Person:Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1)

Charles V , Holy Roman Emperor
d.21 Sep 1558 Spain
m. Feb 1499
  1. Eleanor , of Austria - 1558
  2. Charles V , Holy Roman Emperor1500 - 1558
  3. Isabella of Austria1501 - 1526
  4. Ferdinand I , Holy Roman Emperor1503 - 1564
  5. Mary of Austria1505 - 1558
  6. Catherine of Austria1507 - 1578
  7. Catalina de Spain1507 - 1525
m.
  1. Felipe II , de España1527 - 1598
  2. Maria , of Austria, Holy Roman Empress1528 - 1603
  3. Archduchess Joanna of Austria1535 - 1573
m.
  1. John of Austria1547 - 1578
m.
  1. Margaret of Parma1522 - 1586
m.
  1. Isabel of Castille1518 -
Facts and Events
Name Charles V , Holy Roman Emperor
Gender Male
Birth[1] 24 Feb 1500 Gent, Oost-Vlaanderen, BelgiumHouse of Habsburg
Marriage Palacio Del Alcazar, Sevilla, Spainto Isabella of Portugal
Marriage Cohabitation?
to Barbara Blomberg
Marriage Cohabitation?
to Johanna Maria van der Gheynst
Marriage Cohabitation?
to Germaine de Foix
Death[1] 21 Sep 1558 SpainMonastery of Extremadura
Reference Number? Q32500?


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1556), King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire (as Charles I, 1516-1556), Archduke of Austria (as Charles I, 1519-1521), and ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands (1506-1555). The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, and the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands (primarily Bruxelles), 18 years in Spain (notably Toledo and Extremadura) and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria. The personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties: Valois of Burgundy, Habsburg of Austria, and Trastámara of Spain. As heir to the House of Burgundy, he inherited areas in the Netherlands and around the eastern border of France. As the head of the House of Habsburg, he inherited Austria and other lands in central Europe, and was also elected to succeed his grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor. As a grandson of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, both from the Spanish House of Trastámara he inherited the Crown of Castile, which was developing a nascent empire in the Americas and Asia, and the Crown of Aragon, which included a Mediterranean empire extending to southern Italy. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right (as a unified Spain), and as a result he is often referred to as the first king of Spain. The personal union under Charles of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe has come to a universal monarchy since the time of Charlemagne in the 9th century.

Because of widespread fears that his vast inheritance would lead to the realisation of a universal monarchy and that he was trying to create a European hegemony, Charles was the object of hostility from many enemies. His reign was dominated by war, particularly by three major simultaneous prolonged conflicts: the Italian Wars with France, the struggle to halt the Turkish advance into Europe, and the conflict with the German princes resulting from the Protestant Reformation. The French wars, mainly fought in Italy, lasted for most of his reign. Enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios.

The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean. The Turkish advance was halted at the Siege of Vienna in 1529, and a lengthy war of attrition, conducted on Charles' behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand (King of Hungary and archduke of Austria), continued for the rest of Charles's reign. In the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, he was unable to prevent the Ottomans' increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary pirates. Charles opposed the Reformation, and in Germany he was in conflict with Protestant nobles who were motivated by both religious and political opposition to him. He could not prevent the spread of Protestantism and was ultimately forced to concede the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, which divided Germany along denominational lines.

While Charles did not typically concern himself with rebellions, he was quick to put down three particularly dangerous rebellions; the Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile, the revolt of the Arumer Zwarte Hoop in Frisia, and, later in his reign, the Revolt of Ghent (1539). Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule.

Charles's Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed. In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castilian conquistadores of the Aztec and Inca empires. Castilian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain.

Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 40 years of active rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery, where he died at the age of 58. The Holy Roman Empire passed to his younger brother Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, while the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles's son Philip II of Spain. The two empires would remain allies until the extinction of the male line of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs in 1700.

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References
  1. 1.0 1.1 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.