Place:New Brunswick, Canada


NameNew Brunswick
Alt namesNBsource: postal abbreviation
N.B.source: Wikipedia (former abbreviation)
Neubraunschweigsource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-120
Nouveau Brunswicksource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-124
Nouveau-Brunswicksource: Wikipedia
Nueva Brunswicksource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-125
Province de Nouveau-Brunswicksource: NIMA, GEOnet Names Server (1996-1998)
TypeProvince
Coordinates46.5°N 66.75°W
Located inCanada     (1867 - )
Contained Places
County
Albert ( 1845 - )
Carleton ( 1831 - )
Charlotte ( 1785 - )
Gloucester ( 1826 - )
Kent
Kings
Madawaska (county) ( 1873 - )
Northumberland ( 1785 - )
Queens ( 1785 - )
Restigouche
Saint John (county)
Sunbury
Victoria
Westmorland
York
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

New Brunswick (; Canadian French pronunciation: ) is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves anglophones and a third francophones. One third of the overall population describe themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas, mostly in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton.

Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is mostly forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, and less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes.

Being relatively close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy peoples. The French settlers were in turn eventually displaced when the area became part of the British Empire. In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia.

The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew rapidly, reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867 New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec).

After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England. The mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services (about half being government services and public administration) 43%; construction, manufacturing, and utilities 24%; real estate rental 12%; wholesale and retail 11%; agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining, oil and gas extraction 5%; transportation and warehousing 5%.

Tourism accounts for about 9% of the labour force directly or indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, and Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.

Contents

Demography

the following text is based on an article in Wikipedia

Before New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia, it consisted of Cumberland and Sunbury Counties. Over time, with population increase, the number of counties grew to fifteen. The size of the province did not expand; the counties divided to better serve their local communities before the 20th century advance of communication. Counties were at the top of a three-layer local government system. Below each county were parishes (equivalent to townships in other parts of North America). Some, but not all, parishes were then further subdivided into municipalities. The exception to this was the municipality of Saint John which was not in a parish but was a sub-division of Saint John County.

Image:Canada New Brunswick Counties 2.png

With the New Brunswick Equal Opportunity program launched in 1966, county councils were abolished. However, counties continue to be used as an organizational unit, along with parishes, for registry of real-estate and to some extent taxation thereof. They figure prominently in residents' sense of place and continue as significant threads in the Province's cultural fabric (i.e., most citizens always know which county they are in). They still appear on most maps, including Google Earth where they show up better than does the Canada-United States border.

WeRelate lists the cities, towns, and more rural municipalities in New Brunswick according to the county they were in until 1966. Alterations to the structure since that date are included in the description of the places concerned.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Pre-history

Indigenous peoples have been present in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Bouctouche, Petitcodiac, Quispamsis, and Shediac.

New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, and the Bay of Fundy may have been visited in the early 1500s by Basque, Breton, and Norman fishermen.

French colony

The first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day in 1604. Now Saint John, this was later the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick.[1] French settlement eventually extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton.

Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, and up the Petitcodiac, Memramcook, and Shepody Rivers.

By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Quebec and Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and Île-Royale (Cape Breton Island). The ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto.

The British eventually prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians.

British colony

Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, and Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants, mostly from New England, on their former lands. Some settled around Memramcook and along the Saint John River.

Settlement was initially slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, and English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area.

After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, ("hope restored"). The number reached almost 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten eventually returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly.

The colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, and Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city. The population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812.

The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding,[2] bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels.

The first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861.

In 1848, responsible home government was granted[3] and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties largely organised along religious and ethnic lines.[2]

Confederation

The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed increasingly in the 1860s. Many felt that the American Civil war was the result of weak central government, and wished to avoid such violence and chaos. The 1864 Charlottetown Conference had been intended to discuss a Maritime Union, but concerns over possible conquest by the Americans coupled with a belief that Britain was unwilling to defend its colonies against American attack led to a request from the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec) to expand the scope of the meeting. In 1866 the US cancelled the Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty leading to loss of trade with New England and prompting a desire to build trade within British North America, while Fenian raids increased support for union.

On 1 July 1867 New Brunswick entered the Canadian Confederation along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada.

Modern New Brunswick

Confederation brought into existence the Intercolonial Railway in 1872, a consolidation of the existing Nova Scotia Railway, European and North American Railway, and Grand Trunk Railway. In 1879 John A. Macdonald's Conservatives enacted the National Policy which called for high tariffs and opposed free trade, disrupting the trading relationship between the Maritimes and New England. The economic situation was worsened by the decline of the wooden ship building industry. The railways and tariffs did foster the growth of new industries in the province such as textile manufacturing, iron mills, and sugar refineries,[4] many of which eventually failed to compete with better capitalized industry in central Canada.

In 1937 New Brunswick had the highest infant mortality and illiteracy rates in Canada. At the end of the Great Depression the New Brunswick standard of living was much below the Canadian average. In 1940 the Rowell–Sirois Commission reported that federal government attempts to manage the depression illustrated grave flaws in the Canadian constitution. While the federal government had most of the revenue gathering powers, the provinces had many expenditure responsibilities such as healthcare, education, and welfare, which were becoming increasingly expensive. The Commission recommended the creation of equalization payments, implemented in 1957.

The Acadians in northern New Brunswick had long been geographically and linguistically isolated from the more numerous English speakers to the south. The population of French origin grew dramatically after Confederation, from about 16 per cent in 1871 to 34 per cent in 1931.[5] Government services were often not available in French, and the infrastructure in Francophone areas was less developed than elsewhere. In 1960 Premier Louis Robichaud embarked on the New Brunswick Equal Opportunity program, in which education, rural road maintenance, and healthcare fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial government that insisted on equal coverage throughout the province, rather than the former county-based system.

The flag of New Brunswick, based on the coat of arms, was adopted in 1965. The conventional heraldic representations of a lion and a ship represent colonial ties with Europe, and the importance of shipping at the time the coat of arms was assigned.

Research Tips

  • New Brunswick Provincial Archives. This is the introductory page. The tabs will lead you to more precise material.
  • The FamilySearch wiki. This lists the availability of vital statistics indexes for New Brunswick.
  • New Brunswick GenWeb. A round-up of a lot of genealogical information at the province, county and parish level. Lists of cemeteries and monumental inscriptions can be found here.
  • The Provincial Archives website titled The Placenames of New Brunswick has maps of all of its parishes and descriptions of some communities within them. This site contains "cadastral" maps for each parish illustrating the grantee’s name for land granted by the province. These maps are cumulative, showing all grants regardless of date.
  • Microfilm images of all Canadian censuses 1851-1911 are online at Library and Archives Canada, as well as at FamilySearch and Ancestry. The 1921 census appears to be available only at Ancestry.
  • The CanGenealogy page for New Brunswick. An overview of available online sources with links written by Dave Obee.
  • More possibilities can be found by googling "New Brunswick province family history" and investigating the results.
  • The word "rencensement", found in Sources, is French for "census".
This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at New Brunswick. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at List of counties of New Brunswick. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.