East Java (abbreviated as Jatim) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and includes the neighbouring islands of Madura, and the Kangean, Sapudi, Bawean, and Masalembu groups. The dominant cultures are Javanese and, in the north-east, Madurese, as opposed to the Sundanese of western Java.
It covers an area of 47,800 km2, and had a population of 37,476,757 at the 2010 Census, making it Indonesia's second most populated province (after West Java); the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 38,529,481. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center and port.
It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west, being surrounded by sea on all other sides.
The history of eastern Java was substantially that of the empire of Majapahit - which reached its golden moment under Hayam Wuruk in 1350–1389. But, after his death, Majapahit entered a period of decline. Following the European occupation of Majapahit ruins, the kingdom was replaced by the Residency system. There were eight Residencies within East Java—those of Bojonegoro, Madiun, Kediri, Malang, Surabaya, Probolinggo, Besuki (the latter for the far eastern part of Java) and Madura. In November 1947, a State of East Java was formed under Dutch auspices as part of the new Republic of the United States of Indonesia. After a Round Table conference, many people demanded that the state of East Java should be dissolved and that it become a part of the Republic of Indonesia.