empire, but they became tributary states of British East India Company as a result of the Anglo-Maratha Wars known as Chota Nagpur Tributary States.

The Hos in Singhbhum revolted in 1820, Kol revolt in 1832 West Bengal. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu.

The brothers Nilambar and Pitambar were chiefs of Bhogta clan of the Kharwar tribe, who held ancestral jagirs with many Chero Jagirdars led revolt against British East India company.

Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo, king of Barkagarh led rebel against Brithish East India Company in 1857 rebellion. In Battle of Chatra conflict took place between rebel and East India company. He was fighting with Britishers, but caught due to treachery and was hanged in April 16, 1858.

British Raj (c. 1858 – 1947)

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India. The Cheros and Kharwars again rebelled against the British in 1882 but the attack was repulsed. Then Birsa Munda revolt, broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon.

In October 1905, the exercise of British influence over the predominantly Hindi-speaking states of Chang Bhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja, and Udaipur was transferred from the Bengal government to that of the Central Provinces, while the two Oriya-speaking states of Gangpur and Bonai were attached to the Orissa Tributary States, leaving only Kharsawan and Saraikela answerable to the Bengal governor.

In 1936, all nine states were transferred to the Eastern States Agency, the officials of which came under the direct authority of the Governor-General of India, rather than under that of any Provinces.

In March 1940, INC 53rd Session was accomplished under the presidency of Maulana Abul Qalam Azad at Jhanda Chowk, Ramgarh now Ramgarh Cantt. Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Acharya J.B. Kripalani, Industrialist Jamnalal Bajaj and others greats leaders of Indian freedom movement attended the Ramgarh Session.

Mahatma Gandhi also opened khadi and village Industries Exhibition at Ramgarh. 


At that time, under the leadership of Netajee Subhas Chandra Bose conference against Samjhauta was also completed. In Ramgarh, Subhsha Chandra Bose was seen as president of All India Forward Block and M.N. Roy was seen as leader of Radical democratic party.

Post-independence

After Indian independence in 1947, the rulers of the states chose to accede to the Dominion of India. Changbhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja and Udaipur later became part of Madhya Pradesh state, but Gangpur and Bonai became part of Orissa state, and Kharsawan and Saraikela part of Bihar state.

After the last Assembly election in the state resulted in a hung assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD would not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganisation Bill. Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which had made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Bihar reorganisation Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.

Jharkhand statehood

The dynamics of resources and the politics of development still influence the socio-economic structures in Jharkhand, which was carved out of the relatively underdeveloped southern part of Bihar. According to the 1991 census, the state has a population of over 20 million out of which 28% is tribal while 12% of the people belong to scheduled castes. Jharkhand has 24 districts, 260 blocks and 32,620 villages out of which only 45% have access to electricity while only 8,484 are connected by roads. Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country after Chhattisgarh state, endowed as it is with vast variety of minerals like iron ore, coal, copper ore, mica, bauxite, graphite, limestone, and uranium. Jharkhand is also known for its vast forest resources.

Naxal insurgency

Jharkhand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary groups such as the Salwa Judum.

Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkhand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres,[1] where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants fight. Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution. The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions.[2] As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land.[2] In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.[1]

On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels near Kishanpur while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi. His widow, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007 and served in parliament until 2009.

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