Yogyakarta ( or ; also Jogja, Jogjakarta) is a city and the capital of Yogyakarta Special Region in Java, Indonesia. It is renowned as a center of education (Kota Pelajar), classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows. Yogyakarta was the Indonesian capital during the Indonesian National Revolution from 1945 to 1949, with Gedung Agung as the president's office. One of the districts in Yogyakarta, Kotagede, was the capital of the Mataram Sultanate between 1575 and 1640. The city is named after the Indian city of Ayodhya from the Ramayana epic. Yogya means "suitable, fit, proper", and karta, "prosperous, flourishing" (i.e., "a city that is fit to prosper").
The Dutch name of the city is Djokjakarta.
Mataram Kingdom (8th – 10th century CE)
According to Canggal inscription dated 732, the area traditionally called as "Mataram" became the capital of Medang Kingdom, identified as Mdang i Bhumi Mataram established by King Sanjaya. Mataram became the center of a refined and sophisticated Javanese Hindu-Buddhist culture, for about three centuries its heartland in Kewu Plain (southern slope of Mount Merapi) around Prambanan witnessed the construction of numerous candi including Borobudur and Prambanan.
Around the year 929, the centre of the kingdom was shifted to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who established the Isyana Dynasty. The exact cause of the move is still uncertain; however, a severe eruption of Mount Merapi volcano or a power struggle probably caused the move. Historians suggest that, some time during the reign of King Wawa of Mataram (924–929), Merapi volcano erupted and devastated the kingdom's capital in Mataram. Although missing from the historical record since the migration of the capital of Medang kingdom in the 10th century to the eastern Java, the valley area in the south of Mount Merapi since the 15th century still inhabited and according to later account, perhaps become part of the region called "Pengging".
Majapahit Empire (1293–1527)
During the Majapahit era, the area surrounding modern Yogyakarta identified again as "Mataram" and recognize again as one of Majapahit 12 provinces in Java ruled by a Duke titled 'Bhre Mataram'. During the reign of Hayam Wuruk (1350 to 1389), the title of Bhre Mataram was held by king's nephew also son in-law Wikramawardhana.
Mataram Sultanate (1575–1620)
Kotagede (now part of districts in Yogyakarta) was established as the capital of Mataram Sultanate. The palace of the founder of Mataram Sultanate, Panembahan Senopati established in scene of part of Alas Mentaok. During the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo (1613-1645), Sultanate Mataram reach its zenith as the greatest kingdom in Java, expanded its influence to Central Java, East Java and half of West Java. After a two times move its capital, (Palace of Pleret and Place of Kerta, both located in Bantul Regency), the capital of Mataram Sultanate moved to Kartasura.
Aftermath of the Gianti Treaty (1745–1945)
During the reign of Pakubuwono II, a civil war broke out in Mataram Sultanate. The civil war was fought between Prince Mangkubumi and his elder brother, Sunan Pakubuwono II. The civil war started when Sunan Pakubuwono II agreed to cooperate with the VOC, ceded some of Mataram territory to the Dutch, and submitted to foreign powers. His younger brother, Prince Mangkubumi stood against the agreement due to concern that his people would become slaves under Dutch rule. Prince Mangkubumi defeated the Pakubuwono forces and declared sovereignty in the Kingdom of Yogjakarta occupying southern parts of the former Mataram Sultanate.
The Yogyakarta Sultanate was established as a result of the Treaty of Giyanti (Perjanjian Gianti) by Prince Mangkubumi, who later ascended the throne as Sultan Hamengkubuwono I. Officially, the creation of Yogyakarta Sultanate is dated at 7 October 1756 as a result of civil war among the princes of The Mataram Sultanate. This civil war marked the end of the Mataram Sultanate and resulted in the birth of the Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Surakarta Sunanate.
However, in later years both of the heir of Mataram, the Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Surakarta Sunanate confined their power and were reduced as Dutch East Indies protectorate kingdoms under the crown of the Kingdom of Netherlands, identified as Vorstenlanden Mataram.
During the British occupation of Java, rumors of Javanese court's plan on staggering a rebellion cause uneasiness to the colonial authority. On 20 June 1812, Stamford Raffles led a 1,200-strong British force to attack the royal city. The Javanese who are surprised by the attack was easily subdued. In one day the city of Yogyakarta fell with the city destroyed and its palace looted. The event completely stripped the sultanate of its remaining power and influence. The sack also left the court humiliated and fueled a rebellion which would be known as Java War.
Republic of Indonesia era (1945–present)
In 1942 the Japanese Empire invaded Dutch East Indies and ruled Java until they were defeated in 1945. Sukarno proclaimed the independence of the Indonesian Republic on August 1945. Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX promptly send a letter to Sukarno, expressing his support for the newly born nation of Indonesia and acknowledging Yogyakarta Sultanate as part of the Indonesian Republic. The Sunanate of Surakarta did the same, and both of the Javanese kingdoms were awarded special status as "Special Region" within the Indonesian Republic. However because of a leftist anti-royalist uprising in Surakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta lost its special administrative status in 1946 and was absorbed into Central Java Province.
Yogyakarta's support was essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence, during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949). The city of Yogyakarta became the capital of the Indonesian Republic from 1946 to 1948, after the fall of Jakarta to the Dutch. Later the Dutch also invaded Yogyakarta, causing the Republic's capital to be transferred once again, to Bukittinggi in West Sumatra on 19 December 1948. Because of its significant contribution to the survival of the Indonesian Republic, Yogyakarta was given the status of Special Administrative Region, making Yogyakarta the only region headed by a monarchy in Indonesia.