Person:John of Gaunt (1)

     
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Facts and Events
Name John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Gender Male
Alt Birth[2][3] Mar 1340 St. Bavon's Abbey, Ghent, East Flanders, Belgium
Probate? Died testate [PCC:13 Beaufort].
Birth[1] 6 Mar 1340 Gent, Oost-Vlaanderen, BelgiumAbbaye de St Bav
Other? 1342 Created Earl of Richmond
Marriage 19 May 1359 Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, Englandto Blanche of Lancaster, Countess of Derby
Marriage Cohabitation?
to Marie de Saint Hilaire
Other? 1362 Created Duke of Lancaster
Marriage bef. 29 Sep 1371 Roquefort, Landes, Franceto Constance , de Castille
Other? 1371 (In right of wife) he assumed, in Sep 1371, the title of "King of Castile and Léon", which title he resigned shortly before 2 Mar 1389/1390.
Other? HONORS: [K.G.] Knight of the Order of the Garter.
Other? 1372 - 1385 ASSIGNMENTS: Summoned to Parliament as "Duke of Lancaster"
Other? 1389/90 Created Duke of Aquitaine "for his whole life", (after this creation he styled himself "Duc de Guyene et de Lancastre".
Other? 1392, 1393, 1396, 1397 ASSIGNMENTS: Summoned to Parliament as "Duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster"
Other? Kinship: 4th son but 3rd surviving son.
Other? Kinship: 3rd cousin of wife.
Other? House of Lancaster
Marriage 13 Jan 1396-1397 Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, Englandto Catherine de Roët
Will[11] 3 Feb 1397
Reference Number? Q193752?
Death[1][2][4][5] 3 Feb 1398/99 Leicester, Leicestershire, EnglandLeicester Castle
Burial[3] 15 Mar 1398/99 St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English prince, military leader, and statesman. He was the third of the five sons of King Edward III of England who survived to adulthood. Due to his royal origin, advantageous marriages, and some generous land grants, Gaunt was one of the richest men of his era, and an influential figure during the reigns of both his father, Edward, and his nephew, Richard II. As Duke of Lancaster, he is the founder of the royal House of Lancaster, whose members would ascend to the throne after his death. His birthplace, Ghent, corrupted into English as Gaunt, was the origin for his name. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury.

John's early career was spent in France and Spain fighting at the Hundred Years' War. He made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came through his second wife, and for a time styled himself as King of Castile. As Edward the Black Prince, Gaunt's elder brother and heir to the ageing Edward III, became incapacitated due to poor health, Gaunt assumed control of many government functions, and rose to become one of the most powerful political figures in England. He was faced with military difficulties abroad and political divisions at home, and disagreements as to how to deal with these crises led to tensions between Gaunt, the English Parliament, and the ruling class, making him an extremely unpopular figure for a time.

John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of King Richard II, and the ensuing periods of political strife. He mediated between the king and a group of rebellious nobles, which included Gaunt's own son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke. Following Gaunt's death in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the Crown, and his son, now disinherited, was branded a traitor and exiled. Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile shortly after to reclaim his inheritance, and deposed Richard. He reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the English throne.

The House of Lancaster would rule England from 1399 until the time of the Wars of the Roses, when the English crown was disputed with the House of York (formed by the descendants both of his younger brother Edmund, Duke of York and his elder brother, Lionel, Duke of Clarence). Gaunt also fathered five children outside marriage; one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother), the others by Katherine Swynford, his long-term mistress and third wife. They were later legitimised by royal and papal decrees, but which did not affect Henry IV's bar to their having a place in the line of succession. Despite that restriction, through these offspring, surnamed "Beaufort", Gaunt is ancestor to all Scottish monarchs beginning in 1437, and of all English monarchs of the houses of Lancaster and Tudor as well as, incidentally, York.

Peerage of England
New Creation


'

Henry of Grosmont

1337-1361
his father-in-law

Earl of Derby

1361-1399

Henry Bolingbroke (King Henry IV)

1397-1399
Elevated to Duke of Hereford
his son

Dormant


'

Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
~1299-1345
Henry of Grosmont's father
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
1345-1361
(Duke 1351-1361)
his father-in-law
Earl of Lancaster and Leicester
1361-1399
(Duke 1362)
Henry Bolingbroke (King Henry IV)
as Duke of Lancaster
1399
Henry V of England
1399-1413
his grandson
New Creation Earl of Richmond
1342-1372
Surrendered
References
  1. 1.0 1.1 Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Weis, Frederick Lewis; Walter Lee Sheppard; and David Faris. Ancestral roots of certain American colonists, who came to America before 1700: the lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and some of their descendants. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Pub. Co., 7th Edition c1992), p. 3 line 1:31, p. 4 line 1A:31, p. 49 line 47C:32.

    See also p. 136 line 102:8

  3. 3.0 3.1 Richardson, Douglas. Plantagenet ancestry : a study in colonial and medieval families. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co Inc, c2004), p. 204 LANCASTER:11, p. 285 PLANTAGENET:12.

    See also p. 14 BEAUFORT:11, p. 20 BERGAVENNY:6, p. 208 LATIMER:7, p. 244 MONTAGU:8, p. 253 NEVILLE:10, p. 254 NEVILLE:9, p. 273 PERCY:9, p. 286 PLANTAGENET:12.iv, p. 290 POOLE:8, p. 314 RUTHVEN:8

  4. Cokayne, George Edward, and Vicary Gibbs; et al. The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant [2nd ed.]. (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910-59), vol. 1 p. 183.

    See also vol. 1 p. 27, 248; vol. 2 p. 52 fn. c, 62. 389, 427

  5. Richardson, Douglas. Plantagenet ancestry : a study in colonial and medieval families. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co Inc, c2004), p. xxix, Primary quality.
  6.   Weis, Frederick Lewis, and Walter Lee Sheppard. The Magna Charta sureties, 1215: the barons named in the Magna Charta, 1215 and some of their descendants who settled in America. (Baltimore [Maryland]: Genealogical Pub. Co., Unknown edition (1955-1999)), p. 136 line 102:8, Primary quality.
  7.   Faris, David. Plantagenet ancestry of Seventeenth-Century colonists: the descent from the later Plantagenet Kings of England, Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III, of emigrants from England and Wales to the North American colonies before 1701. (Baltimore [Maryland]: Genealogical Pub. Co., c1996).
  8.   John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
  9.   John 1st Duke of Lancaster Plantagenet, in Find A Grave.
  10.   JOHN "of Gaunt", son of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (St Bavon’s Abbey, Ghent [Feb/Mar] 1340-[Leicester Castle or Ely Place, Holborn, London] 3/4 Feb 1399, bur Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London)., in Cawley, Charles. Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families.
  11. Nichols, John. A collection of all the wills, now known to be extant, of the kings and queens of England, princes and princessess of Wales, and every branch of the blood royal: from the reign of William the Conqueror to that of Henry the Seventh, exclusive, with explanatory notes and a glossary. (London: J. Nichols, 1780), pages 145 to 176.

    The will can be read here (in Anglo-Norman).

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