Place:Texas, United States

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NameTexas
Alt namesTXsource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1257
Tex
TypeState
Coordinates30°N 100°W
Located inUnited States     (1845 - )
Contained Places
Unknown
McGreggor
Census-designated place
Bausell and Ellis
Los Angeles
Lyford South
Ranchette Estates
County
Anderson ( 1846 - )
Andrews ( 1876 - )
Angelina ( 1846 - )
Aransas ( 1871 - )
Archer ( 1858 - )
Armstrong ( 1876 - )
Atascosa ( 1856 - )
Austin ( 1836 - )
Bailey ( 1876 - )
Bandera ( 1856 - )
Bastrop ( 1836 - )
Baylor ( 1858 - )
Bee ( 1857 - )
Bell ( 1850 - )
Bexar ( 1836 - )
Blanco ( 1858 - )
Borden ( 1876 - )
Bosque ( 1854 - )
Bowie ( 1840 - )
Brazoria ( 1836 - )
Brazos ( 1841 - )
Brewster ( 1887 - )
Briscoe ( 1876 - )
Brooks ( 1911 - )
Brown ( 1856 - )
Burleson ( 1846 - )
Burnet ( 1852 - )
Caldwell ( 1848 - )
Calhoun ( 1846 - )
Callahan ( 1858 - )
Cameron ( 1848 - )
Camp ( 1874 - )
Carson ( 1876 - )
Cass ( 1846 - )
Castro ( 1876 - )
Chambers ( 1858 - )
Cherokee ( 1846 - )
Childress ( 1876 - )
Clay ( 1857 - )
Cochran ( 1876 - )
Coke ( 1889 - )
Coleman ( 1858 - )
Collin ( 1846 - )
Collingsworth ( 1876 - )
Colorado ( 1836 - )
Comal ( 1846 - )
Comanche ( 1856 - )
Concho ( 1858 - )
Cooke ( 1848 - )
Coryell ( 1854 - )
Cottle ( 1876 - )
Crane ( 1887 - )
Crockett ( 1875 - )
Crosby ( 1876 - )
Culberson ( 1911 - )
Dallam ( 1876 - )
Dallas ( 1846 - )
DeWitt ( 1846 - )
Deaf Smith ( 1876 - )
Delta ( 1868 - )
Denton ( 1846 - )
Dickens ( 1876 - )
Dimmit ( 1858 - )
Donley ( 1881 - )
Duval ( 1858 - )
Eastland ( 1858 - )
Ector ( 1887 - )
Edwards ( 1858 - )
El Paso ( 1850 - )
Ellis ( 1849 - )
Erath ( 1856 - )
Falls ( 1850 - )
Fannin ( 1837 - )
Fayette ( 1837 - )
Fisher ( 1876 - )
Floyd ( 1876 - )
Foard ( 1891 - )
Fort Bend ( 1837 - )
Franklin ( 1875 - )
Freestone ( 1850 - )
Frio ( 1858 - )
Gaines ( 1876 - )
Galveston ( 1838 - )
Garza ( 1876 - )
Gillespie ( 1848 - )
Gilmer
Glasscock ( 1887 - )
Goliad ( 1836 - )
Gonzales ( 1836 - )
Gray ( 1876 - )
Grayson ( 1846 - )
Gregg ( 1873 - )
Grimes ( 1846 - )
Guadalupe ( 1846 - )
Hale ( 1876 - )
Hall ( 1876 - )
Hamilton ( 1842 - )
Hansford ( 1876 - )
Hardeman ( 1858 - )
Hardin ( 1858 - )
Harris ( 1836 - )
Harrison ( 1839 - )
Hartley ( 1876 - )
Haskell ( 1858 - )
Hays ( 1848 - )
Hemphill ( 1876 - )
Henderson ( 1846 - )
Hidalgo ( 1852 - )
Hill ( 1853 - )
Hockley ( 1874 - )
Hood ( 1865 - )
Hopkins ( 1846 - )
Houston ( 1837 - )
Howard ( 1876 - )
Hudspeth ( 1917 - )
Hunt ( 1846 - )
Hutchinson ( 1876 - )
Irion ( 1889 - )
Jack ( 1856 - )
Jackson ( 1836 - )
Jasper ( 1836 - )
Jeff Davis ( 1887 - )
Jefferson ( 1836 - )
Jim Hogg ( 1913 - )
Jim Wells ( 1911 - )
Johnson ( 1854 - )
Jones ( 1858 - )
Karnes ( 1854 - )
Kaufman ( 1848 - )
Kendall ( 1862 - )
Kenedy ( 1911 - )
Kent ( 1876 - )
Kerr ( 1856 - )
Kimble ( 1858 - )
King ( 1876 - )
Kinney ( 1850 - )
Kleberg ( 1913 - )
Knox ( 1858 - )
La Salle ( 1858 - )
Lamar ( 1840 - )
Lamb ( 1876 - )
Lampasas ( 1856 - )
Lavaca ( 1846 - )
Lee ( 1874 - )
Leon ( 1846 - )
Liberty ( 1836 - )
Limestone ( 1846 - )
Lipscomb ( 1876 - )
Live Oak ( 1856 - )
Llano ( 1856 - )
Loving ( 1887 - )
Lubbock ( 1876 - )
Lynn ( 1876 - )
Madison ( 1853 - )
Marion ( 1860 - )
Martin ( 1876 - )
Mason ( 1858 - )
Matagorda ( 1836 - )
Maverick ( 1856 - )
McCulloch ( 1856 - )
McLennan ( 1859 - )
McMullen ( 1858 - )
Medina ( 1848 - )
Menard ( 1850 - )
Midland ( 1885 - )
Milam ( 1836 - )
Mills ( 1887 - )
Mitchell ( 1876 - )
Montague ( 1857 - )
Montgomery ( 1834 - )
Moore ( 1876 - )
Morris ( 1875 - )
Motley ( 1876 - )
Nacogdoches ( 1836 - )
Navarro ( 1846 - )
Newton ( 1846 - )
Nolan ( 1876 - )
Nueces ( 1846 - )
Ochiltree ( 1876 - )
Oldham ( 1876 - )
Orange ( 1852 - )
Palo Pinto ( 1856 - )
Panola ( 1846 - )
Parker ( 1855 - )
Parmer ( 1876 - )
Pecos ( 1871 - )
Polk ( 1846 - )
Potter ( 1876 - )
Presidio ( 1870 - )
Rains ( 1870 - )
Randall ( 1876 - )
Reagan ( 1903 - )
Real ( 1913 - )
Red River ( 1836 - )
Reeves ( 1883 - )
Refugio ( 1836 - )
Roberts ( 1876 - )
Robertson ( 1837 - )
Rockwall ( 1873 - )
Runnels ( 1858 - )
Rusk ( 1843 - )
Sabine ( 1836 - )
San Augustine ( 1836 - )
San Jacinto ( 1869 - )
San Patricio ( 1836 - )
San Saba ( 1856 - )
Schleicher ( 1887 - )
Scurry ( 1876 - )
Shackelford ( 1858 - )
Shelby ( 1836 - )
Sheridan
Sherman ( 1876 - )
Smith ( 1846 - )
Somervell ( 1875 - )
Starr ( 1848 - )
Stephens ( 1858 - )
Sterling ( 1891 - )
Stonewall ( 1876 - )
Sutton ( 1887 - )
Swisher ( 1876 - )
Tarrant ( 1849 - )
Taylor ( 1905 - )
Terrell ( 1905 - )
Terry ( 1876 - )
Throckmorton ( 1858 - )
Titus ( 1846 - )
Tom Green ( 1874 - )
Travis ( 1840 - )
Trinity ( 1850 - )
Tyler ( 1846 - )
Upshur ( 1846 - )
Upton ( 1867 - )
Uvalde ( 1850 - )
Val Verde ( 1885 - )
Van Zandt ( 1848 - )
Victoria ( 1836 - )
Walker ( 1846 - )
Waller ( 1873 - )
Ward ( 1887 - )
Washington ( 1836 - )
Webb ( 1848 - )
Wharton ( 1846 - )
Wheeler ( 1876 - )
Wichita ( 1858 - )
Wilbarger ( 1858 - )
Willacy ( 1911 - )
Williamson ( 1848 - )
Wilson ( 1860 - )
Winkler ( 1887 - )
Wise ( 1856 - )
Wood ( 1850 - )
Yoakum ( 1876 - )
Young ( 1856 - )
Zapata ( 1858 - )
Zavala ( 1858 - )
Former county
Buchel
Encinal ( 1856 - )
Foley
Inhabited place
Dawson ( 1858 - )
Holly Community
Las Vegas history
Neiderwald
Unknown
Mustang Island
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Texas is the second most populous (after California) and the second-largest of the 50 states (after Alaska) in the United States of America, and the largest state in the 48 contiguous United States. Geographically located in the South Central part of the country, Texas shares an international border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and borders the U.S. states of New Mexico to the west, Oklahoma to the north, Arkansas to the northeast, and Louisiana to the east. Texas has an area of and a growing population of over 26.4 million residents (July 2013)

Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest in the United States, while San Antonio is the second largest in the state and seventh largest in the United States. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest United States metropolitan areas, respectively. Other major cities include El Paso and Austin—the state capital. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify Texas as a former independent republic and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal today. The origin of the state name, Texas, is from the word, "Tejas", which means 'friends' in the Caddo language.

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both the American South and Southwest. Although Texas is popularly associated with the Southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of the land area is desert. Most of the population centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.

The term "six flags over Texas", as can be seen in the Grand Prairie-based large national and international amusement park operator Six Flags, came from the several nations that had ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony in Texas. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845 it joined the United States as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state, Texas declared its secession from the United States in early 1861, joining the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. After the war and its restoration to the Union, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.

One Texas industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle. Due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The state's economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated an economic boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Pre-European era

Texas lies between two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America: the Southwestern and the Plains areas. Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. These were:

No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area.[1] Native American tribes that lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Coahuiltecan, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita. The name 'Texas' derives from , a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai, which means "friends" or "allies".

Whether a Native American tribe was friendly or warlike was critical to the fates of European explorers and settlers in that land. Friendly tribes taught newcomers how to grow indigenous crops, prepare foods, and hunt wild game. Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers.

Colonization

The first historical document related to Texas was a map of the Gulf Coast, created in 1519 by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda. Nine years later, shipwrecked Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his cohort became the first Europeans in what is now Texas. Cabeza de Vaca reported that in 1528, when the Spanish landed in the area, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us."

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado describes his 1541 encounter with "Two kinds of people travel around these plains with the cows; one is called Querechos and the others Teyas; they are very well built, and painted, and are enemies of each other. They have no other settlement or location than comes from traveling around with the cows. They kill all of these they wish, and tan the hides, with which they clothe themselves and make their tents, and they eat the flesh, sometimes even raw, and they also even drink the blood when thirsty. The tents they make are like field tents, and they set them up over some poles they have made for this purpose, which come together and are tied at the top, and when they go from one place to another they carry them on some dogs they have, of which they have many, and they load them with the tents and poles and other things, for the country is so level, as I said, that they can make use of these, because they carry the poles dragging along on the ground. The sun is what they worship most."

European powers ignored the area until accidentally settling there in 1685. Miscalculations by René Robert Cavelier de La Salle resulted in his establishing the colony of Fort Saint Louis at Matagorda Bay rather than along the Mississippi River. The colony lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives.

In 1690 Spanish authorities, concerned that France posed competitive threat, constructed several missions in East Texas. After Native American resistance, the Spanish missionaries returned to Mexico. When France began settling Louisiana, mostly in the southern part of the state, in 1716 Spanish authorities responded by founding a new series of missions in East Texas. Two years later, they created San Antonio as the first Spanish civilian settlement in the area.

Hostile native tribes and distance from nearby Spanish colonies discouraged settlers from moving to the area. It was one of New Spain's least populated provinces. In 1749, the Spanish peace treaty with the Lipan Apache angered many tribes, including the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai. The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in 1785 and later helped to defeat the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes. With more numerous missions being established, priests led a peaceful conversion of most tribes. By the end of the 18th century only a few nomadic tribes had not converted to Christianity.

When the United States purchased Louisiana from France in 1803, American authorities insisted that the agreement also included Texas. The boundary between New Spain and the United States was finally set at the Sabine River in 1819, at what is now the border between Texas and Louisiana. Eager for new land, many United States settlers refused to recognize the agreement. Several filibusters raised armies to invade the area west of the Sabine River. In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence included the Texas territory, which became part of Mexico. Due to its low population, Mexico made the area part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas.

Hoping that more settlers would reduce the near-constant Comanche raids, Mexican Texas liberalized its immigration policies to permit immigrants from outside Mexico and Spain. Under the Mexican immigration system, large swathes of land were allotted to empresarios, who recruited settlers from the United States, Europe, and the Mexican interior. The first grant, to Moses Austin, was passed to his son Stephen F. Austin after his death.

Austin's settlers, the Old Three Hundred, made places along the Brazos River in 1822. Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority of whom were from the United States.[2] The population of Texas grew rapidly. In 1825, Texas had a population of approximately 3,500, with most of Mexican descent. By 1834, Texas had grown to approximately 37,800 people, with only 7,800 of Mexican descent.

Many immigrants openly flouted Mexican law, especially the prohibition against slavery. Combined with United States' attempts to purchase Texas, Mexican authorities decided in 1830 to prohibit continued immigration from the United States. New laws also called for the enforcement of customs duties angering both native Mexican citizens (Tejanos) and recent immigrants.

The Anahuac Disturbances in 1832 were the first open revolt against Mexican rule and they coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the nation's president. Texians sided with the federalists against the current government and drove all Mexican soldiers out of East Texas. They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom. Texians met at the Convention of 1832 to discuss requesting independent statehood, among other issues. The following year, Texians reiterated their demands at the Convention of 1833.


Republic

Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists. In early 1835, wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety. The unrest erupted into armed conflict in late 1835 at the Battle of Gonzales. This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months, the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region. Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government. The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of 1836.

During this time of political turmoil, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt. The Mexican expedition was initially successful. General Jose de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad Massacre. Santa Anna's forces, after a thirteen-day siege, overwhelmed Texian defenders at the Battle of the Alamo. News of the defeats sparked panic amongst Texas settlers.[3]

The newly elected Texian delegates to the Convention of 1836 quickly signed a Declaration of Independence on March 2, forming the Republic of Texas. After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded. The new government joined the other settlers in Texas in the Runaway Scrape, fleeing from the approaching Mexican army. After several weeks of retreat, the Texian Army commanded by Sam Houston attacked and defeated Santa Anna's forces at the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war.

While Texas had won their independence, political battles raged between two factions of the new Republic. The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War.

Mexico launched two small expeditions into Texas in 1842. The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson Massacre. Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived. The republic's inability to defend itself added momentum to Texas's eventual annexation into the United States.

Statehood

As early as 1837, the Republic made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States. Opposition within the republic from the nationalist faction, along with strong abolitionist opposition within the United States, slowed Texas's admission into the Union. Texas was finally annexed when the expansionist James K. Polk won the election of 1844. On December 29, 1845, Congress admitted Texas to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union.

After Texas's annexation, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States. While the United States claimed that Texas's border stretched to the Rio Grande, Mexico claimed it was the Nueces River. While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States had the military strength and the political will to do so. President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor south to the Rio Grande on January 13, 1846. A few months later Mexican troops routed an American cavalry patrol in the disputed area in the Thornton Affair starting the Mexican-American War. The first battles of the war were fought in Texas: the Siege of Fort Texas, Battle of Palo Alto and Battle of Resaca de la Palma. After these decisive victories, the United States invaded Mexican territory ending the fighting in Texas.

After a series of United States victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the two-year war. In return, for US$18,250,000, Mexico gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, ceded the Mexican Cession in 1848, most of which today is called the American Southwest, and Texas's borders were established at the Rio Grande.[4]

The Compromise of 1850 set Texas's boundaries at their present form. Texas ceded its claims to land which later became half of present day New Mexico, a third of Colorado, and small portions of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming to the federal government, in return for the assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt. Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the state.

They also brought or purchased enslaved African Americans, whose numbers tripled in the state from 1850 to 1860, from 58,000 to 182,566.

Civil War and Reconstruction (1860–1900)

Texas was at war again after the election of 1860. When Abraham Lincoln was elected, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Five other Lower South states quickly followed. A State Convention considering secession opened in Austin on January 28, 1861. On February 1, by a vote of 166–8, the Convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession from the United States. Texas voters approved this Ordinance on February 23, 1861. Texas joined the Confederate States of America, ratifying the permanent C.S. Constitution on March 23, 1861.[5]

Not all Texans favored secession initially, although many of the same would later support the Southern cause. Texas's most notable unionist was the state Governor, Sam Houston. Not wanting to aggravate the situation, Houston refused two offers from President Lincoln for Union troops to keep him in office. After refusing to swear an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Houston was deposed as governor.

While far from the major battlefields of the American Civil War, Texas contributed large numbers of men and equipment to the rest of the Confederacy. Union troops briefly occupied the state's primary port, Galveston. Texas's border with Mexico was known as the "backdoor of the Confederacy" because trade occurred at the border, bypassing the Union blockade. The Confederacy repulsed all Union attempts to shut down this route,[6] but Texas's role as a supply state was marginalized in mid-1863 after the Union capture of the Mississippi River. The final battle of the Civil War was fought near Brownsville, Texas at Palmito Ranch with a Confederate victory.

Texas descended into anarchy for two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger. Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction. Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston by General Gordon Granger, over two and a half years after the original announcement. President Johnson, in 1866, declared the civilian government restored in Texas. Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, Congress readmitted Texas into the Union in 1870. Social volatility continued as the state struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues.

20th century to present

In 1900, Texas received the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history during the Galveston hurricane.[7] On January 10, 1901, the first major oil well in Texas, Spindletop, was found south of Beaumont. Other fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas, West Texas, and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting "Oil Boom" transformed Texas. Oil production eventually averaged three million barrels per day at its peak in 1972.

The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl dealt a double blow to the state's economy, which had significantly improved since the Civil War. Migrants abandoned the worst hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years. Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation. In 1940, Texas was 74 percent Anglo, 14.4 percent black, and 11.5 percent Hispanic.

World War II had a dramatic impact on Texas, as federal money poured in to build military bases, munitions factories, POW detention camps and Army hospitals; 750,000 young men left for service; the cities exploded with new industry; the colleges took on new roles; and hundreds of thousands of poor farmers left for much better paying war jobs, never to return to agriculture. Texas manufactured 3.1 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking eleventh among the 48 states.

Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education through the 1960s. The state created a comprehensive plan for higher education, funded in large part by oil revenues, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently. These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds.

On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.

Timeline

YearEventSource
1836Texas wins independence when they defeat Mexican forces of Santa Anna in the Battle of San JacintoSource:Wikipedia
1845Texas becomes a stateSource:Wikipedia
1850Texas's first censusSource:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
1870During Civil War, Texas seceded from the Union and joined Confederate States of AmericaSource:Wikipedia

Population History

source: Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
Census Year Population
1850 212,592
1860 604,215
1870 818,579
1880 1,591,749
1890 2,235,527
1900 3,048,710
1910 3,896,542
1920 4,663,228
1930 5,824,715
1940 6,414,824
1950 7,711,194
1960 9,579,677
1970 11,196,730
1980 14,229,191
1990 16,986,510

Note: Texas was part of Mexico until its revolution in 1835-36 made it an independent republic, with a territory somewhat larger than the present State. It became part of the United States and was admitted as a State on December 29, 1845. It reached essentially its present boundaries in 1850, after the sale to the United States of an extensive northwestern area. In 1896 a long-standing dispute over what is now Greer County, Oklahoma was decided against Texas by the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1930 a Supreme Court decision transferred from Oklahoma to Texas a narrow strip on the eastern side of the Texas Panhandle. Beginning in 1905, international treaties and conventions have exchanged small tracts along the Rio Grande with Mexico, notably in and adjacent to the city of El Paso. Census coverage of eastern Texas began in 1850, although in 1820 and 1830 the census counts for (old) Miller County, Arkansas Territory, included some people in what is now Texas. By 1880 census coverage included the entire State.

Research Tips

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Outstanding guide to Texas family history and genealogy (FamilySearch Research Wiki). Birth, marriage, and death records, wills, deeds, county records, archives, Bible records, cemeteries, churches, censuses, directories, immigration lists, naturalizations, maps, history, newspapers, and societies.


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