Place:Brandenburg, Germany

Watchers
NameBrandenburg
TypeModern state
Coordinates52.417°N 12.567°E
Located inGermany     ( 1157 - )
Also located inEast Germany     (1945 - 1990)
See alsoBrandenburg, Preußen, GermanyParent
Contained Places
Deserted settlement
Chorin
District
Barnim
Dahme-Spreewald
Elbe-Elster
Havelland
Märkisch-Oderland
Oberhavel
Oberspreewald-Lausitz
Oder-Spree
Ostprignitz-Ruppin
Potsdam-Mittelmark
Prignitz ( 1993 - )
Spree-Neiße
Teltow-Fläming
Uckermark
General region
Fläming
Oderbruch
Spreewald
Zauche
Inhabited place
Ahrensdorf bei Beeskow
Ahrensdorf
Albertshof
Alt Buchhorst
Alt Rüdersdorf
Alt Stahnsdorf
Alt-Hartmannsdorf
Alte Grund
Altenhof
Altfriedland
Altlangerwisch
Altlewin
Altlüdersdorf
Bad Freienwalde
Bad Saarow-Pieskow
Baruth
Basdorf
Bensdorf
Bergfelde
Bergholz-Rehbrücke
Bernau bei Berlin
Bestensee
Bindow
Bollensdorf
Boossen
Breddin
Briese
Brieselang
Brieskow-Finkenheerd
Britz
Bruchmühle
Brunow
Brusendorf
Buchow-Karpzow
Caputh
Carmzow
Casekow
Dabendorf
Dahlewitz
Dahlhausen
Dahlwitz
Dahlwitz-Hoppegarten
Damme
Danewitz
Dannenreich
Dannenwalde
Dedelow
Demerthin
Deutsch Wusterhausen
Diepensee
Dyrotz
Eberswalde
Eiche
Eichenbrandt
Eichstädt
Eichwalde
Eisenhüttenstadt
Elstal
Falkenberg
Falkenhagen
Falkensee
Falkenthal
Fichtenau
Finkenkrug
Finow
Finowfurt
Flatow
Flecken Zechlin
Flemsdorf
Fredersdorf bei Berlin
Friedrichshof
Friedrichswalde
Fürstenberg-Havel
Fürstenwerder
Gartz
Geltow
Genshagen
Germendorf
Gielsdorf
Glasow
Glöwen
Gottesbrücke
Gross Kienitz
Gross Lindow
Gross-Machnow
Gross-Schulzendorf
Gröben
Gröditsch
Grünefeld
Grüntal
Gölsdorf
Görzke
Göttin
Güterfelde
Halbe
Heckelberg
Herzberg
Hirschfelde
Hohen-Neuendorf
Hohengüstow
Hohenwutzen
Hoherlehme
Hoppenrade
Jühnsdorf
Jütchendorf
Kablow
Kablower Ziegelei
Kanin
Karnzow
Karstädt
Kartzow
Kerzendorf
Kiekebusch
Kienberg
Kietz
Kirchhofen
Kirchmöser
Klein Kienitz
Klein-Machnow
Kleinbeeren
Klobbicke
Kloster Zinna
Klosterfelde
Kolonie Stolp
Krampnitz
Kunow
Köpernitz
Leegebruch
Lehnin
Lehnitz
Linow
Linum
Ludwigsfelde
Löhme
Löwenberg
Mahlow
Markendorf
Marquardt
Marzahna
Mehrow
Meyenburg
Michendorf
Miersdorf
Milmersdorf
Märkisch Buchholz
Müncheberg
Nassenheide
Neu Fahrland
Neu Lübbenau
Neu-Hartmannsdorf
Neuemühle
Neuenhagen
Neuglobsow
Neuruppin
Neuseddin
Neutrebbin
Neuzelle
Niederlehme
Nudow
Oranienburg
Paaren
Paulinenaue
Pausin
Perleberg
Perwenitz
Pessin
Petershagen
Petkus
Plaue an der Havel
Premnitz
Prenzlau
Prieros
Priort
Prötzel
Päwesin
Rathstock
Rauen
Ravensbrück
Rehberg
Retzow
Rhinow
Roqäsen
Roskow
Rotberg
Sachsenhausen
Sandkrug
Schenkendorf
Schenkenhorst
Schollene
Schorfheide
Schulzendorf
Schulzenhöhe
Schwante
Schweinrich
Schönebeck
Schönflies
Seeberg
Seehof
Selchow
Senzig
Sewekow
Siethen
Skaby
Sommersdorf
Spreenhagen
Sputendorf
Staffelde
Stechow
Stegelitz
Steinsdorf
Strausberg-Vorstadt
Stülpe
Summt
Tassdorf
Termsdorf
Teschendorf
Teupitz
Tiefensee
Tietzow
Trebatsch
Triglitz
Töpchin
Tüchen
Uetz
Vehlefanz
Viesecke
Waltersdorf
Wandlitz
Wartin
Wassmannsdorf
Weesow
Weitzgrund
Welsickendorf
Wensickendorf
Werbellin
Werneuchen
Wernitz
Wernsdorf
Wilhelmshorst
Willmersdorf
Wustermark
Wusterwitz
Wünsdorf
Zauchwitz
Zechlinerhütte
Zeesen
Zeestow
Zernsdorf
Zeuthen
Ziegenhals
Ziesar
Ziltendorf
Zühlsdorf
Region
Lausitz
Territory in holy roman empire
Nordmark
Urban district (kreisfreie stadt)
Brandenburg ( 500 - )
Frankfurt an der Oder
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Brandenburg (; , Lower Sorbian: Bramborska) is a state of Germany.

Brandenburg is located in the northeast of Germany covering an area of and has a population of 2.5 million residents, the fifth-largest German state by area and tenth-most populous. Potsdam is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Brandenburg an der Havel, Cottbus, and Frankfurt (Oder). Brandenburg surrounds the national capital and city-state of Berlin, which together form the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, the third-largest metropolitan area in Germany. Brandenburg borders the states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Saxony, and the country of Poland.

Brandenburg originated in the Northern March in the 900s AD from areas conquered from the Wends, and later became the Margraviate of Brandenburg, a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire, with Albert the Bear as prince-elector. In the 17th century Brandenburg came under the rule of the House of Hohenzollern, the rulers of Prussia, who established Brandenburg-Prussia to become the core of the Kingdom of Prussia. Brandenburg became the Province of Brandenburg in 1815, a province within the kingdom and later within the Free State of Prussia. Brandenburg was established as a state in 1945 after World War II by the Soviet army administration in Allied-occupied Germany, and became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947. Brandenburg was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Potsdam, Cottbus, Frankfurt, Neubrandenburg, and Schwerin, but was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, and became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

In late medieval and early modern times, Brandenburg was one of seven electoral states of the Holy Roman Empire, and, along with Prussia, formed the original core of the German Empire, the first unified German state. Governed by the Hohenzollern dynasty from 1415, it contained the future German capital Berlin. After 1618 the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were combined to form Brandenburg-Prussia, which was ruled by the same branch of the House of Hohenzollern. In 1701 the state was elevated as the Kingdom of Prussia. Franconian Nuremberg and Ansbach, Swabian Hohenzollern, the eastern European connections of Berlin, and the status of Brandenburg's ruler as prince-elector together were instrumental in the rise of that state.

Early Middle Ages

Brandenburg is situated in territory known in antiquity as Magna Germania, which reached to the Vistula river. By the 7th century, Slavic peoples are believed to have settled in the Brandenburg area. The Slavs expanded from the east, possibly driven from their homelands in present-day Ukraine and perhaps Belarus by the invasions of the Huns and Avars. They relied heavily on river transport. The two principal Slavic groups in the present-day area of Brandenburg were the Hevelli in the west and the Sprevane in the east.

Beginning in the early 10th century, Henry the Fowler and his successors conquered territory up to the Oder River. Slavic settlements such as Brenna (Brandenburg an der Havel), Budusin (Bautzen), and Chośebuz (Cottbus) came under imperial control through the installation of margraves. Their main function was to defend and protect the eastern marches. In 948 Emperor Otto I established margraves to exert imperial control over the pagan Slavs west of the Oder River. Otto founded the Bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg. The Northern March was founded as a northeastern border territory of the Holy Roman Empire. However, a great uprising of Wends drove imperial forces from the territory of present-day Brandenburg in 983. The region returned to the control of Slavic leaders.

Late Middle Ages

During the 12th century, the German kings and emperors re-established control over the mixed Slav-inhabited lands of present-day Brandenburg, although some Slavs like the Sorbs in Lusatia adapted to Germanization while retaining their distinctiveness. The Roman Catholic Church brought bishoprics which, with their walled towns, afforded protection from attacks for the townspeople. With the monks and bishops, the history of the town of Brandenburg an der Havel, which was the first center of the state of Brandenburg, began.


In 1134, in the wake of a German crusade against the Wends, the German magnate, Albert the Bear, was granted the Northern March by the Emperor Lothar III. He formally inherited the town of Brandenburg and the lands of the Hevelli from their last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, in 1150. After crushing a force of Sprevane who occupied the town of Brandenburg in the 1150s, Albert proclaimed himself ruler of the new Margraviate of Brandenburg. Albert, and his descendants the Ascanians, then made considerable progress in conquering, colonizing, Christianizing, and cultivating lands as far east as the Oder. Within this region, Slavic and German residents intermarried. During the 13th century, the Ascanians began acquiring territory east of the Oder, later known as the Neumark (see also Altmark).

In 1320, the Brandenburg Ascanian line came to an end, and from 1323 up until 1415 Brandenburg was under the control of the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria, followed by the Luxembourg Dynasties. Under the Luxembourgs, the Margrave of Brandenburg gained the status of a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. In the period 1373-1415, Brandenburg was a part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. In 1415, the Electorate of Brandenburg was granted by Emperor Sigismund to the House of Hohenzollern, which would rule until the end of World War I. The Hohenzollerns established their capital in Berlin, by then the economic center of Brandenburg.

16th and 17th centuries

Brandenburg converted to Protestantism in 1539 in the wake of the Protestant Reformation, and generally did quite well in the 16th century, with the expansion of trade along the Elbe, Havel, and Spree Rivers. The Hohenzollerns expanded their territory by co-rulership since 1577 and acquiring the Duchy of Prussia in 1618, the Duchy of Cleves (1614) in the Rhineland, and territories in Westphalia. The result was a sprawling, disconnected country known as Brandenburg-Prussia that was in poor shape to defend itself during the Thirty Years' War.

Beginning near the end of that devastating conflict, however, Brandenburg enjoyed a string of talented rulers who expanded their territory and power in Europe. The first of these was Frederick William, the so-called "Great Elector", who worked tirelessly to rebuild and consolidate the nation. He moved the royal residence to Potsdam. At the Treaty of Westphalia, his envoy Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal negotiated the acquisition of several important territories such as Halberstadt. Under the Treaty of Oliva Christoph Caspar von Blumenthal(son of the above) negotiated the incorporation of the Duchy of Prussia into the Hohenzollern inheritance.

Kingdom of Prussia and German Empire

When Frederick William died in 1688, he was followed by his son Frederick, third of that name in Brandenburg. As the lands that had been acquired in Prussia were outside the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick assumed (as Frederick I) the title of "King in Prussia" (1701). Although his self-promotion from margrave to king relied on his title to the Duchy of Prussia, Brandenburg was still the most important portion of the kingdom. However, this combined state is known as the Kingdom of Prussia.

Brandenburg remained the core of the Kingdom of Prussia, and it was the site of the kingdom's capitals, Berlin and Potsdam. When Prussia was subdivided into provinces in 1815, the territory of the Margraviate of Brandenburg became the Province of Brandenburg, again subdivided into the government regions of Frankfurt and Potsdam. In 1881, the City of Berlin was separated from the Province of Brandenburg. However, industrial towns ringing Berlin lay within Brandenburg, and the growth of the region's industrial economy brought an increase in the population of the province. The Province of Brandenburg had an area of and a population of 2.6 million (1925). After World War II, the Neumark, the part of Brandenburg east of the Oder–Neisse line, was transferred to Poland; and its native German population expelled. The remainder of the province became a state in the Soviet Zone of occupation in Germany when Prussia was dissolved in 1947.

East Germany

Since the foundation of East Germany in 1949 Brandenburg formed one of its component states. The State of Brandenburg was completely dissolved in 1952 by the Socialist government of East Germany, doing away with all component states. The East German government then divided Brandenburg among several Bezirke or districts. (See Administrative division of the German Democratic Republic). Most of Brandenburg lay within the Bezirke of Cottbus, Frankfurt, or Potsdam, but parts of the former province passed to the Schwerin, Neubrandenburg and Magdeburg districts (town Havelberg). East Germany relied heavily on lignite (the lowest grade of coal) as an energy source, and lignite strip mines marred areas of southeastern Brandenburg. The industrial towns surrounding Berlin were important to the East German economy, while rural Brandenburg remained mainly agricultural.

Federal Republic of Germany

The present State of Brandenburg was re-established on 3 October 1990 upon German reunification. The newly elected Landtag of Brandenburg first met on 26 October 1990. As in other former parts of East Germany, the lack of modern infrastructure and exposure to West Germany's competitive market economy brought widespread unemployment and economic difficulty. In the recent years, however, Brandenburg's infrastructure has been modernized and unemployment has slowly declined.

In 1995, the governments of Berlin and Brandenburg proposed to merge the states in order to form a new state with the name of "Berlin-Brandenburg", though some suggested calling the proposed new state "Prussia". The merger was rejected in a plebiscite in 1996 – while West Berliners voted for a merger, East Berliners and Brandenburgers voted against it.

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