In 2001, Taverham had a population of 10,233. It has seen recent population growth with the building of Thorpe Marriott, a new residential development that straddles the boundary with the neighbouring village of Drayton. The patron saint of Taverham is St Walstan who according to legend lived and worked in the village in the 11th century. By 2013, the area of Taverham had an approximate population of 14,121.
A school existed in Taverham very early on, from at least the 13th century.
In the 19th century Taverham was a major producer of paper. Some of the paper which was produced at Taverham Mill was used in producing The Times, Bank of England banknotes and the Oxford English Dictionary. It also served the University Press at Cambridge. In 1830 the paper mill was attacked during the Swing Riots; a gardener, Robert West, was transported to Australia for his part in the riot. The mill closed in 1899.
In October 1944, a V-2 rocket exploded in woods near Taverham.