Place:Nova Scotia, Canada

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NameNova Scotia
Alt namesAcadiasource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) VIII, 808
Acadiesource: Encyclopædia Britannica (1988) VIII, 808
Alba Nuadh;source: Wikipedia
Neuschottlandsource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-121
Nouvelle Écossesource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-124
Nouvelle-Écosse;source: Wikipedia
Nueva Escociasource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-125
Province de Nouvelle-Écossesource: NIMA, GEOnet Names Server (1996-1998)
NSsource: Common abbreviation
N.S.source: Wikipedia
TypeProvince
Coordinates45°N 63°W
Located inCanada     (1867 - present)
Contained Places
Unknown
Folly Village
County
Annapolis ( 1759 - )
Antigonish ( 1784 - )
Cape Breton
Colchester ( 1835 - )
Cumberland ( 1759 - )
Digby
Guysborough ( 1836 - )
Halifax ( 1759 - )
Hants ( 1781 - )
Inverness
Kings ( 1759 - present )
Lunenburg ( 1759 - )
Pictou
Queens ( 1762 - )
Richmond ( 1835 - )
Shelburne ( 1784 - )
Victoria ( 1851 - )
Yarmouth ( 1836 - )
District
Colchester ( 1835 - )
Historical inhabited place
Fort Louisbourg ( 1745 - 1760 )
Inhabited place
Advocate Harbour
Advocate
Arcadia
Baddeck
Ballantynes Cove
Belmont
Berwick
Caribou
Cornwallis
Debert
Dingwall
Dominion
Ecum Secum
Elmsdale
Fourchu
Gabarus
Gaspereau
Glen Haven
Gore
Goshen
Grand-Pré ( 1710 - 1759 )
Grand-Pré ( 1710 - 1759 )
Granville Ferry
Harbourville
Hatchet Lake
Hebron
Hectanooga
Hemford
Hubbards
Indian Brook
Indian Harbour Lake
Ingonish
Judique
Kennetcook
Kingsburg
Kingston
Lakeside
Larrys River
Lismore
Louisdale
Lower West Pubnico
Lower Woods Harbour
Margaree Harbour
McLellans Brook
Meaghers
Meteghan
Middle Stewiacke
Milford Station
Musquodoboit Harbour
New Germany
New Road
Petite Riviere
Pleasant Bay
Pomquet
Port Greville
Port Hood Island
Port Joli
Port Royal
Queensport
River Hébert
River John
Riverport
Saint Peters
Shelburne ( 1784 - )
South Alton
South Brookfield
Spencer's Island
Springfield
Strathlorne
Sunnybrae
Sydney Mines
Tancook Island
Three Mile Plains
Torbrook
Walton
Waterville
Wentworth Centre
West Bay
Westchester Station
Island
Campobello Island ( - 1784 )
Military base
Fort Louisbourg ( 1745 - 1760 )
Parish
Campobello Island ( - 1784 )
Gagetown (parish) ( 1765 - 1786 )
Settlement
Grand-Pré ( 1710 - 1759 )
Unincorporated area
Noel Shore
Salem
Unknown
Sable Island
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Nova Scotia (; Latin for "New Scotland"; ; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres (21,300 sq mi), including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands. As of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (45/sq mi).[1]

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Overview

The province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada (and the first north of Florida) at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.

The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick then still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. Immediately after the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population (the Acadians) was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians; New England Planters arrived between 1759 and 1768 to replace them.


In 1763, most of Acadia (Cape Breton Island, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island), and New Brunswick) became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation.

17th and 18th centuries

The warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries significantly influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries. The French arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish (later British), Dutch and French fought for possession of the area. These encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia), Jemseg (1674 and 1758) and Baleine (1629). The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645.

Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French (and ultimately expelled much of their population) and made peace with the Mi'kmaq:

The battles during these wars took place primarily Port Royal, Saint John, Canso, Chignecto, Dartmouth (1751), Lunenburg (1756) and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq, who confined British forces to Annapolis and to Canso.

The Mi'kmaq signed a series of treaties with Great Britain, beginning after Father Rale's War (1725). In 1725, the British signed a treaty (or "agreement") with the Mi'kmaq, but the authorities have often disputed its definition of the rights of the Mi'kmaq to hunt and fish on their lands.


A generation later, Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. A General Court, made up of the governor and the Council, was the highest court in the colony at the time.[2] Jonathan Belcher was sworn in as chief justice of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court on October 21, 1754. The first legislative assembly in Halifax, under the Governorship of Charles Lawrence, met on October 2, 1758. During the French and Indian War of 1754–63 (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763), the British deported the Acadians and recruited New England Planters to resettle the colony. The 75-year period of war ended with the Halifax Treaties between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761). After the war, some Acadians were allowed to return and the British made treaties with the Mi’kmaq.


The American Revolution (1775–1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. Initially, Nova Scotia—"the 14th American Colony" as some called it—displayed ambivalence over whether the colony should join the more southern colonies in their defiance of Britain, and rebellion flared at the Battle of Fort Cumberland (1776) and at the Siege of Saint John (1777). Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by capturing ships and looting almost every community outside of Halifax. These American raids alienated many sympathetic or neutral Nova Scotians into supporting the British. By the end of the war Nova Scotia had outfitted a number of privateers to attack American shipping. British military forces based at Halifax succeeded in preventing American support for rebels in Nova Scotia and deterred any invasion of Nova Scotia. However the British navy failed to establish naval supremacy. While the British captured many American privateers in battles such as the Naval battle off Halifax (1782), many more continued attacks on shipping and settlements until the final months of the war. The Royal Navy struggled to maintain British supply lines, defending convoys from American and French attacks as in the fiercely fought convoy battle, the Naval battle off Cape Breton (1781).


After the Thirteen Colonies and their French allies forced the British forces to surrender (1781), approximately 33,000 Loyalists (the King's Loyal Americans, allowed to place "United Empire Loyalist" after their names) settled in Nova Scotia (14,000 of them in what became New Brunswick) on lands granted by the Crown as some compensation for their losses. (The British administration divided Nova Scotia and hived off Cape Breton and New Brunswick in 1784). The Loyalist exodus created new communities across Nova Scotia, including Shelburne, which briefly became one of the larger British settlements in North America, and infused Nova Scotia with additional capital and skills. However the migration also caused political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the existing New England Planters settlement. The Loyalist influx also pushed Nova Scotia's 2000 Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land grants encroached on ill-defined native lands. As part of the Loyalist migration, about 3,000 Black Loyalists arrived; they founded the largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown, near Shelburne. Many Nova Scotian communities were settled by British regiments that fought in the war.

19th century

During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia's contribution to the British war effort involved communities either purchasing or building various privateer ships to attack U.S. vessels. Perhaps the most dramatic moment in the war for Nova Scotia occurred when HMS Shannon escorted the captured American frigate USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour (1813). Many of the U.S. prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island, Halifax.

During this century, Nova Scotia became the first colony in British North America and in the British Empire to achieve responsible government in January–February 1848 and become self-governing through the efforts of Joseph Howe. Nova Scotia had established representative government in 1758, an achievement later commemorated by the erection of the Dingle Tower in 1908.


Nova Scotians fought in the Crimean War of 1853–1856. The Welsford-Parker Monument in Halifax is the second-oldest war monument in Canada (1860) and the only Crimean War monument in North America. It commemorates the 1854–55 Siege of Sevastopol.

Thousands of Nova Scotians fought in the American Civil War (1861–1865), primarily on behalf of the North. The British Empire (including Nova Scotia) in the conflict. As a result, Britain (and Nova Scotia) continued to trade with both the South and the North. Nova Scotia's economy boomed during the Civil War.

Soon after the American Civil War, Pro-Canadian Confederation premier Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, along with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada. The Anti-Confederation Party was led by Joseph Howe. Almost three months later, in the election of September 18, 1867, the Anti-Confederation Party won 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature.

Nova Scotia became a world leader in both building and owning wooden sailing ships in the second half of the 19th century. Nova Scotia produced internationally recognized shipbuilders Donald McKay and William Dawson Lawrence. The fame Nova Scotia achieved from sailors was assured when Joshua Slocum became the first man to sail single-handedly around the world (1895). International attention continued into the following century with the many racing victories of the Bluenose schooner. Nova Scotia was also the birthplace and home of Samuel Cunard, a British shipping magnate (born at Halifax, Nova Scotia) who founded the Cunard Line.

Throughout the 19th century, numerous businesses developed in Nova Scotia became of pan-Canadian and international importance: the Starr Manufacturing Company (first skate-manufacturer in Canada), the Bank of Nova Scotia, Cunard Line, Alexander Keith's Brewery, Morse's Tea Company (first tea company in Canada), among others. (Early in the 20th century Sobey's was established, as was Maritime Life.)

Research Tips

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