Person:Edward, the Black Prince (1)

Edward "the Black Prince" Plantagenet, of Woodstock
Facts and Events
Name Edward "the Black Prince" Plantagenet, of Woodstock
Gender Male
Title (nobility)? from 1330 to 1376 3rd Plantagenet Prince of Wales
Birth[6] 15 Jun 1330 Woodstock Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, EnglandHouse of Plantagenet
Military? 26 Aug 1346 Crécy-en-Ponthieu, Somme, France Combatant of Crécy
Other? 1348 Order of the Garter
Military? 19 Sep 1356 Poitiers, Vienne, France Combatant of Poitiers
Marriage 10 Oct 1361 Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, Englandto Joan of Kent
Marriage Cohabitation?
to
Title (nobility)? from 1362 to 1372 5th Plantagenet Duke of Aquitaine
Military? 3 Apr 1367 Nájera, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain Combatant of Nájera
Reference Number? Q184854?
Will[5] 7 Jun 1376 Westminster Palace, Westminster, Middlesex, England
Death[6] 8 Jun 1376 Westminster Palace, Westminster, Middlesex, England
Probate[5] 9 Jun 1376 London, London, England
Burial? 29 Sep 1376 Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Edward of Woodstock, known to history as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), was the eldest son of King Edward III of England, and thus the heir to the English throne. He died before his father and so his son, Richard II, succeeded to the throne instead. Edward nevertheless still earned distinction as one of the most successful English commanders during the Hundred Years' War, being regarded by his contemporaries as a model of chivalry and one of the greatest knights of his age.

Edward was created Duke of Cornwall in 1337. He was guardian of the kingdom in his father's absence in 1338, 1340, and 1342. He was created Prince of Wales in 1343 and knighted by his father at La Hogne in 1346.

In 1346 Prince Edward commanded the vanguard at the Battle of Crécy, his father intentionally leaving him to win the battle. He took part in Edward III's 1349 Calais expedition. In 1355 he was appointed the king's lieutenant in Gascony, and ordered to lead an army into Aquitaine on a chevauchée, during which he pillaged Avignonet and Castelnaudary, sacked Carcassonne, and plundered Narbonne. The next year (1356) on another chevauchée he ravaged Auvergne, Limousin, and Berry but failed to take Bourges. He offered terms of peace to King John II of France, who had outflanked him near Poitiers, but refused to surrender himself as the price of their acceptance. This led to the Battle of Poitiers where his army routed the French and took King John prisoner.

The year after Poitiers, the Black Prince returned to England. In 1360 he negotiated the treaty of Bretigny. He was created Prince of Aquitaine and Gascony in 1362, but his suzerainty was not recognised by the lord of Albret or other Gascon nobles. He was directed by his father to forbid the marauding raids of the English and Gascon free companies in 1364. He entered into an agreement with don Pedro of Castile and Charles II of Navarre, by which Pedro covenanted to mortgage Castro de Urdiales and the province of Biscay to him as security for a loan; in 1366 a passage was thus secured through Navarre. In 1367 he received a letter of defiance from Henry of Trastámara, Don Pedro's half-brother and rival. The same year, after an obstinate conflict, he defeated Henry at the Battle of Nájera. However, after a wait of several months, during which he failed to obtain either the province of Biscay or liquidation of the debt from Don Pedro, he returned to Aquitaine. Prince Edward persuaded the estates of Aquitaine to allow him a hearth tax of ten sous for five years in 1368, thereby alienating the lord of Albret and other nobles. Drawn into open war with Charles V of France in 1369, he took Limoges, where in 1370 he gave orders for an indiscriminate massacre in revenge for the voluntary surrender of that town to the French by its bishop, who had been his private friend.

The Black Prince returned to England in 1371 and the next year resigned the principality of Aquitaine and Gascony. He led the commons in their attack upon the Lancastrian administration in 1376. He died in 1376 of dysentery and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, where his surcoat, helmet, shield, and gauntlets are still preserved.

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References
  1.   Edward, the Black Prince, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
  2.   Edward "The Black Prince" Plantagenet, in Find A Grave.
  3.   Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.
  4.   Cokayne, George Edward, and Vicary Gibbs; et al. The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant [2nd ed.]. (London: St. Catherine Press, 1910-59), Volume 3 page 172, Volume 3 pages 435 to 437.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Nichols, John. A collection of all the wills, now known to be extant, of the kings and queens of England, princes and princessess of Wales, and every branch of the blood royal: from the reign of William the Conqueror to that of Henry the Seventh, exclusive, with explanatory notes and a glossary. (London: J. Nichols, 1780), pages 66 to 77.

    The will can be read here (in Anglo-Norman).

  6. 6.0 6.1 EDWARD "of Woodstock", in Cawley, Charles. Medieval Lands: A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families.