Place:Hessen, Germany

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NameHessen
Alt namesHesse
Hessensource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Hessen statesource: Getty Vocabulary Program
Hessiasource: Wikipedia
Hessen-Darmstadtsource: Wikipedia
TypeFormer state, Modern state
Coordinates50.5°N 9.25°E
Located inGermany
See alsoHessen-Nassau, Preußen, GermanyParent
Rheinhessen-Pfalz, Rheinland-Pfalz, GermanyChild
Contained Places
General region
Spessart
Historical district
Dieburg
Independent city
Frankfurt am Main
Mainz
Worms
Inhabited place
Ahnatal
Allmenrod
Alzey
Asmushausen
Berstadt
Bierstadt
Bingen
Bodenheim
Budenheim
Dettingen
Erbenheim
Flomborn
Fränkisch Crumbach
Gau-Algesheim
Gau-Odernheim
Großauheim
Guntersblum
Hauswurz
Helsa
Ingelheim
Johannisberg
Karben
Monsheim
Nieder-Olm
Nierstein
Oberstedten
Oppenheim
Osthofen
Partenheim
Pfeddersheim
Rheindürkheim
Saulheim
Seeheim-Jugenheim
Sprendlingen
Undenheim
Wendelsheim
Wiesbaden-Biebrich
Wöllstein
Wörrstadt
Regierungsbezirk
Darmstadt
Gießen
Kassel
Unknown
Abenheim
Affolterbach
Albach
Albersbach
Albig
Allendorf
Allertshofen
Alsbach
Alsheim
Alten Buseck
Altenburg
Altenhain
Altenschlirf
Altheim
Angenrod
Angersbach
Annelsbach
Annerod
Appenheim
Appenrod
Arheilgen
Armsheim
Arnshain
Asbach
Aspisheim
Astheim
Atzenhain
Auerbach
Aulen-Diebach
Badenheim
Balkhausen
Bauernheim
Bauschheim
Bechenheim
Bechtheim
Bechtolsheim
Beedenkirchen
Beienheim
Bellersheim
Bergheim
Berkach
Bernsburg
Bersrod
Bessungen
Bettenhausen
Beuern
Bickenbach
Biebelnheim
Biebelsheim
Bieben
Biebesheim
Bierbach
Billertshausen
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Bindsachsen
Bingenheim
Birklar
Bisses
Bleichenbach
Bleidenrod
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Blödesheim
Bobenhausen
Bobstadt
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Bonsweiher
Bornheim
Borsdorf
Bosenheim
Brandau
Brauerschwend
Breitenbach
Breitenwiesen
Brensbach
Bretzenheim
Breuberg
Breungeshain
Bruchenbrücken
Bubenheim
Burg Gräfenrode
Burg-Bracht
Burg-Gemünden
Burghardfelden
Burkhards
Burkhardsfelden
Busenborn
Bönstadt
Bös-Gesäß
Büches
Bürgel
Büttelborn
Calbach
Crainfeld
Crumstadt
Dalheim
Dalsheim
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Daubringen
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Dautenheim
Dexheim
Dienheim
Dietesheim
Dilshofen
Dirlammen
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Dolgesheim
Dorf Güll
Dorheim
Dorn-Assenheim
Dorn-Dürkheim
Dornberg
Dorndiel
Dornheim
Drais
Dromersheim
Dudenhofen
Dudenrod
Dusenbach
Düdelsheim
Eberbach
Eberbach-Lautenau
Ebersheim
Echzell
Eckartshausen
Eckelsheim
Effolderbach
Egelsbach
Ehringshausen
Eichelsachsen
Eichelsdorf
Eichloch
Eimsheim
Einartshausen
Eisenbach
Elbenrod
Elmshausen
Elpenrod
Elsheim
Engelrod
Engelstadt
Engelthal
Ensheim
Eppelsheim
Eppertshausen
Erbenhausen
Erbes-Büdesheim
Erfelden
Erlau
Ermenrod
Ernsthofen
Erschheim
Erzhausen
Eschenrod
Eschollbrücken
Esselborn
Essenheim
Ettingshausen
Etzen-Gesäß
Eudorf
Eulersdorf
Fahrenbach
Fauerbach bei Nidda
Faustenbach
Feldkrücken
Flonheim
Florstadt
Forstel
Framersheim
Frankenhausen
Frau-Rombach
Frei Laubersheim
Frei Weinheim
Freien Seen
Freien Steinau
Freimersheim
Friesenheim
Frischborn
Frohnhofen
Froschhausen
Fürfeld
Gabsheim
Gadernheim
Garbenteich
Gau-Bickelheim
Gau-Heppenheim
Gau-Köngernheim
Gau-Weinheim
Gaulsheim
Gedern
Geinsheim
Geis-Nidda
Gelnhaar
Gensingen
Georgenhausen
Gersprenz
Gettenau
Getzbad
Gimbsheim
Ginsheim
Glashütten
Glauberg
Gleimenhain
Goddelau
Gonsenheim
Gonterskirchen
Gras-Ellenbach
Grebenau
Grein
Griedel
Grolsheim
Gronau
Groß Bieberau
Groß Eichen
Groß Felda
Groß Gumpen
Groß Hausen
Groß Karben
Groß Rohrheim
Groß Steinheim
Groß Winternheim
Großen Buseck
Großendorf
Gräfenhausen
Grüningen
Gumbsheim
Gundernhausen
Gundersheim
Gundheim
Götzenhain
Güttersbach
Habitzheim
Hackenheim
Hahn
Hahnheim
Hain-Gründau
Hainbach
Hainchen
Hainhausen
Hamm
Hammelbach
Hangen-Weisheim
Hangen-Weißheim
Harheim
Harpertshausen
Harreshausen
Hartenau
Hartershausen
Harxheim
Hassenrod
Hattenrod
Haßloch
Hebstahl
Hechtsheim
Heegheim
Heidesheim
Heimersheim
Heimertshausen
Helpershain
Hemmen
Herchenhain
Herchenrode
Hergershausen
Hering
Herrnhaag
Herrnsheim
Hesselbach
Hetschbach
Heubach
Heusenstamm
Heßloch
Hillesheim
Hirzenhain
Hitzkirchen
Hoch Weisel
Hochstädten
Hofheim
Hohen Sülzen
Hohenstein
Holzheim
Homberg
Hopfgarten
Hopfmannsfeld
Horchheim
Horrweiler
Hoxhohl
Hummetroth
Hutzdorf
Hähnlein
Häuserhof
Höchst
Höllerbach
Hüttenberg
Ibersheim
Ilbeshausen
Ilsdorf
Inheiden
Ippesheim
Jügesheim
Kaichen
Kastel
Kaulstoß
Kefenrod
Kempten
Kettenheim
Kirch Beerfurth
Kirch Brombach
Kirch Göns
Kirchberg
Kleestadt
Klein Auheim
Klein Bieberau
Klein Eichen
Klein Gerau
Klein Gumpen
Klein Karben
Klein Krotzenburg
Klein Linden
Klein Steinheim
Klein Umstadt
Klein Welzheim
Klein Winternheim
Kloppenheim
Knoden
Kostheim
Kreutzersgrund
Kriegsheim
Kunzenbach
Köngernheim
Königstädten
Langd
Langen-Bergheim
Langen-Brombach
Langenhain
Langenthal
Langsdorf
Langstadt
Langwaden
Lanzenhain
Lardenbach
Laubenheim
Laudenau
Lautern
Leeheim
Leidhecken
Leihgestern
Leiselheim
Lengfeld
Leusel
Leustadt
Lichtenberg
Lichtenklingen
Lindenstruth
Lindheim
Litzelbach
Londorf
Long Göns
Lonsheim
Lorbach
Ludwigshöhe
Lämmerspiel
Lörzenbach
Lörzweiler
Lützel-Rimbach
Lützelbach
Maar
Maibach
Mainflingen
Mainzlar
Massenheim
Meiches
Melbach
Merkenfritz
Merlau
Messel
Mettenheim
Michelau
Michelbach
Mittel Gründau
Mittel Seemen
Mittershausen
Mockstadt
Mombach
Mommenheim
Monzernheim
Mosbach
Muschenheim
Märkenwald
Mölsheim
Mörlenbach
Mörstadt
Mühlhausen
Mümling-Grumbach
Nack
Nackenheim
Nauheim
Neckar Hausen bei Heidelberg
Neckar Steinach
Neu Bamberg
Neu Isenburg
Neuhausen
Neunkirchen
Nieder Beerbach
Nieder Bessingen
Nieder Eschbach
Nieder Florstadt
Nieder Flörsheim
Nieder Gemünden
Nieder Hilbersheim
Nieder Ingelheim
Nieder Kainsbach
Nieder Mockstadt
Nieder Modau
Nieder Moos
Nieder Ramstadt
Nieder Roden
Nieder Rosbach
Nieder Saulheim
Nieder Seemen
Nieder Wiesen
Nieder Wöllstadt
Niedernhausen
Nonnenroth
Nonrod
Nordheim
Obbornhofen
Ober Abtsteinach
Ober Beerbach
Ober Bessingen
Ober Breidenbach
Ober Erlenbach
Ober Eschbach
Ober Flörsheim
Ober Gleen
Ober Hilbersheim
Ober Hörgern
Ober Ingelheim
Ober Kainsbach
Ober Kleingumpen
Ober Klingen
Ober Lais
Ober Laudenbach
Ober Mockstadt
Ober Modau
Ober Mossau
Ober Mumbach
Ober Mörlen
Ober Nauses
Ober Ofleiden
Ober Ohmen
Ober Olm
Ober Ostern
Ober Roden
Ober Rosbach
Ober Saulheim
Ober Scharbach
Ober Seemen
Ober Siegen
Ober Wegfurth
Ober Widdersheim
Ober Wöllstadt
Oberau
Oberndorf
Obertshausen
Ockenheim
Ockstadt
Odenhausen
Offenheim
Offenthal
Offstein
Okarben
Oppenrod
Oppershofen
Orleshausen
Ossenheim
Ostheim
Otterbach
Patershausen
Petterweil
Pfaffen Beerfurth
Pferdsbach
Pfiffligheim
Pfirschbach
Pfordt
Philippseich
Planig
Pleitersheim
Quattelbach
Queck
Queckborn
Rabertshausen
Radheim
Rai-Breitenbach
Raibach
Raidelbach
Rebgeshain
Reibertenrod
Reichelsheim
Reichenbach
Reichenberg
Reimenrod
Reisen
Reiskirchen
Reißkirchen
Rembrücken
Rendel
Reuters
Rheinhessen
Richen
Rimhorn
Rinderbügen
Ringelshausen
Rixfeld
Rockenberg
Rodenbach
Rodheim an der Horloff
Rommelhausen
Rommelshausen
Rosenbach
Rothenberg
Rudingshain
Rudlos
Ruhlkirchen
Rumpenheim
Ruppertsburg
Ruttershausen
Röthges
Rülfenrod
Saasen
Sandbach
Sandlofs
Schaafheim
Schimbach
Schloß Nauses
Schmal Beerbach
Schneppenhausen
Schornsheim
Schwabenheim
Schwabenrod
Schwabsburg
Schwanheim
Schwarz
Schwickartshausen
Schönberg
Seckmauern
Seehof
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Selters
Selzen
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Spiesheim
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Staffel
Stallenkandel
Stammheim
Stangenrod
Starkenburg
Stein-Bockenheim
Steinfurt
Steinfurth
Stockheim
Stockstadt
Storndorf
Strebendorf
Stumpertenrod
Sulzheim
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Trais-Horloff
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Treis
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Udenhausen
Udenheim
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Ulfa
Unter Mossau
Unter Ostern
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Urberach
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Wiebelsbach
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Willofs
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Winnerod
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Wohnbach
Wolf
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Zeilhard
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Ziegenberg
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Ös
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source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Hesse or Hessia (Hessian dialect: Hesse ) is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.

  • The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen) in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state. The oldest city of the cultural region of Hesse, Mainz, is in Rhineland-Palatinate.
  • The State of Hesse (literally "Country of Hesse") is part of the larger cultural region. It has an area of and just over six million inhabitants. The capital is Wiesbaden. Hesse's largest city is Frankfurt am Main.

The English name "Hesse" comes from the Hessian dialects. The variant "Hessia" comes from the medieval Latin Hassia. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated (paragraphs 1.31 & 1.35). The term "Hesse" ultimately derives from a Germanic tribe called the Chatti, who settled in the region in the first century B.C.

An inhabitant of Hesse is called a Hessian (German: Hesse (masculine) or Hessin (feminine)). Hessian mercenaries played a prominent role in the American War of Independence.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

As early as the Paleolithic period, the Central Hessian region was inhabited. Due to the favorable climate of the location, people lived there about 50,000 years ago during the last glacial period, as burial sites show from this era. Finds of paleolitical tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb (German: Steinkammergrab von Züschen, sometimes also Lohne-Züschen) is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Hesse, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist (hessisch-westfälische Steinkiste), it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to the late 4th millennium BC (and possibly remaining in use until the early 3rd), it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture.

An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid 5th century BC La Tène style burial uncovered at Glauberg. The region was later settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe in ca. the 1st century BC, and the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name.

The Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, and in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction. Presumably, the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. It is likely that the governor of Germania, at least temporarily, had resided here. The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year 9 AD. The Chatti were also involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in the year 69 AD.

In the early Middle Ages, a Frankish gau comprising an area around Fritzlar and Kassel and a Saxon one further north were known as Hessengau. In the 9th century the Saxon Hessengau also came under the rule of the Franconians. In the 12th century it was passed to Thuringia.

In the War of the Thuringian Succession (1247–64), Hesse gained its independence and became a Landgraviate within the Holy Roman Empire. It shortly rose to primary importance under Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous, who was one of the leaders of German Protestantism. After Philip's death in 1567, the territory was divided up among his four sons from his first marriage (Philip was a bigamist) into four lines: Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Rheinfels and the also previously existing Hesse-Marburg. As the latter two lines died out quite soon (1583 and 1605, respectively), Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt were the two core states within the Hessian lands. Several collateral lines split off during the centuries, such as in 1622, when Hesse-Homburg split off from Hesse-Darmstadt. In the late 16th century, Kassel adopted Calvinism, while Darmstadt remained Lutheran and subsequently the two lines often found themselves on different sides of a conflict, most notably in the disputes over Hesse-Marburg and in the Thirty Years' War, when Darmstadt fought on the side of the Emperor, while Kassel sided with Sweden and France.

The Landgrave Frederick II (1720–1785) ruled as a benevolent despot, 1760-1785. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward diplomacy. He funded the depleted treasury of the poor nation by renting out 19,000 soldiers in complete military formations to Great Britain to fight in North America during the American Revolutionary War, 1776-1783. These soldiers, commonly known as Hessians, fought under the British flag. For further revenue the soldiers were rented out elsewhere as well. Most were conscripted, with their pay going to the Landgrave.

19th century

Hesse-Kassel was elevated to the rank of an Electorate in 1803, but this remained without effect as the Holy Roman Empire was disbanded in 1806. The territory was annexed by the Kingdom of Westphalia in 1806, but restored to the Elector in 1813. While other Electors had gained other titles, becoming either Kings or Grand Duke, the Elector of Hesse-Kassel alone retained the anachronistic dignity. The name survived in the term Kurhessen, denoting the region around Kassel. In 1866 it was annexed by Prussia, together with the Free City of Frankfurt, Hesse-Homburg and the duchy of Nassau, which established the province of Hesse-Nassau.

Hesse-Darmstadt was elevated to the rank of a Grand Duchy in 1806. In the War of 1866, it fought on the side of Austria against Prussia, but retained its autonomy in defeat, because a greater part of the country was situated south of the Main river and Prussia did not dare to expand beyond the Main line as this might have provoked France. But the parts of Hesse-Darmstadt north of the Main river (the region around the town of Gießen, commonly called Oberhessen) were incorporated in the Norddeutscher Bund, a tight federation of German states, established by Prussia in 1867. In 1871, after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the rest of the Grand Duchy joined the German Empire. Around the turn of the twentieth century, Darmstadt was one of the centres of the Jugendstil. Until 1907, the Grand Duchy of Hesse used only the Hessian red and white lion as its coat-of-arms.

20th century

The revolution of 1918 transformed Hesse-Darmstadt from a monarchy to a republic, which officially renamed itself to "Volksstaat Hessen" (People's State of Hesse). The parts of Hesse-Darmstadt on the western banks of the Rhine (province Rheinhessen) were occupied by French troops until 1930 under the terms of the Versailles peace treaty that officially ended WWI in 1919.

After World War II the Hessian territory left of the Rhine was again occupied by France, whereas the rest of the region was part of the US occupation zone. The French separated their part of Hesse from the rest of the region and incorporated it into the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz). The United States, on the other side, proclaimed the state of Greater Hesse (Groß-Hessen) on 19 September 1945, out of Hesse-Darmstadt and most of the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. On December 4, 1946 Groß-Hessen was officially renamed Hessen.

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