Person:John of Gaunt (1)

John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Facts and Events
Name John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Gender Male
Alt Birth[2][3] Mar 1340 St. Bavon's Abbey, Ghent, East Flanders, Belgium
Probate? Died testate [PCC:13 Beaufort].
Birth[1] 6 Mar 1340 Gent, Oost-Vlaanderen, BelgiumAbbaye de St Bav
Other? 1342 Created Earl of Richmond
Marriage 19 May 1359 Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, Englandto Blanche of Lancaster, Countess of Derby
Marriage Cohabitation?
to Marie de Saint Hilaire
Other? 1362 Created Duke of Lancaster
Marriage bef. 29 Sep 1371 Roquefort, Landes, Franceto Constance , de Castille
Other? 1371 (In right of wife) he assumed, in Sep 1371, the title of "King of Castile and Léon", which title he resigned shortly before 2 Mar 1389/1390.
Other? HONORS: [K.G.] Knight of the Order of the Garter.
Other? 1372 - 1385 ASSIGNMENTS: Summoned to Parliament as "Duke of Lancaster"
Other? 1389/90 Created Duke of Aquitaine "for his whole life", (after this creation he styled himself "Duc de Guyene et de Lancastre".
Other? 1392, 1393, 1396, 1397 ASSIGNMENTS: Summoned to Parliament as "Duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster"
Other? Kinship: 4th son but 3rd surviving son.
Other? Kinship: 3rd cousin of wife.
Other? House of Lancaster
Marriage 13 Jan 1396-1397 Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, Englandto Catherine de Roët
Will[11] 3 Feb 1397
Reference Number? Q193752?
Death[1][2][4][5] 3 Feb 1398/99 Leicester, Leicestershire, EnglandLeicester Castle
Burial[3] 15 Mar 1398/99 St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then rendered in English as Gaunt. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.

As a younger brother of Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince), John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of his nephew, Richard II, and during the ensuing periods of political strife, but was not thought to have been among the opponents of the king.

John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. His other legitimate descendants included, by his first wife, Blanche, his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter; and by his second wife, Constance, his daughter Queen Catherine of Castile. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession of the Duke) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne, the phrase (except royal status), was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. Descendants of this marriage included Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester and eventually Cardinal; Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, grandmother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III; John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, the grandfather of Margaret Beaufort, the mother of King Henry VII; and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots, from whom are descended, beginning in 1437, all subsequent sovereigns of Scotland, and successively, from 1603 on, the sovereigns of England, of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the United Kingdom to the present day. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399—the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor—were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.

Lancaster's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398 as resolution to a dispute between Hereford and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown as King Richard II named Hereford a traitor and changed his sentence to exile for life.[1] Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England. Due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era.

Peerage of England
New Creation


Henry of Grosmont

his father-in-law

Earl of Derby


Henry Bolingbroke (King Henry IV)

Elevated to Duke of Hereford
his son



Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
Henry of Grosmont's father
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
(Duke 1351-1361)
his father-in-law
Earl of Lancaster and Leicester
(Duke 1362)
Henry Bolingbroke (King Henry IV)
as Duke of Lancaster
Henry V of England
his grandson
New Creation Earl of Richmond
  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Weis, Frederick Lewis; Walter Lee Sheppard; and David Faris. Ancestral roots of certain American colonists, who came to America before 1700: the lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and some of their descendants. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Pub. Co., 7th Edition c1992), p. 3 line 1:31, p. 4 line 1A:31, p. 49 line 47C:32.

    See also p. 136 line 102:8

  3. 3.0 3.1 Richardson, Douglas. Plantagenet ancestry : a study in colonial and medieval families. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co Inc, c2004), p. 204 LANCASTER:11, p. 285 PLANTAGENET:12.

    See also p. 14 BEAUFORT:11, p. 20 BERGAVENNY:6, p. 208 LATIMER:7, p. 244 MONTAGU:8, p. 253 NEVILLE:10, p. 254 NEVILLE:9, p. 273 PERCY:9, p. 286 PLANTAGENET:12.iv, p. 290 POOLE:8, p. 314 RUTHVEN:8

  4. Cokayne, George Edward, and Vicary Gibbs; et al. The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant [2nd ed.]. (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910-59), vol. 1 p. 183.

    See also vol. 1 p. 27, 248; vol. 2 p. 52 fn. c, 62. 389, 427

  5. Richardson, Douglas. Plantagenet ancestry : a study in colonial and medieval families. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co Inc, c2004), p. xxix, Primary quality.
  6.   Weis, Frederick Lewis, and Walter Lee Sheppard. The Magna Charta sureties, 1215: the barons named in the Magna Charta, 1215 and some of their descendants who settled in America. (Baltimore [Maryland]: Genealogical Pub. Co., Unknown edition (1955-1999)), p. 136 line 102:8, Primary quality.
  7.   Faris, David. Plantagenet ancestry of Seventeenth-Century colonists: the descent from the later Plantagenet Kings of England, Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III, of emigrants from England and Wales to the North American colonies before 1701. (Baltimore [Maryland]: Genealogical Pub. Co., c1996).
  8.   John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
  9.   John 1st Duke of Lancaster Plantagenet, in Find A Grave.
  10.   JOHN "of Gaunt", son of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (St Bavon’s Abbey, Ghent [Feb/Mar] 1340-[Leicester Castle or Ely Place, Holborn, London] 3/4 Feb 1399, bur Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London)., in Cawley, Charles. Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families.
  11. Nichols, John. A collection of all the wills, now known to be extant, of the kings and queens of England, princes and princessess of Wales, and every branch of the blood royal: from the reign of William the Conqueror to that of Henry the Seventh, exclusive, with explanatory notes and a glossary. (London: J. Nichols, 1780), pages 145 to 176.

    The will can be read here (in Anglo-Norman).

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