County Tipperary is a county in Ireland. For Irish local government, it is divided into two counties, North Tipperary and South Tipperary. The Local Government Bill 2013 proposes to reunite the two counties into one, with effect from the 2014 local elections. It is located in province of Munster. The North, whose county council is based in Nenagh, is in the Mid-West Region; while the South, whose county council is based in Clonmel, in the South-East Region. The county is named after the town of Tipperary, and was established in the early thirteenth century, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland. The population of the entire county was 158,754 at the 2011 census.
Tipperary was a county by 1210, when the sheriffdom of Munster shired after the Norman invasion of Ireland was split into separate shires of Tipperary and Limerick. In 1328, Tipperary was granted to the Earls of Ormond as a county palatine or liberty. The grant excluded churchlands, including the archiepiscopal seat of Cashel, which formed the separate county of Cross Tipperary. Though the Earls gained jurisdiction over the churchlands in 1662, "Tipperary and Cross Tipperary" were not definitively united until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715, when the 2nd Duke of Ormond was attainted for supporting the Jacobite rising of 1715.
The county was divided once again in 1838. The county town of Clonmel, where the grand jury held its twice-yearly assizes, is at the southern limit of the county, and roads leading north were poor, making the journey inconvenient for jurors resident there. A petition to move the county town to a more central location was opposed by the MP for Clonmel, so instead the county was split into two "ridings"; the grand jury of the South Riding continued to meet in Clonmel, while that of the North Riding met in Nenagh. When the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 established county councils to replace the grand jury for civil functions, the ridings became separate "administrative counties" with separate county councils. Their names were changed from "Tipperary North/South Riding" to "North/South Tipperary" by the Local Government Act 2001, which redesignated all "administrative counties" as simply "counties". The Local Government Bill 2013 proposes to amalgamate the two counties and restore a single county of Tipperary.
For more information, see the EN Wikipedia article County Tipperary. especially the section "Geography and political subdivisions" and its subsections "Baronies", "Civil parishes and townlands", and "Towns and villages"