Place:West Bengal, India

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NameWest Bengal
TypeState
Coordinates23.0°N 87.833°E
Located inIndia     (1956 - )
Contained Places
District
Bankura
Bardhaman
Birbhum
Dakshin Dinajpur
Darjeeling
Dinajpur
Hooghly
Howrah
Jalpaiguri
Kolkata
Malda
Midnapore East
Midnapore West
Midnapore
Murshidabad
Nadia
North 24 Parganas
North Dinajpur
Purulia
South 24 Parganas
Inhabited place
Adhāta
Adra
Ahmadpur
Alampur
Algarah
Alipur Duar
Alipur
Ambikānagar
Amnān
Amta
Anandanagar
Anandapur
Andal
Anāra
Aroali
Arāmbāg
Arāpānja
Asansol
Asati
Aswatthaberia
Atghara
Atpur
Auagrām
Azimganj
Badanganj
Bagdaha
Bagdanga
Baghdobā
Baghmundi
Bagula
Baidyabati
Baijala
Baikunthapur
Bainchi
Bainchipota
Baita
Baital
Bakhra
Bakkeswar
Baladbandh
Balarāmbāti
Balarāmpota
Balarāmpur
Ballabhpur
Bandipur
Banduan
Bandwan
Bankadaha
Banpura
Banpās
Banstala
Bara Jorda
Bara
Barabhum
Barakar
Baranagar
Barddhamān
Bargāchia
Barjora
Barrackpore Cantonment
Bartala
Baruipur
Barāl
Basanti
Basubāti
Baswa
Behala
Belbunia
Belda
Beldanga
Beliator
Beliābera
Belmuri
Beonta
Berāberi
Berābāria
Betā
Bhabānipur
Bhadreswar
Bhagirathpur
Bhagwānpur
Bhandārdaha
Bharatpur
Bhatar
Bhatpara
Bhedia
Bhoāgāchi
Bhābta
Bhādua
Bhāngar
Bhātpur
Bhātua
Bhīmpur
Bidyādharpur
Bijna
Bijpur
Bilsara
Binpur
Bira
Birati
Birgi
Birnagar
Bishnupur
Bodāi
Bolpur
Bosna
Boso
Brahmapur
Budgebudge
Burnpur
Bābu Bheri
Bādinan
Bādkulla
Bāduriā
Bāgda
Bāgnān
Bāguiati
Bāhādurpur
Bālandi
Bāli Chak
Bālighai
Bālihāti
Bālly
Bālughāta
Bāluhāti
Bāmanghāra
Bāmangāchi
Bāmanmura
Bāndel
Bānkipur
Bānsbāria
Bāntra
Bāruipāra
Bāsudebpur
Bāuria
Bāwāli
Cassimbazar
Chaital
Chakdaha
Chakāltor
Champdani
Champādānga
Chanditala
Chandra
Chandrakona Road
Chandrakona
Chapra
Charanpur
Chatra
Chaubaria
Chaumua
Chelyama
Chhināmor
Chhiruti
Chhātna
Chichra
Chinpāi
Chitrasāli
Chittaranjan
Choāli
Chāmpāhāti
Chāmrāil
Chāmārpāra
Chāndpara
Contai
Cooch Behar
Dahijuri
Dainhāt
Dakshineswar
Dakshingram
Dalsingpara
Dantan
Darodih
Dattapukur
Dattapulia
Daulatabad ( 1100 - )
Daulatpur
Debagrām
Debipur
Debra
Deganga
Deocha
Depāl
Depāra
Deulpur
Deulti
Devanandapur
Dhanera
Dhaniakhāli
Dhokra
Dhosha
Dhulian
Dhulāgarh
Dhupgāri
Dhānyahānā
Dhātrigrām
Diamond Harbour
Digambarpur
Dighipāra
Dighra
Digra
Dilerpur
Dinhata
Dishegarh
Dogāchia
Domohani
Dubi Bheri
Dubra
Dubrajpur
Dum-Dum
Dumjor
Durgapur
Durlabhpur
Dwarbasini
Dādpur
Dānga
Dātra
Dīgnagar
Egra
Eksāra
Eruar
Falakata
Falta
Fatehpur
Gaighāta
Gajol
Gajā
Galsi
Ganga Sagar
Gangajalghati
Gangādharpur
Gapālnagar
Garbeta
Garden Reach
Garhbeta
Gariya
Garānberia
Gaurhati
Geonkhāli
Ghatampur
Ghazipur
Ghoshpur
Ghushuri
Gidhni
Gobindapur
Gokarna
Golabāri
Gopiballabhpur
Gopinagar
Gopālnagar
Gopālpur
Goria
Gosāba
Goyerkāta
Goāltor
Guskhara
Gustia
Gāngnāpur
Gāngārāmpur
Gārji
Gārulia
Haldia
Haldibari
Halisahar
Hansia
Harbāti
Hariharpāra
Haripur
Haripāl
Harlpur
Hasnācha
Hisābpur
Hostigrām
Hridaypur
Hugli
Hura
Hurshi
Hāhipur
Hājīpur
Hānskhāli
Hārāt
Hāsnābād
Hātisāla
Hātiāra
Hāudullāpur
Ichapore
Ikra
Ilām Bāzār
Indpur
Jagannāthpūr
Jagatnagar
Jalangi
Jalda
Jamālpurganj
Jangipur
Jangipāra
Janka
Jankāpur
Janāi
Jaugrām
Jayanti
Jaynagar
Jaypur
Jejur
Jhalida
Jhenkāri
Jhikra
Jhilimili
Jhāhtipahāri
Jhārgrām
Jiaganj
Joka
Jāguli
Jāgulia
Jāmbād
Jāmpur
Jāmuria
Jāmāibāti
Kakdwip
Kaksa
Kalna
Kamarhati
Kanchrapara
Kandi
Karea
Karīmpur
Kasba Nārāyangarh
Kasba Patāspur
Kasbagoas
Kashipur
Kasiāri
Katanimara
Kenda
Kendua
Kespur
Khajuri
Khana
Khandaghosh
Kharar
Khardah
Khardaha
Kharri
Khayerpur
Khayrasole
Kheardaha
Khejurdaha
Khenyen
Khilkāpur
Khirpai
Khorel
Khoru
Khurigāchi
Khāgrāmuri
Khānkurda
Khānpur
Khānākul
Khāsbāti
Khātra
Kinchara
Kirnāhar
Kisoripur
Knargram
Koch Bihār ( 1000 - )
Kolora
Komdhārā
Kona
Konnagar
Kotra
Kotālpur
Krishnagar
Krishnamāti
Krishnanagar
Krishnapur
Krishnarāmpur
Kuilapal
Kulpi
Kulti
Kultikri
Kumarganj
Kumārgrām
Kusria
Kusthalia
Kusumba
Kājlāgarh
Kāliganj
Kālikāpur
Kālinagar
Kālipur
Kāliyāganj
Kāmdebpur
Kāmpa
Kāmārkunda
Kāndra
Kānsāripāra
Kāsimpur
Kāsināthpur
Kāsipur
Kāyamba
Kāzipāra
Ladhurka
Lakshmanpur
Lakshmikantapur
Lakshmisāgar
Lava
Liluāh
Lodhāsuli
Lowāda
Lābpur
Lālgarh
Madanpur
Madharihat
Madhudaha
Madhupar
Madhyamgram
Madyamgrām
Magara
Magra Hāt
Magra
Mahatabhanga
Mahesgādi
Maheshtala
Mahishdānga
Mahiāri
Mahmudpur
Mahālandi
Mahānadpati
Mahīshādal
Mainåguri
Majnan
Malandighi
Malighati
Maluti
Malīpara
Manbazar
Mandalkia
Mandapur
Mangalkot
Manikanāli
Manoharpur
Manteswar
Masina
Matiakhola
Mayapur
Mayna
Mejia
Mekhliganj
Mele
Melli
Memari
Meria
Metagācha
Mirzāpur
Mohanpur
Munsarpur
Murarai
Muratpur
Murāgācha
Musar
Mādārpur
Māhikpur
Māju
Mākhālpur
Māl
Mālancha
Māndrā
Mānkundu
Mānkur
Mānsinhapur
Māthle
Mātiāli
Nabagram
Nabasta
Nabābpur
Nadābhānga
Nalhati
Nandigrām
Nangi
Nanur
Naopukuria
Naoābād
Narendrapur
Nawapārā
Naxalbari
Nayāgrām
New Jalpaiguri
Newabāgam
Nibria
Nigan
Nilgani
Nimta
Nischintāpur
North Barrackpore
North Dum Dum
Noābād
Nurpur
Nāchinda
Nāgrākata
Nākāsipāra
Nālikul
Nāmkhāna
Nāndāha
Nārāyanpur
Nārāyanpāra
Nātāgarh
Onchāi
Onda
Palāshdānga
Panchgram
Panchla
Pandaveswar
Panihati
Panskura
Parasida
Parorā
Paylampur
Petrapole
Petua
Phalti
Phinga
Phulbari
Phulkusma
Phurphura
Piplūn
Pirakata
Polba
Ponpāj
Port Canning
Puinān
Puncha
Purandarpur
Purbashthāli
Pālsit
Pānchghara
Pānchur
Pānchuria
Pānchāl
Pānuria
Pānākua
Pātharghāra
Pātihāl
Pātiram
Pātna
Pātrasāer
Pātul
Pātuli
Pāunān
Raghabpur
Raghumāthbāri
Raghunāthpur
Raipur
Rajnagar
Ramanbāti
Ramgarh
Ramshai Hat
Ramānāthpur
Ranaghat
Raskunda
Ratanpur
Rejinagar
Rekjoāti
Rishra
Rukni
Russa
Rādhānagar
Rāidighi
Rājbāri
Rājhāt
Rājibpur
Rājpur
Rājābhāt Khāwa
Rājāpur
Rāmjībanpur
Rāmkānāli
Rāmnagar
Rāmpur Hāt
Rāmsāgar
Rānibāndh
Rānīganj
Rāutara
Rāyna
Rāypur
Sainthia
Salkhia
Salt Lake City
Samūdragarh
Sandeshkhali
Sankarpur
Santoshpur
Sardiha
Sarsuna
Sehara
Serampore
Shantipur
Sheakhala
Shibpur
Shirākol
Shyamdih
Sibpur
Sikandarpur
Sikarpur
Silda
Simla
Simlāpāl
Simurāli
Singe
Singhi
Singpāra
Singur
Sirkābād
Sitalkuchi
Sitārāmpur
Sodepur
Sodpur
Solangāri
Sonamukhi
Sonārpur
Sonātikri
South Dum-Dum
Srirāmpur
Subarnapur
Subipur
Sudarsan
Sugandha
Sukchar
Suklara
Supur
Suria
Sutāhāta
Swarupnagar
Syāmpur
Sābang
Sāgardīghi
Sālbani
Sāltora
Sānkrāil
Sāntipur
Sārenga
Sātbāria
Sātghara
Sātgāchia
Sātuli
Takipur
Tal Lah
Tamluk
Tapasi
Teesta Bazaar
Tehata
Tengra
Tentulia
Thākurdwāri
Thākurpukur
Titāgarh
Totānāla
Tribeni
Tufānganj
Tājpur
Tāki
Tāldāngra
Tālsa
Tāmna
Tāntipāra
Tārakeswar
Tārdah
Ukhra
Ula
Ulubāria
Uludāngar
Urma
Uttarpara-Kotrung
Zeyādah Kot
Ākna
Āmdānga
Āmlāgora
Āmreswar
Āmtala
Ānūr
Ārbālia
Ārgoal
Ārgur
Ārsāpota
Āyān
Unknown
Cassem Bazar
Chandernagor
Ranjana
Tangra
Twenty-four Parganas
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over inhabitants (as of 2011), it is India's fourth-most populous state. It has an area of . A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north. It also borders the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata (Calcutta), the seventh-largest city in India, and center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country. As for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, and the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority.

The area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, and a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas (kingdoms), while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period. The region was part of several ancient pan-Indian empires, including the Mauryans and Guptas. It was also a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire (eighth to 11th century) and Hindu Sena Empire (11th–12th century). From the 13thcentury onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, and Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18thcentury. The British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, and Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, and social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20thcentury, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, and East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which later became independent Bangladesh. Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government.

The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of .[1][2] The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is also known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Ancient and classical period

Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought. The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh, Pundravardhana, and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100BCE of a land named Gangaridai, which was located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi (Burma, Lower Thailand, the Lower Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra). According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka (modern-day Sri Lanka) and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country.

The kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7thcentury BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, and Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism. It consisted of several janapadas, or kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rdcentury BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6thcenturies CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.


Two kingdomsVanga or Samatata, and Gaudaare mentioned in some texts to have appeared after the end of the Gupta Empire although details of their ascendancy are uncertain. The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka, who reigned in the early 7thcentury. Shashanka is often recorded in Buddhist annals as an intolerant Hindu ruler who is noted for his persecution of the Buddhists. Shashanka murdered Rajyavardhana, the Buddhist king of Thanesar, and is noted for destroying the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, and replacing Buddha statues with Shiva lingams. After a period of anarchy, the Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years starting in the 8thcentury. It was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty.

Some areas of Bengal were invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty between 1021 and 1023. Islam made its first appearance in Bengal during the 12thcentury when Sufi missionaries arrived. Later, occasional Muslim raiders reinforced the process of conversion by building mosques, madrasas, and khanqahs. Between 1202 and 1206 Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate, overran Bihar and Bengal as far east as Rangpur, Bogra, and the Brahmaputra River. Although he failed to bring Bengal under his control, the expedition defeated Lakshman Sen, whose two sons moved to a place then called Vikramapur (present-day Munshiganj District), where their diminished dominion lasted until the late 13thcentury.[3]

Medieval and early modern periods

Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. The region was ruled by dynasties of the Bengal Sultanate and feudal lords under the Delhi Sultanate for the next few hundred years. The Bengal Sultanate was interrupted for a period of twenty years by a Hindu uprising under Raja Ganesha. In the 16thcentury, Mughal general Islam Khan conquered Bengal. Administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire gave way to semi-independence under the Nawabs of Murshidabad, who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi. Several independent Hindu states were established in Bengal during the Mughal period, including those of Pratapaditya of Jessore District and Raja Sitaram Ray of Bardhaman. The Koch dynasty in northern Bengal flourished during the 16th and 17thcenturies; it weathered the Mughals and survived until the advent of the British colonial era.

Colonial period

Several European traders reached this area late in the 15thcentury. The British East India Company defeated Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab, in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The company gained the right to collect revenue in Bengal subah (province) in 1765 with the signing of the treaty between the East India company and the Mughal emperor following the Battle of Buxar in 1764. The Bengal Presidency was established in 1765; it later incorporated all British-controlled territory north of the Central Provinces (now Madhya Pradesh), from the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab. The Bengal famine of 1770 claimed millions of lives due to tax policies enacted by the British company. Calcutta, the headquarters of the East India company, was named in 1773 as the capital of British-held territories in India. The failed Indian rebellion of 1857 started near Calcutta and resulted in a transfer of authority to the British Crown, administered by the Viceroy of India.

The Bengal Renaissance and the Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements significantly influenced the cultural and economic life of Bengal. Between 1905 and 1911 an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones. Bengal suffered from the Great Bengal famine in 1943, which claimed 3million lives during World WarII. Bengalis played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups such as Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar were dominant. Armed attempts against the British Raj from Bengal reached a climax when news of Subhas Chandra Bose leading the Indian National Army against the British reached Bengal. The Indian National Army was subsequently routed by the British.

Indian independence and afterwards

When India gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to the Dominion of India (and was named West Bengal), while the eastern part went to the Dominion of Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan in 1956). The latter became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971. In 1950 the Princely State of Cooch Behar merged with West Bengal.[4] In 1955 the former French enclave of Chandannagar, which had passed into Indian control after 1950, was integrated into West Bengal; portions of Bihar were also subsequently merged with West Bengal. Both West and East Bengal experienced large influxes of refugees during and after partition in 1947. Refugee resettlement and related issues continued to play a significant role in the politics and socio-economic condition of the state.


During the 1970s and 1980s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. The 1974 smallpox epidemic killed thousands. West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. The Left Front, led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist), governed the state for the next three decades.

The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic liberalisations were introduced in the mid-1990s by the central government. This was aided by the advent of information technology and IT-enabled services. Starting in the mid-2000s, armed activists conducted minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the state while clashes with the administration took place at several controversial locations over the issue of industrial land acquisition, which became a decisive reason behind the defeat of the ruling Left Front government in the 2011 assembly election. Although the economy was severely damaged during the unrest in the 1970s, the state has managed to revive its economy, steadily throughout the years. The state has shown improvement regarding bandhs (strikes) and educational infrastructure. Significant strides have been made in reducing unemployment. Though the state suffers from substandard healthcare services, a lack of socio-economic development, poor infrastructure, unemployment, and civil violence. In 2006 the state's healthcare system was severely criticized in the aftermath of the West Bengal blood test kit scam.

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at West Bengal. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.