Place:Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States

NameLancaster
Alt namesLancastersource: Getty Vocabulary Program
TypeCounty
Coordinates40.25°N 76.25°W
Located inPennsylvania, United States     (1729 - )
See alsoLebanon, Pennsylvania, United StatesChild county (source: Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990)
Contained Places
Borough
Adamstown
Akron
Christiana
Columbia
Denver
East Petersburg
Elizabethtown
Ephrata
Lititz
Manheim
Marietta
Millersville
Mount Joy
Mountville
New Holland
Quarryville
Strasburg
Terre Hill
Cemetery
All Saints Episcopal Cemetery
Lancaster Cemetery
Lincoln Cemetery
Middle Octorara Cemetery
Pequea Presbyterian Cemetery
Stevens Greenland Cemetery
Zion German Reformed Church Cemetery
Census-designated place
Brickerville
Gap
Leacock-Leola-Bareville
Maytown
Paradise
Reamstown
Rheems
Rothsville
Salunga-Landisville
Willow Street
Historic
Reinholdsville (historic) ( 1800 - 1909 )
Inhabited location
Hummelstown
Inhabited place
Aberdeen
Anchor
Andrews Bridge
Annville ( 1729 - 1813 )
Bainbridge
Bamford
Bareville
Bart
Bartville
Baumgardner
Bausman
Bellaire
Bellemont
Benton
Bethel
Bethesda
Beverly
Bird-in-Hand
Black Baron
Blainsport
Bloomingdale
Blossom Hill
Blue Ball
Bowmansville
Brickersville
Bridgeport
Brownstown
Brunnerville
Buck
Buena Vista
Burnt Mills
Buyerstown
Cains
Camargo
Cedar Lane
Center Square
Centerville
Central Manor
Chestnut Hill
Chestnut Level
Chestnut Ridge
Chestnut View
Chickies
Churchtown
Clay
Clearview
Cocalico House
Cocalico
Cole Hill
Colemanville
Collins
Colonial Manor
Concord
Conestoga Gardens
Conestoga Woods
Conestoga
Conners Mill
Coopersville
Cordelia
Creswell
Donegal Heights
Donegal Springs
Donerville
Drumore Center
Drumore
Drytown
Durlach
East Earl
Eastland Hills
Eastland
Eden
Eldora
Elim
Elm
Elstonville
Elwyn Terrace
Erbs Mill
Fairfiled
Fairland
Fairmount
Fairview Park
Falmouth
Farmdale
Farmersville
Fernglen
Fertility
Fivepointville
Florys Mill
Frysville
Furniss
Garden Hills
Georgetown
Glen Moore
Goodville
Gordonville
Goshen
Grandview Heights
Green Bank
Greencastle
Greenland
Groffdale
Hahnstown
Halfville
Hamilton Park
Harristown
Hatville
Hawksville
Hempfield
Hensel
Herrville
Hessdale
Hickory Ridge
Highville
Hinkletown
Holland Heights
Holtwood
Homeland
Hopeland
Hornig
Hunsecker
Intercourse
Irishtown
Ironville
Iva
Jacksonville
Jenkins Corner
Kenwick Village
Kinderhook
Kinzers
Kirks Mills
Kirkwood
Kissell Hill
Klinesville
Lampeter
Lancaster Junction
Lancaster ( 1700 - )
Landis Valley
Landisville
Laurel Hill
Leacock
Leola
Letort
Lexington
Liberty Square
Lime Valley
Limerock
Limeville
Little Britain
Locust Grove
Lyndon
Manor Ridge
Martic Forge
Marticville
Martindale
Mascot
Mastersonville
McGovernsville
McSparran
Meadville
Mechanic Grove
Mechanicsville
Millport
Millway
Milton Grove
Monterey
Mount Airy
Mount Hope
Mount Nebo
Mount Pleasant
Mountain Top
Murrell
Napiersville
Narvon
Naumanstown
Neffsville
New Danville
New Milltown
New Providence
New Texas
Newtown
Newville
Nickel Mines
Ninepoints
North Sewickley
Northkill
Oak Hill
Oak Shade
Oakbottom
Oakryn
Old Line
Oregon
Overlook
Oyster Point
Peach Bottom
Penn Hill
Penn Rose Park
Penryn
Pequea
Pine Grove
Pleasant Grove
Poplar Grove
Puseyville
Rawlinsville
Reading
Red Run
Refton
Reinholds
Rockhill
Ronks
Roseville
Rossmere
Rowenna
Sadsbury Meeting House
Safe Harbor
Salem
Salisbury Heights
Salunga
Schaefferstown
Schoeneck
School Lane Hills
Shreiners
Silver Spring
Simmonstown
Slackwater
Slaymakersville
Smithville
Smoketown
Smyrna
Soudersburg
South Hermitage
Speedwell
Sporting Hill
Spring Garden
Springville
Spruce Grove
Stacktown
Star Rock
Stevens
Stone Hill
Stumptown
Summerhill
Swartzville
Talmage
Tayloria
Truce
Unicorn
Union Grove
Union Square
Union
Valley View
Vera Cruz
Vintage Station
Vintage
Vogansville
Wabank
Wakefield
Warwick
Washington Boro
Waynesboro
Weaverland
Weavertown
Weidmanville
West Lampeter
West Lancaster
West Ridge
West Willow
Wheatland
White Horse
White Oak
White Rock
Windom
Witmer
Woodlawn
Wrightsdale
Wynn Wood Manor
Youngstown
Zooks Corner
Township
Bart (township)
Brecknock
Caernarvon
Clay (township)
Colerain
Conestoga (township)
Conoy
Derry Township
Drumore (township)
Earl
East Cocalico
East Donegal
East Drumore
East Earl (township)
East Hempfield
East Lampeter
Eden (township)
Elizabeth
Ephrata (township)
Fulton
Hempfield twp.
Lancaster (township)
Leacock (township)
Lebanon
Little Britain (township)
Manheim (township)
Manor
Martic
Mount Joy (township)
Mt. Joy Township
Muddy Creek
Paradise (township)
Paxtang Township ( 1729 - 1785 )
Penn
Pequea (township)
Providence
Rapho
Rathmullan (township)
Sadsbury
Salisbury
Strasburg (township)
Swatara (township) ( 1729 - 1785 )
Thompkins Township
Upper Leacock
Warwick (township)
West Cocalico
West Donegal
West Earl
West Hempfield
West Lampeter (township)
Unknown
Florin
Lincoln
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Lancaster County , (Pennsylvania German: Lengeschder Kaundi) sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2013 census estimate, the population was 529,600. Its county seat is Lancaster.

Lancaster County comprises the Lancaster, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination, with the Amish community there being a major attraction. The term Pennsylvania Dutch comes from Pennsylvania German language, derived from the German Deutsch ('German'), Dutch Duits ('German'), Diets ('Dutch'): they are the descendants of Germans (Deutsche) who immigrated in the 18th and 19th centuries for the freedom of religion offered by William Penn, and were attracted by the rich soil and mild climate of the area. Freedom from poverty and political uncertainty also was a major factor. Also attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution with significant numbers of English, Welsh and Ulster Scots (also known as the Scots-Irish) settled this area in 1710.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

The area that became Lancaster County was part of William Penn's 1681 charter, and John Kennerly received the first recorded deed from Penn in 1691. Although Matthias Kreider was said to have been in the area as early as 1691, there is no evidence that anyone actually settled in Lancaster County before 1710.

Lancaster County was part of Chester County, Pennsylvania until May 10, 1729, when it became the fourth county in the state. Lancaster County was named after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire in England, the native home of John Wright, one of the early settlers. Six other counties were subsequently formed from territory directly taken, in all or in part, from Lancaster County: Berks (1752), Cumberland (1750), Dauphin (1785), Lebanon (1813), Northumberland (1772), and York (1749).[1] Many other counties were in turn formed from these six.

Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples had occupied the areas along the waterways for thousands of years, and established varying cultures. Historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter included the Shawnee, Susquehannock, Gawanese, Lenape (or Delaware), and Nanticoke peoples, who were from different language families.

Among the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock, whose name came from the Lenape term for "Oyster River People". (The Lenape spoke an Algonquian language.) The English called them the Conestoga, after the name of their principal village,Gan'ochs'a'go'jat'ga ("Roof-place" or "town"), anglicized as "Conestoga." Other places occupied by the Susquehannock were Ka'ot'sch'ie'ra ("Place-crawfish"), where present-day Chickisalunga developed, and Gasch'guch'sa ("Great-fall-in-river"), now called Conewago Falls, Lancaster County).

Other Native tribes, as well as early European settlers, considered the Susquehannock a mighty nation, experts in war and trade. They were beaten only by the combined power of the Five Nation Iroquois Confederacy, after colonial Maryland withdrew its support. After 1675, the Susquehannock were totally absorbed by the Iroquois. A handful were settled at "New Conestoga," located along the south-bank of the Conestoga River in Conestoga Township of the county. They helped staff an Iroquois consulate to the English in Maryland and Virginia (and later, Pennsylvania). By the 1720s, the colonists considered the Conestoga Indians as a "civilized" or "friendly tribe," having been converted in large part to Christianity, speaking English as a second language, making brooms and baskets for sale, and naming children after their favorite neighbors.

The outbreak of Pontiac's War in the summer of 1763, coupled with the ineffective policies of the provincial government, aroused widespread settler suspicion and hatred against all Indians in the frontier counties, without distinguishing among hostile and friendly peoples. On December 14, 1763, the Paxton Boys, led by Matthew Smith and Capt. Lazarus Stewart, attacked Conestoga, killing the six Indians present, and burning all the house and stores. Officials sheltered the fourteen survivors of the tribe in protective custody in the county jail, but the Paxton Boys returned on December 27, broke into the jail, and massacred the remaining Conestoga. The lack of effective government control and widespread sympathy in the frontier counties for the murderers meant they were never discovered or brought to justice.

Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute

Pennsylvania had a longstanding dispute with Maryland about the southern border of the province and Lancaster County. Nine years of armed clashes accompanied the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute, which began soon after the 1730 establishment of Wright's Ferry across the Susquehanna River. Lord Baltimore believed that his grant to Maryland extended to the 40th parallel. This was about halfway between present-day Lancaster and the town of Willow Street, Pennsylvania. This line of demarcation would have resulted in Philadelphia's being included in Maryland.

New settlers began to cross the Susquehanna. In 1730 the Wright's Ferry services were licensed and officially begun. Starting in mid-1730, Thomas Cresap, acting on behalf of Lord Baltimore, began confiscating the newly settled farms near present-day Peach Bottom and Columbia, Pennsylvania (at the time this was not named, but it was first called "Wright's Ferry", as noted on map). Believing he controlled this land under his grant, Lord Baltimore wanted the income from the lands. He had believed he had a defensible claim established on the west bank of the Susquehanna since 1721, and that his demesne and grant extended to forty degrees north. If he allowed Pennsylvanians to settle his lands without reacting, their squatting would constitute a counter claim.

Cresap established a second ferry in the upper Conejohela downriver from John Wright's, and near Peach Bottom. He demanded that settlers either move out or pay Maryland for the right-bank lands. Settlers believed they already had rights to these under Pennsylvania grants. Cresap drove off settlers by vandalizing farms and killing livestock; he pushed out settlers from southern York and Lancaster counties. He gave the abandoned lands to his followers. If a follower was arrested by Lancaster authorities, the Marylanders broke him out of the lockup.

Lord Baltimore negotiated a compromise in 1733, but Cresap ignored it and continued his raids. A deputy was sent to arrest him in 1734, and Cresap killed him at the door. The Pennsylvania governor demanded that Maryland arrest Cresap for murder; the Maryland governor instead commissioned him as a captain in the militia. In 1736, Cresap was finally arrested; he was jailed until 1737 when the King intervened. In 1750, a court decided that, by failing to develop the land with settlers, Lord Baltimore had forfeited his rights to a twenty-mile (32 km) swath of land.[2] In 1767, a new Pennsylvania-Maryland border was officially established by the Mason-Dixon line.

Diversity of settlers

The names of the original Lancaster County townships reflect the diverse national origins of settlers in the new county: two had Welsh names (Caernarvon and Lampeter), three had Native American names (Cocalico, Conestoga and Peshtank or Paxton), six were English (Warwick, Lancaster, Martic, Sadsbury, Salisbury and Hempfield); four were Irish (Donegal, Drumore, Derry, and Leacock), reflecting mostly Scots-Irish (or Ulster Scots) from Ulster, a province in the north of Ireland; Manheim was German, Lebanon came from the Bible, a basis of all the European cultures; and Earl was a translation of the German surname of Graf or Groff.


19th-century statesmen

Lancaster County's native son James Buchanan, a Democrat, was elected as the 15th President of the United States in 1856, the only Pennsylvanian to hold the presidency. His home Wheatland is now operated as a house museum in Lancaster.

Thaddeus Stevens, the noted Radical Republican, served Lancaster County in the United States House of Representatives from 1849–1853 and from 1859 until his death in 1868. Stevens left a $50,000 bequest to start an orphanage. This property eventually was developed as the state-owned Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology. Both men are buried in Lancaster.

Slavery and the Christiana incident

Pennsylvania abolished slavery in 1780, with gradual implementation. The existing 6000 slaves in Pennsylvania remained slaves, and the registered children of those slaves were enslaved until their 28th birthday. The last slave child registered in Pennsylvania was Haley, born in 1811, who became a freedman no later than 1839. Pennsylvania was fully a free state when the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was passed by Congress as part of the Compromise of 1850. It regarded slaves brought voluntarily to the state by their masters as free, and did not pay compensation if the slave chose to take freedom in the state.

Immediately north of the Mason-Dixon line, bordered by the Susquehanna River which had been a traditional route from the Chesapeake Bay watershed into the heart of what became Pennsylvania, Lancaster County became important for fugitive slaves traveling along the Underground Railroad in the antebellum years. Many of the people of German descent opposed slavery and cooperated with aiding fugitive slaves. Charles Spotts found 17 stations. They included hiding places with trap doors, hidden vaults, an underground cave, and one with a brick tunnel leading to Octoraro Creek, a subsidiary of the Susquehanna.

Edward Gorsuch was not known to beat his slaves. As a wealthy Maryland wheat farmer, he had manumitted several slaves in their 20s. He allowed his slaves to work for cash elsewhere during the slow season. Upon finding some of his wheat missing, he thought his slaves sold it to a local farmer. His slaves Noah Buley, Nelson Ford, George Ford, and Joshua Hammond, fearing his bad temper, fled across the Mason-Dixon line to the farm of William Parker, a mulatto free man and abolitionist who lived in Christiana, Pennsylvania. Parker, 29, was member of the Lancaster Black Self-Protection Society and known to use violence to defend himself and the fugitive slaves who sought refuge in the area.

Gorsuch obtained four warrants and organized four parties, which set out separately with federal marshals to recover his property - the four slaves. He was killed and others were wounded. While Gorsuch was legally entitled to recover his slaves under the Fugitive Slave Act, it is not clear who precipitated the violence. The incident was variously called the "Christiana Riot", "Christiana Resistance", the "Christiana Outrage", and the "Christiana Tragedy". The Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society helped provide defense for the suspects charged in the case.

The event frightened slaveholders, as black men fought back and they, not white, prevailed. Many feared this would inspire enslaved African Americans to participate in more slave rebellions. The case was prosecuted in Philadelphia U.S. District Court under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which required citizens to cooperate in the capture and return of fugitive slaves. The disturbance caused regional and racial tensions to flair up more. In the North, it added to the push to abolish slavery.

In September 1851, the grand jury returned a "true bill" (indictment) against 38 suspects, who were held in Philadelphia's Moyamensing Prison to await trial. U.S. District Judge John K. Kane ruled that the men could be tried for treason.

The only person actually tried was Castner Hanway, a white man, who on November 15, 1851 was tried for liberating slaves taken into custody by U.S. Marshal Kline, as well as for resisting arrest, conspiracy, and treason. Hanway's responsibility for the violent events was unclear. He was reported as one of the first on the scene where Gorsuch and others of his party were attacked, and he and his horse provided cover for Dickerson, Gorsuch and Dr. Pearce, who were wounded. The jury deliberated 15 minutes before returning a Not Guilty. Among the five defense lawyers, recruited by the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society, was U.S. Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, who had practiced law in Lancaster County since at least 1838.

Religious history

The oldest surviving dwelling of European settlers in the county is that of Mennonite Bishop Hans Herr, built in 1719. In 1989, Donald Kraybill counted 37 distinct religious bodies/organizations, with 289 congregations and 41,600 baptized members, among the plain sects who are descendants of the Anabaptist Mennonite immigrants to Lancaster County. The Mennonite Central Committee in Akron supports relief in disasters and provides manpower and material to local organizations for their direction in relief efforts.

The town of Lititz was originally planned as a closed community, founded early in the 1740s by members of the Moravian Church. The town eventually grew and welcomed its neighbors. The Moravian Church established Linden Hall School for Girls in 1746; it is one of the earliest educational institutions in continuous operation in the United States.

In addition to the Ephrata Cloister, the United Brethren in Christ and the Evangelical United Brethren (EUB) trace their beginnings to a 1767 meeting at the Isaac Long barn, near the hamlet of Oregon, in West Lampeter Township. The EUB, a German Methodist church, merged in 1968 with the traditionally English Methodist Episcopal Church to become the United Methodist Church.

The first Jewish resident was Isaac Miranda , from the Sephardic Jewish community of London, who owned property before the town and county were organized in 1730. Ten years later several Jewish families had settled in the town; on February 3, 1747, a deed to Isaac Nunus Ricus (Henriques) and Joseph Simon was recorded, conveying of land "in trust for the society of Jews settled in and about Lancaster," to be used as a place of burial. Today, this cemetery is still in use by; it is considered the fourth-oldest Jewish cemetery in the United States.

In the early 21st century, Lancaster County is home to three synagogues, the Orthodox Degel Israel, the Conservative Beth El, and the Reform Shaarai Shomayim. In 2003 Rabbi Elazar Green & Shira Green founded the Chabad Jewish Enrichment Center, a branch of the Chabad Lubavitch movement, that focuses on serving the Jewish students of Franklin and Marshall College, as well serving the general community with specific religious services. The larger community enjoys a Jewish Community Center which hosts a preschool, and a catering hall. The Lancaster Mikvah Association runs a mikveh on Degel Israel's property. Central PA Kosher Stand is operated at Dutch Wonderland, a seasonal amusement park.

This area was also settled by French Huguenots, who had fled to England and then the colonies in the late 1600s and early 1700s to escape religious persecution from Catholics in France. Among the first residents of this group was Isaac LeFèvre, who with a group of other Huguenots settled in the area of the Pequea Creek.

Inventions

Timeline

Date Event Source
1729 County formed Source:Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources
1729 Land records recorded Source:Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources
1729 Probate records recorded Source:Red Book: American State, County, and Town Sources
1790 First census Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
1820 No significant boundary changes after this year Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990

Population History

source: Source:Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790-1990
Census Year Population
1790 36,147
1800 43,403
1810 53,927
1820 68,336
1830 76,631
1840 84,203
1850 98,944
1860 116,314
1870 121,340
1880 139,447
1890 149,095
1900 159,241
1910 167,029
1920 173,797
1930 196,882
1940 212,504
1950 234,717
1960 278,359
1970 319,693
1980 362,346
1990 422,822

Research Tips

External links

  • Outstanding guide to Lancaster County family history and genealogy resources (FamilySearch Research Wiki). Birth, marriage, and death records, censuses, wills, deeds, county histories, cemeteries, churches, newspapers, libraries, and genealogical societies.

www.co.lancaster.pa.us/


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