Place:Bourges, Cher, France

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NameBourges
Alt namesAsnièressource: Family History Library Catalog
Avaricumsource: Orbis Latinus (1971) p 37; Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (1979) p 129
Betoregassource: Orbis Latinus (1971) p 37
Betoregascisource: Orbis Latinus (1971) p 37
Betoricasource: Orbis Latinus (1971) p 37
Betorixsource: Orbis Latinus (1971) p 37
Beturigassource: Orbis Latinus (1971) p 37
Bitoricasource: Orbis Latinus (1971) p 37
Bituricaesource: Guide Bleu: France (1959) p 378
TypeCommune
Coordinates47.083°N 2.383°E
Located inCher, France
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river. It is the capital of the department of Cher, and also was the capital of the former province of Berry.

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The name of the city derives either from the Bituriges, the name of the original inhabitants, or from the Germanic (French: bourg. Spanish: burgo. English, others: burgh, , or borough), for "hill/village". The Celts called it Avaricon; Latin-speakers: Avaricum.

In 52 BC, the sixth year of the Gallic Wars the Gauls were practicing a scorched earth policy to try to deny Caesar's forces supplies, but the inhabitants of Avaricum begged not to have their city burned. It was temporarily spared due to its good defences provided by the surrounding marshes, a river that nearly encircled it, and a strong southern wall. Julius Caesar's forces, nevertheless, captured and destroyed the city, killing all but 800 of its inhabitants.

Rome reconstructed Avaricum as a Roman city, with a monumental gate, aqueducts, thermae and an amphitheatre, reaching a greater size than it would attain during the Middle Ages. The massive walls surrounding the late Roman city, enclosing 40 hectares, were built in part with stone re-used from earlier public buildings.

The third-century AD Saint Ursinus, also known as Saint Ursin, is considered the first bishop of the city. Bourges is the seat of an archbishopric. During the 8th century Bourges lay on the northern fringes of the Duchy of Aquitaine and was therefore the first town to come under Frankish attacks when the Franks crossed the Loire. The Frankish Charles Martel captured the town in 731, but Duke Odo the Great of Aquitaine immediately re-took it. It remained under the rule of counts who pledged allegiance to the Aquitanian dukes up to the destructive siege by Frankish King Pepin the Short on independent Aquitaine in 762, when Basque troops are found defending the town along with its count.


During the Middle Ages, Bourges served as the capital of the Viscounty of Bourges until 1101. In the fourteenth century it became the capital of the Duchy of Berry. The future king of France, Charles VII (reigned 1422-1461), sought refuge there in the 1420s during the Hundred Years' War. His son, Louis XI, was born there in 1423. In 1438, Charles VII decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. During this period, Bourges was also a major capital of alchemy.

The Gothic Cathedral of Saint Etienne, begun at the end of the twelfth century, ranks as a World Heritage Site. It is considered as one of the earliest examples of the High Gothic style of the thirteenth century.

The city has a long tradition of art and history. Apart from the cathedral, other sites of importance include the 15th-century Palace of Jacques Cœur and a sixty-five-hectare district of half-timbered houses and fine town-houses.

External links

  • For more information, see the FR Wikipedia article Bourges.

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