Place:Ohio, United States

Alt namesOHsource: Webster's Geographical Dictionary (1988) p 1257
Coordinates40°N 80.833°W
Located inUnited States     (1803 - )
Contained Places
Connecticut Western Reserve ( 1800 - )
Toledo Strip ( 1803 - 1836 )
Virginia Military District ( 1803 - )
Adams ( 1797 - )
Allen ( 1820 - )
Ashland ( 1846 - )
Ashtabula ( 1808 - )
Athens ( 1805 - )
Auglaize ( 1848 - )
Belmont ( 1801 - )
Brown ( 1818 - )
Butler ( 1803 - )
Carroll ( 1832 - )
Champaign ( 1805 - )
Clark ( 1818 - )
Clermont ( 1800 - )
Clinton ( 1810 - )
Columbiana ( 1803 - )
Coshocton ( 1810 - )
Crawford ( 1820 - )
Cuyahoga ( 1808 - )
Darke ( 1809 - )
Defiance ( 1845 - )
Delaware ( 1808 - )
Erie ( 1838 - )
Fairfield ( 1800 - )
Fayette ( 1810 - )
Franklin ( 1803 - )
Fulton ( 1850 - )
Gallia ( 1803 - )
Geauga ( 1806 - )
Greene ( 1803 - )
Guernsey ( 1810 - )
Hamilton ( 1790 - )
Hancock ( 1820 - )
Hardin ( 1820 - )
Harrison ( 1813 - )
Henry ( 1820 - )
Highland ( 1805 - )
Hocking ( 1818 - )
Holmes ( 1824 - )
Huron ( 1809 - )
Jackson ( 1816 - )
Jefferson ( 1797 - )
Knox ( 1808 - )
Lake ( 1840 - )
Lawrence ( 1815 - )
Licking ( 1808 - )
Logan ( 1818 - )
Lorain ( 1822 - )
Lucas ( 1835 - )
Madison ( 1810 - )
Mahoning ( 1 Mar 1846 - )
Marion ( 1820 - )
Medina ( 1812 - )
Meigs ( 1819 - )
Mercer ( 1820 - )
Miami ( 1807 - )
Monroe ( 1813 - )
Montgomery ( 1803 - )
Morgan ( 1817 - )
Morrow ( 1848 - )
Muskingum ( 1804 - )
Noble ( 1851 - )
Ottawa ( 1840 - )
Paulding ( 1820 - )
Perry ( 1818 - )
Pickaway ( 1810 - )
Pike ( 1815 - )
Portage ( 1808 - )
Preble ( 1808 - )
Putnam ( 1820 - )
Richland ( 1808 - )
Ross ( 1798 - )
Sandusky ( 1820 - )
Scioto ( 1803 - )
Seneca ( 1820 - )
Shelby ( 1819 - )
Stark ( 1808 - )
Summit ( 1840 - )
Trumbull ( 1800 - )
Tuscarawas ( 1808 - )
Union ( 1820 - )
Van Wert ( 1820 - )
Vinton ( 1850 - )
Warren ( 1803 - )
Washington ( 1788 - )
Wayne ( 1808 - )
Williams ( 1820 - )
Wood ( 1820 - )
Wyandot ( 1845 - )
Inhabited place
Glickler Funeral Home & Cremation Service
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.

The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".

Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.

The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the bicameral Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, led by the state Supreme Court. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state.

Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP (2015), and is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan.



the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Native Americans

Archeological evidence of spear points of both the Folsom and Clovis types indicate that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC. These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC.[1] Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture emerged. The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, including, sunflowers, and "grew squash and possibly corn"; with hunting and gathering, this cultivation supported more settled, complex villages. The most notable remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio.[2]

Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell people who were also mound builders. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville. They were also a prolific trading society, with a trading network that spanned a third of the continent. The Hopewell disappeared from the Ohio Valley about 600 AD. The Mississippian Culture rose as the Hopewell Culture declined. Many Siouan-speaking peoples from the plains & east coast claim them as ancestors & say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approx. the 13th century.

There were three other cultures contemporaneous with the Mississippians: the Fort Ancient people, the Whittlesey Focus people[3] & the Monongahela Culture. All three cultures disappeared in the 17th century. Their origins are unknown. It is generally believed that the Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people.[3] It's also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during the Colonial Era. The Mississippian Culture were close to and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people.

Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York. After the Beaver Wars in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade.

The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period included the Iroquoian, the Algonquian & the Siouan. Ohio country was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten and Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre. Most Native Peoples who remained in Ohio were slowly bought out and convinced to leave, or ordered to do so by law, in the early 19th century with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

Colonial and Revolutionary eras

During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. Beginning in 1754, France and Great Britain fought the French and Indian War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain.

Pontiac's Rebellion in the 1760s, however, posed a challenge to British military control. This came to an end with the colonists' victory in the American Revolution. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States.

Northwest Territory: 1787–1803

The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio. Territorial surveyors from Fort Steuben began surveying an area of eastern Ohio called the Seven Ranges at about the same time.

The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country. As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula and a sliver of southeastern Indiana called "The Gore".

Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas of the territory could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it was admitted as a state. Furthermore, in regards to the Leni Lenape Native Americans living in the region, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the Muskingum River in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".

Statehood and settlement

On February 19, 1803, U.S. President Thomas Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly first convened.[4] At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed a congressional joint resolution that officially declared March 1, 1803, the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.

Ohio has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville, and Columbus. Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise to get a bill passed. The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, to have it near the geographic center of the state.

Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson, the US government forced Indian Removal of most tribes to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.

In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Only one person was injured in the conflict. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third that was already considered part of the state.

Civil War and growth

Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the union during the Civil war. Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties. Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service. From July 12 to July 23, 1863, Southern Ohio and Indiana were attacked in Morgan's Raid. While this raid was insignificant and small, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and Indiana. Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded. By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals–Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan–were all from Ohio.


In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era. It introduced the initiative and the referendum. Also, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. The question asks whether a new convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead, constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.

"Mother of Presidents"

Eight US Presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "Mother of Presidents," a sobriquet it shares with Virginia. It is also termed "Modern Mother of Presidents," in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Seven Presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding.

Political demographics and history

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia


1800Ohio's first censusSource:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
1803Ohio becomes 17th State of the UnionSource:Wikipedia
1835Toledo WarSource:Wikipedia

Population History

source: Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
Census Year Population
1800 42,159
1810 230,760
1820 581,434
1830 937,903
1840 1,519,467
1850 1,980,329
1860 2,339,511
1870 2,665,260
1880 3,198,062
1890 3,672,329
1900 4,157,545
1910 4,767,121
1920 5,759,394
1930 6,646,697
1940 6,907,612
1950 7,946,627
1960 9,706,397
1970 10,652,017
1980 10,797,630
1990 10,847,115

Note: Ohio was part of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, established in 1787 and commonly known as the Northwest Territory. Besides present-day Ohio it included what are now Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and northeastern Minnesota. In 1800, with the creation of Indiana Territory, the Northwest Territory was reduced essentially to present-day Ohio, a small portion of southeastern Indiana, and the eastern half of lower Michigan. Ohio became a separate territory in 1802 and was admitted as a State on March 1, 1803, with its present boundaries except for a much-disputed strip along the northwestern border. This strip was governed by Michigan Territory until finally ceded to Ohio in 1836. In 1790 the Northwest Territory had no census coverage. The 1800 census enumerated population in much of present-day Ohio and in a portion of southeastern Indiana; the total excludes the then Wayne County, nearly all of whose population was in present-day Michigan. The 1810, 1820, and 1830 censuses covered all of present-day Ohio except for the disputed northwestern strip, which was enumerated as part of Michigan.. Total for 1800 excludes population (3,206) of Wayne County, Northwest Territory, virtually all of which was enumerated in present-day Michigan, but includes part of present-day Indiana in Hamilton County. Total for 1890 includes 13 Indians in prison, not returned by county.

Research Tips

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