Place:Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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NameNewfoundland and Labrador
Alt namesNLsource: Wikipedia (postal abbreviation)
Nfld.source: Wikipedia (former abbreviation-Newfoundland only)
NFsource: Wikipedia (abbreviation-Newfoundland only)
LBsource: Wikipedia (abbreviation-Labrador only)
Neufundlandsource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-120
Newfoundlandsource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Province de Terre-Neuvesource: NIMA, GEOnet Names Server (1996-1998)
Talamh an Éisc agus Labradóirsource: Wikipedia
Terra Novasource: Canadian Encyclopedia (1985) II, 1244
Terranovasource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-174
Terre-Neuvesource: Rand McNally Atlas (1994) I-174
Terre-Neuve-et-Labradorsource: Wikipedia
Vinlandsource: Times Atlas of World History (1993) p 359
TypeProvince
Coordinates52°N 56°W
Located inCanada     (1949 - )
Contained Places
Census division
No. 1
No. 8
Former administrative division
Labrador
General region
Labrador
Inhabited place
Abraham's Cove
Adeyton
Admiral's Beach
Admiral's Cove
Angel's Cove
Appleton
Aquaforte
Argentia
Aspen Cove
Badger
Baie Verte
Bartletts Harbour
Battle Harbour
Bay Bulls
Bay L'Argent
Bay Roberts
Bay de Verde
Beaumont
Belleoram
Birchy Bay
Bishop's Falls
Bonavista ( 1450 - )
Bonne Bay
Botwood
Boxey
Boyds Cove
Branch
Brig Bay
Brigus
Bristol's Hope
Brownsdale
Buchans
Burgeo
Burin
Burlington
Burnt Island
Burnt Point
Campbellton
Cape Broyle
Cape La Hune
Caplin Cove
Carbonear
Carmanville
Catalina
Change Islands
Channel-Port aux Basques
Chapel Arm
Clarenville
Clarke's Head
Codroy Pond
Codroy
Colinet
Conception Bay South
Conche
Cooks Harbour
Corner Brook
Cow Head
Coxs Cove
Creston
Cuper's Cove
Daniels Harbour
Davis Cove
Deer Lake
Dildo
Doting Cove
Doyles
Dunville
Durrell
Eastport
Eddies Cove East
Elliston
Englee
English Harbour West
Ferryland
Flat Bay
Flat Island ( - 1920 )
Fleur de Lys
Flowers Cove
Fogo Island
Fogo
Fortune Harbour
Fortune
Fox Harbour
François
Gambo
Gander Bay
Gander
Garnish
Gaultois
Glenwood
Glovertown
Grand Bank
Grand Bruit
Grand Falls
Grand Falls-Windsor
Grates Cove
Great Harbour
Greenspond
Grey River
Gull Island
Hampden
Hant's Harbour
Happy Adventure
Happy Valley-Goose Bay
Harbour Breton
Harbour Buffett
Harbour Deep
Harbour Grace
Hare Bay
Head Bay d'Espoir
Heart's Content
Hebron
Hermitage
Hickmans Harbour
Hooping Harbour
Howley
Isle aux Morts
Jacksons Arm
Job's Cove
Joe Batts Arm
Keels
Kings Point
Kippens
L'Anse Amour
L'Anse aux Meadows ( 750 - )
La Poile
La Scie
Labrador City
Labrador West
Lamaline
Lark Harbour
Lawn
Lead Cove
Lethbridge
Lewisporte
Little Bay Islands
Little Bay
Little Catalina
Little Harbour Deep
Long Harbour
Lourdes
Low Point
Lower Island Cove
Lumsden
Marystown
McCallum
Merasheen
Middle Brook
Millertown Junction
Millertown
Mount Carmel
Musgravetown
Nain
Newtown
Nippers Harbour
Norris Arm
Norris Point
Northern Arm
Northern Bay
Old Perlican
Pacquet
Parsons Pond
Pasadena
Pass Island
Perry's Cove
Petit Forte
Petty Harbour
Piccadilly
Pilleys Island
Placentia
Point Leamington
Pools Cove
Port Anson
Port Blandford
Port Hope Simpson
Port Kirwan
Port Rexton
Port Saunders
Port Union
Port-au-Port
Portugal Cove South
Portugal Cove-St. Philip's
Pouch Cove
Princeton
Pushthrough
Raleigh
Ramea
Rattling Brook
Red Head Cove
Rencontre East
Renews
Richards Harbour
Rigolet
River of Ponds
Robert's Arm
Robinsons
Rocky Harbour
Roddickton
Rose Blanche
Round Harbour
Saint Albans
Saint Barbe
Saint Brendans
Saint Brides
Saint Davids
Saint Georges
Saint Lawrence
Saint Mary's
Saint Shotts
Saint Vincents
Salvage
Sandy Point
Seal Cove
Ship Cove
Shoal Harbour
Shoe Cove
Sibley's Cove
South Branch
South Falkland
Spaniards Bay
Springdale
Spruce Brook
St. Anthony
St. John's ( 1600 - )
St. Lawrence
Stag Harbour
Stephenville Crossing
Stephenville
Summerford
Terrenceville
Tompkins
Torbay
Tors Cove
Traytown
Trepassey
Trinity
Trout River
Twillingate
Valleyfield
Victoria
Wabana
Wabush
Wesleyville
Westport
Williamsport
Windsor
Winterton
Witless Bay
Settlement
Main Gut ( 1780 - 1900 )
Unknown
Bell Island
Canning's Cove
Cupids
Freshwater
Open Hall
Pool's Island
Port de Grave
Portugal Cove
Red Cliff
Saint Philips ( 1905 - )
Salmonier
St. Bernard's
St. Jacques
Tickle Cove
Topsail
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Newfoundland and Labrador (; ; Newfoundland Irish: ) is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of . In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland (and its neighbouring smaller islands), of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula.

The province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English (Newfoundland English) as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are also spoken.

Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.

A former colony and then dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to Newfoundland and Labrador.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Pre-colonisation

Human habitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back about 9,000 years. The Maritime Archaic peoples were groups of Archaic cultures of sea-mammal hunters in the subarctic.[1] They prospered along the Atlantic Coast of North America from about 7000 BC to 1500 BC. Their settlements included longhouses and boat-topped temporary or seasonal houses.[1] They engaged in long-distance trade, using as currency white chert, a rock quarried from northern Labrador to Maine. The southern branch of these people was established on the north peninsula of Newfoundland by 5,000 years ago.[2] The Maritime Archaic period is best known from a mortuary site in Newfoundland at Port au Choix.

The Maritime Archaic peoples were gradually displaced by people of the Dorset culture (Late Paleo-Eskimo) who also occupied Port au Choix. The number of their sites discovered on Newfoundland indicates they may have been the most numerous group of Aboriginal people to live there. They thrived from about 2000 BC to AD 800. Many of their sites were located on exposed headlands and outer islands. They were more oriented to the sea than earlier peoples, and had developed sleds and boats similar to kayaks. They burned seal blubber in soapstone lamps.

Many of these sites, such as Port au Choix, recently excavated by Memorial archaeologist, Priscilla Renouf, are quite large and show evidence of a long-term commitment to place. Renouf has excavated huge amounts of harp seal bones at Port au Choix, indicating that this place was a prime location for the hunting of these animals.[2]

The people of the Dorset Culture (800 BC – AD 1500) were highly adapted to living in a very cold climate, and much of their food came from hunting sea mammals through holes in the ice. The massive decline in sea ice during the Medieval Warm Period would have had a devastating impact upon their way of life.[3]

The appearance of the Beothuk culture is believed to be the most recent cultural manifestation of peoples who first migrated from Labrador to Newfoundland around 1 AD. The Inuit, found mostly in Labrador, are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule people, who emerged from western Alaska around AD 1000 and spread eastwards across the High Arctic, reaching Labrador around 1300–1500. Researchers believe that the Dorset culture lacked the dogs, larger weapons and other technologies that gave the expanding Inuit people an advantage. Over time, groups started to focus on resources available to them locally.

The inhabitants eventually organized themselves into small bands of a few families, grouped into larger tribes and chieftainships. The Innu are the inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, i.e. most of what is now referred to as northeastern Quebec and Labrador. Their subsistence activities were historically centred on hunting and trapping caribou, deer and small game. Coastal clans also practiced agriculture, fished and managed maple sugar bush.[4] The Innu engaged in tribal warfare along the coast of Labrador with the Inuit groups that had significant populations.

The Mi'kmaq of southern Newfoundland spent most of their time on the shores harvesting seafood; during the winter they would move inland to the woods to hunt. Over time, the Mi'kmaq and Innu divided their lands into traditional "districts". Each district was independently governed and had a district chief and a council. The council members were band chiefs, elders and other worthy community leaders. In addition to the district councils, the Mi'kmaq tribes also had (have) a Grand Council or Santé Mawiómi, which according to oral tradition was formed before 1600.

Descendants of the Beothuks

By the time that European contact with Newfoundland began in the early 16th century, the Beothuk were the only indigenous group living permanently on the island.[5] Unlike other groups in the Northeastern area of the Americas, the Beothuk never established sustained trading relations with European settlers. Instead, their trading interactions were sporadic, and they largely attempted to avoid contact in order to preserve their culture. The establishment of English fishing operations on the outer coastline of the island, and their later expansion into bays and inlets, cut off access for the Beothuk to their traditional sources of food.

In the 18th century, as the Beothuk were driven further inland by these encroachments, violence between Beothuk and settlers escalated, with each retaliating against the other in their competition for resources. By the early 19th century, violence, starvation, and exposure to tuberculosis had decimated the Beothuk population, and they were extinct as a cultural group by 1829.[5]

Geneticists have suggested that some Icelanders may carry Beothuk DNA, which has been passed down matrilineally over the centuries. This suggests that when the Vikings abandoned their colonization of Newfoundland around 1000 AD, they might have brought back Beothuk women to Europe.

European contact

The oldest confirmed accounts of European contact date from a thousand years ago as described in the Viking (Norse) Icelandic Sagas. Around the year 1001, the sagas refer to Leif Ericson landing in three places to the west, the first two being Helluland (possibly Baffin Island) and Markland (possibly Labrador). Leif's third landing was at a place he called Vinland (possibly Newfoundland). Archaeological evidence of a Norse settlement was found in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, which was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978.

There are several other unconfirmed accounts of European discovery and exploration, one tale by men from the Channel Islands being blown off course in the late 15th century into a strange land full of fish, and another from Portuguese maps that depict the Terra do Bacalhau, or land of codfish, west of the Azores. The earliest, though, is the Voyage of Saint Brendan, the fantastical account of an Irish monk who made a sea voyage in the early 6th century. While the story itself became a part of myth and legend, some historians believe it is based on fact.

In 1496 John Cabot obtained a charter from English King Henry VII to "sail to all parts, countries and seas of the East, the West and of the North, under our banner and ensign and to set up our banner on any new-found-land" and on June 24, 1497, landed in Cape Bonavista. Historians disagree on whether Cabot landed in Nova Scotia in 1497 or in Newfoundland, or possibly Maine, if he landed at all, but Bonavista is recognised by the governments of Canada and the United Kingdom as being Cabot's "official" landing place. In 1499 and 1500, Portuguese mariners João Fernandes Lavrador and Pêro de Barcelos explored and mapped the coast, the former's name appearing as "Labrador" on topographical maps of the period.

Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Portuguese Crown claimed it had territorial rights in the area visited by John Cabot in 1497 and 1498. Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502 the Corte-Real brothers, Miguel and Gaspar, explored Newfoundland and Labrador, claiming them as part of the Portuguese Empire. In 1506, king Manuel I of Portugal created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters. João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established seasonal fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521, and older Portuguese settlements may have existed. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, provided with letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I, landed in St John's in August 1583, and formally took possession of the island.

Colony of Newfoundland

Sometime before 1563 Basque fishermen, who had been fishing cod shoals off Newfoundland's coasts since the beginning of the sixteenth century, founded Plaisance (today Placentia), a seasonal haven which French fishermen later also used. In the Newfoundland will, now in an archive in Spain, of the Basque seaman Domingo de Luca dated 1563 de Luca asks "that my body be buried in this port of Plazençia in the place where those who die here are usually buried". This will is the oldest known civil document written in Canada.

Twenty years later in 1583 Newfoundland became England's first possession in North America and one of the earliest permanent English colonies in the New World when Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed it for Queen Elizabeth. Though English fishing boats had visited Newfoundland continuously since Cabot's second voyage in 1498 and seasonal fishing camps had existed for a century prior, the Basque, French, and Portuguese had done likewise. In 1585, however, this changed: Bernard Drake led a devastating raid on the Spanish and Portuguese fisheries from which they never recovered. This provided an opportunity to secure the island and led to the appointment of Proprietary Governors to establish colonial settlements on the island from 1610 to 1728. John Guy became governor of the first settlement at Cuper's Cove. Other settlements included Bristol's Hope, Renews, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon (which became a province in 1623). The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638.


Explorers quickly realized that the waters around Newfoundland had the best fishing in the North Atlantic. By 1620, 300 fishing boats worked the Grand Banks, employing some 10,000 sailors; many continuing to come from the Basque Country, Normandy, or Brittany. They dried and salted cod on the coast and sold it to Spain and Portugal. Heavy investment by Sir George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, in the 1620s in wharves, warehouses, and fishing stations failed to pay off. French raids hurt the business, and the weather was terrible, so he redirected his attention to his other colony in Maryland. After Calvert left, small-scale entrepreneurs such as Sir David Kirke made good use of the facilities. Kirke became the first governor of Newfoundland in 1638. A triangular trade with New England, the West Indies, and Europe gave Newfoundland an important economic role. By the 1670s there were 1,700 permanent residents and another 4,500 in the summer months.

In 1655 France appointed a governor in Plaisance, the formerly Basque fishing settlement, thus starting a formal French colonization period in Newfoundland as well as a period of periodic war and unrest between England and France in the region. The Mi'kmaq, as allies of the French, were amenable to limited French settlement in their midst and fought alongside them against the English. English attacks on Placentia provoked retaliation by New France explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville who during King William's War in the 1690s destroyed nearly every English settlement on the island. The entire population of the English colony was either killed, captured for ransom, or sentenced to expulsion to England, with the exception of those who withstood the attack at Carbonear Island and those in the then remote Bonavista. After France lost political control of the area after the Siege of Port Royal in 1710, the Mí'kmaq engaged in warfare with the British throughout Dummer's War (1722–1725), King George's War (1744–1748), Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755) and the French and Indian War (1754–1763). The French colonization period lasted until the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession: France ceded to the British its claims to Newfoundland (including its claims to the shores of Hudson Bay) and to the French possessions in Acadia. Afterward, under the supervision of the last French governor, the French population of Plaisance moved to Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island), part of Acadia which remained then under French control.


In the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), France had acknowledged British ownership of the island. However, in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), control of Newfoundland once again became a major source of conflict between Britain, France and Spain who all pressed for a share in the valuable fishery there. Britain's victories around the globe led William Pitt to insist that nobody other than Britain should have access to Newfoundland. The Battle of Signal Hill took place in Newfoundland in 1762 when a French force landed and tried to occupy the island, only to be repulsed by the British.

From 1763 to 1767 James Cook made a detailed survey of the coasts of Newfoundland and southern Labrador while commander of . (The following year, 1768, Cook began his first circumnavigation of the world.) In 1796 a Franco-Spanish expedition again succeeded in raiding the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, destroying many of the settlements.

By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), French fishermen gained the right to land and cure fish on the "French Shore" on the western coast. (They had a permanent base on nearby St. Pierre and Miquelon islands; the French gave up their French Shore rights in 1904.) In 1783 the British signed the Treaty of Paris with the United States that gave American fishermen similar rights along the coast. These rights were reaffirmed by treaties in 1818, 1854 and 1871 and confirmed by arbitration in 1910.

In 1854 the British government established Newfoundland's responsible government. In 1855, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a parliamentary majority over Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first Newfoundland administration (1855-1858). Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Prime Minister of Canada Sir John Thompson came very close to negotiating Newfoundland's entry into Confederation in 1892.

Dominion of Newfoundland

Newfoundland remained a colony until acquiring Dominion status in 1907. A dominion constituted a self-governing state of the British Empire or British Commonwealth and the Dominion of Newfoundland was relatively autonomous from British rule.[6]


Newfoundland's own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War. On July 1, 1916, nearly the entire regiment was wiped out at Beaumont-Hamel on the first day on the Somme. The regiment went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix "Royal". Despite people's pride in the accomplishments of the regiment, the Dominion's war debt due to the regiment and the cost of maintaining a trans-island railway led to increased and ultimately unsustainable government debt in the post-war era.

Since the early 1800s, Newfoundland and Quebec (or Lower Canada) had been in a border dispute over the Labrador region. In 1927, however, the British government ruled that the area known as modern-day Labrador was to be considered part of the Dominion of Newfoundland.[6]

Commission of Government and confederation with Canada

Due to Newfoundland's high debt load arising from World War I and construction of the Newfoundland Railway, and decreasing revenue due to the collapse of fish prices, the dominion legislature voted itself out of existence in 1933 in exchange for loan guarantees by the Crown and a promise it would be re-established.[7] On February 16, 1934, the Commission of Government was sworn in, ending 79 years of responsible government.[8] The Commission consisted of seven persons appointed by the British government. For 15 years, no elections took place, and no legislature was convened.

When prosperity returned with World War II, agitation began to end the Commission and reinstate responsible government. Instead, the British government created the National Convention in 1946, reflecting the efforts toward self-determination that arose in Europe following the war. The Convention, chaired by Judge Cyril J. Fox, consisted of 45 elected members from across the dominion and was formally tasked with advising on the future of Newfoundland.


Several motions were made by Joey Smallwood (a convention member who later served as the first provincial premier of Newfoundland) to examine joining Canada by sending a delegation to Ottawa.[9] The first motion was defeated, although the Convention later decided to send delegations to both London and Ottawa to explore alternatives. In January 1948, the National Convention voted against putting Confederation onto the referendum 29 to 16, but the British, which controlled the National Convention and the subsequent referendum, overruled this vote. Those who supported Confederation were extremely disappointed with the recommendations of the National Convention and organized a petition, signed by more than 50,000 Newfoundlanders, demanding that confederation with Canada be placed before the people in the upcoming referendum. As most historians agree, the British government keenly wanted Confederation on the ballot and ensured that it would be.

Three main factions actively campaigned during the lead-up to the referenda. Smallwood led the Confederate Association (CA), advocating entry into the Canadian Confederation. They campaigned through a newspaper known as The Confederate. The Responsible Government League (RGL), led by Peter Cashin, advocated an independent Newfoundland with a return to responsible government. Their newspaper was The Independent. A third, the smaller Economic Union Party (EUP), led by Chesley Crosbie, advocated closer economic ties with the United States. Though a 1947 poll found 80% of Newfoundland residents wanting to become Americans, the EUP failed to gain much attention and merged with the RGL after the first referendum.

The first referendum took place on June 3, 1948; 44.6% of people voted for responsible government, 41.1% voted for confederation with Canada, while 14.3% voted for the Commission of Government. Since none of the choices had gained over 50%, a second referendum with only the two more popular choices was held on July 22, 1948. The official outcome of that referendum was 52.3% for confederation with Canada and 47.7% for responsible (independent) government. After the referendum, the British governor named a seven-man delegation to negotiate Canada's offer on behalf of Newfoundland. After six of the delegation signed, the British government passed the British North America Act, 1949 through Parliament. Newfoundland officially joined Canada at midnight on March 31, 1949.[10]

As documents in British and Canadian archives became available in the 1980s, it became clear that both Canada and the United Kingdom wanted Newfoundland to join Canada. Some have charged that it was a conspiracy to manoeuvre Newfoundland into Confederation in exchange for forgiveness of Britain's war debt and for other considerations.[7] Yet, most historians who have examined the government documents have concluded that, while Britain engineered the inclusion of a Confederation option in the referendum, Newfoundlanders made the final decision themselves, if by a narrow margin.

Following the referendum, there was a rumour that the referendum had been narrowly won by the "responsible government" side, but that the result had been fixed by the British governor.[7] Shortly after the referendum, several boxes of ballots from St. John's were burned by order of Herman William Quinton, one of only two commissioners who supported confederation.[7] Some have argued that independent oversight of the vote tallying was lacking, though the process was supervised by respected Corner Brook Magistrate Nehemiah Short, who had also overseen elections to the National Convention.[7]

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