The province consists of about 566 islands, the largest and most dominant are Flores, Sumba, and the western half of Timor (that is, West Timor). The eastern part of Timor is the independent country of East Timor. Other islands include Adonara, Alor, Komodo, Lembata (formerly called Lomblen), Menipo, Raijua, Rincah, Rote Island (the southernmost island in Indonesia), Savu, Semau, and Solor. The highest point in the province is Mount Mutis in the Timor Tengah Selatan district, 2,427 meters above sea level.
East Nusa Tenggara is the only province in Indonesia where Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion.
Nusa Tenggara Timur, in Indonesian, means "eastern southeastern islands".