Haryana, (in Hindi हरियाणा, in Punjabi ਹਰਿਆਣਾ ) is a state in India. Constituted in 1966, it is one of two newly created states carved out of the greater Punjab province as a means of creating a stronger national identity. It has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189-1230). It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region, the capital of which is Delhi and is administered as a union territory.
Sites in Haryana were part of the Indus Valley and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata at Kurukshetra mentioned in the Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna), and the three battles of Panipat. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pumps and an extensive canal system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.
Haryana is one of the more socially protracted states in India with rampant caste based discrimination, female foeticide and rapes. In Haryana, caste politics has given insurmountable powers to an ancient and rudimentary social administration system called khap that several law experts deem unconstitutional.
Haryana is also one of the wealthier states of India and has the third highest per capita income in the country at Rs. 67,891, including the largest number of rural crorepatis in India. Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since 1970s. Haryana is India's largest manufacturer of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and tractors. Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India. The city of Gurgaon has rapidly emerged as a major hub for the information technology and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Suzuki, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero MotoCorp, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Sonipat, Yamuna Nagar, Panipat, Panchkula and Faridabad are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are also long established steel, plywood, paper and textile industries in the state.
Haryana ranks 15th in poverty and 22nd in female literacy. Its sex ratio of 877 per 1000 males puts it at the bottom of the pile at 32nd rank while infant mortality rate is at 48 per 1000 infants born ranks it at 28 among states.
There are several theories regarding the origin of the state's name. The name "Haryana" could mean "the Abode of God", derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu God Vishnu) and ayana (home). Scholars like Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name Haryana comes from the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest).
The Yashastilaka-Champu of Somadeva mentions "Harivansha" as the ruling family of this region. J. N. Singh Yadav, Pran Nath Chopra and some anthropologists believe that the name Haryana may have derived from Abhiras or Ahirs, its ancient inhabitants (Abhirayana -> Ahirayana -> Hirayana -> Haryana).
Haryana was the outermost location of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization with centers such as Banawali and Rakhigarhi. The most extensive center, Rakhigarhi, is now a village in Hisar District. The site is dated to be over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) has been uncovered.
Also the Vedic Civilization flourished on the banks of the now lost Sarasvati River. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic Battle of Kurukshetra described in the Mahabharata (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita by Krishna) and the three battles of Panipat.
King Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Gurjara Pratiharas continued to rule over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha's adopted capital of Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more central than Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Tarori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of north India for several centuries. The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.
The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat in Haryana. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul, defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. In the second battle of Panipat (5 November 1556), Akbar's forces defeated, the local Haryanvi warrior Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya popularly called Hemu, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and who had earlier won 22 battles, from Punjab to Bengal including two against Akbar's forces during 1553-1556 before acceeding to Delhi throne and establishing 'Hindu Raj' in North India on 7 October 1556. The decline of the Mughal Empire in early 18th century, led to rapid territorial gains for the Maratha Empire, including Haryana. In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi, following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protector of the Mughal throne at Delhi. Baji Rao's son, Balaji Baji Rao (popularly known as Nana Saheb), further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab and Peshawar in 1758. This brought the Marathas into direct confrontation with the Durrani empire of Ahmad Shah Abdali, who was based in Kabul. After the Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Maratha Empire and the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali, Marathas lost Punjab, Delhi and Haryana to Ahmad Shah Durrani. Within 10 years, Mahadji Shinde re-established Maratha rule over North India, Haryana region remained under the rule of the Scindhia clan of the Maratha Empire, until in 1803, the British East India Company took control of Gurgaon through the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon after the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
During the Indian rebellion of 1857, several leaders from this region, including Rao Tula Ram, participated actively. People of the these towns Rewari, Narnaul, Mahendragarh were more active in freedeom struggle.
Formation of Haryana
Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966, on the recommendation of the Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965. On 23 April 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana giving consideration to the language spoken by the people. The commission gave its report on 31 May 1966. According to this report the then districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak, and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur), Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri were also to be included.
The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should be a part of Haryana. However, the city of Chandigarh and a Punjabi-speaking area of Rupnagar district were made a Union Territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.