Hyderabad is the capital and largest city of the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It occupies on the banks of the Musi River. Its population is 6.8 million, and its metropolitan area increases that number to 7.75 million people, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration.
Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE as Bhaganagar by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golkonda. It remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687, when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the region and the city became part of the Mughal empire. In 1724 Asif Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty, also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams ruled the princely state of Hyderabad in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj for more than two centuries. The city remained the princely state's capital from 1769 to 1948, when the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession with the Indian Union at the conclusion of Operation Polo.Between 1948-1956 Hyderabad state has its existence with Hyderabad city as its capital then it is merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh. The 1956 States Reorganisation Act established the modern state of Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad city as its capital.
Throughout its history, the city was a centre for local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. It is a tourist destination and has many places of interest, including Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golkonda fort. It has several museums, bazaars, galleries, libraries, sports venues and other cultural institutions—Laad Bazar, Madina Circle, Begum Bazaar, Sultan Bazaar are bazaars from the Qutb Shahi and Nizam era; Salar Jung Museum, Nizam Museum, and AP State Archaeology Museum are notable museums. Hyderabadi biriyani and Hyderabadi haleem are examples of distinctive culinary products of the city.
Historically, Hyderabad was known for its pearl and diamond trading centres. Industrialisation brought major Indian manufacturing and financial institutions to the city, such as the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the Defence Research and Development Organisation Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology and the National Mineral Development Corporation. The emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries from the 1990s earned it the titles of "India's pharmaceutical capital" and the "Genome Valley of India". The Telugu film industry is based in Hyderabad.
The name Hyderabad derives from Persian/Urdu words "haydar" or "hyder" (lion) and "ābād" (city or abode). So, Hyderabad means "Hyder's abode" or "lion city". According to John Everett-Heath, Hyderabad was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Hyder (lion) because of his valour in battles. One popular theory suggests that Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of the city, named it "Bhaganagar" or "Bhāgnagar" after Bhāgmathi, a local nautch (dancing) girl with whom he had fallen in love. She converted to Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was renamed Hyderabad in her honour. According to another source, the city was named after Haidar, the son of Quli Qutb Shah. Andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was originally called Baghnagar (city of gardens). However, no sources defines when or by whom the city was named.
Early and medieval history
Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE. The region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda ("shepherd's hill"). It was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 731 CE to 966 CE. Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty (1000–1310), whose headquarters was at Warangal, northeast of modern Hyderabad.
When Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate took over Warangal, the region came under the Khilji dynasty (1310–1321). Alauddin Khilji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to have been mined from the Kollur Mines in Golkonda, to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347. Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled against the sultanate and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan Plateau, with Gulbarga, west of Hyderabad, as its capital. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518, and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan.
Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth sultan of this dynasty, established Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591 to avoid the water shortages experienced at Golkonda, the sultanate's capital. He built the Charminar and Mecca Masjid in the city. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort. The annexed area was renamed Deccan Suba (Deccan province), and the capital was moved from Golkonda to Aurangabad, about northwest of Hyderabad.
In 1712, Farrukhsiyar, the sixth of Aurangzeb's successors, appointed Asif Jah I to be Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (Administrator of the Realm). In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the region Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. Asif Jah II, who reigned from 1762 to 1803, ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the treaty of Masulipatnam, surrendering the coastal region to the East India Company in return for a fixed annual rent.
In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. In response to regular threats from Hyder Ali, Dalwai of Mysore, Baji Rao I, Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, and Basalath Jung (Asif Jah II's elder brother, who was supported by the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau), the Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company in 1798, allowing the British Indian Army to occupy Bolarum (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's borders, for which the Nizams paid an annual maintenance to the British. From the late nineteenth century on, Hyderabad was transformed into a modern city with the establishment of railways, transport services, underground drainage, running water, electricity, Begumpet Airport, telecommunications, universities and industries. The Nizams ruled the state from Hyderabad until 17 September 1948, a year after India's independence from Britain.
Following the independence of India from British rule, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent rather than become part of the Indian Union. The Hyderabad State Congress, with the support of the Indian National Congress and the Communist Party of India, began agitating against Nizam VII in 1948. On 17 September the Indian Army took control of Hyderabad State after an invasion codenamed Operation Polo. When his forces were defeated, Nizam VII capitulated to the Indian Union by signing the "Instrument of Accession", which made him the Rajpramukh (Princely Governor) of the state. Between 1946 and 1951, the Communist Party of India led a peasant rebellion called the Telangana uprising against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and later against the princely state of Hyderabad. The Constitution of India, which became effective on 26 January 1950, made Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India, with Hyderabad City continuing to be the capital. In his 1955 report Thoughts on Linguistic States, B. R. Ambedkar, then chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, proposed designating the Hyderabad city(Telangana) as the second capital of India because of its amenities and strategic central location. Since 1956, the Rashtrapati Nilayam in Hyderabad has been the second official residence and business office of the President of India.
On 1 November 1956, the states of India were reorganised by language group. Hyderabad State ceased to exist; it was split into three parts, which were included in the modern Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The nine Telugu- and Urdu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State that make up the Telangana region were merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to create Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad as its capital. Several protests, known collectively as the Telangana movement, attempted to invalidate the merger and demanded the creation of a new Telangana state. Major actions took place in 1969 and 1972, with a third beginning in 2010. In 2007, terrorist groups detonated a series of bombs in the city in May and August, causing communal tension and riots.