Chesterfield is a market town and a borough of Derbyshire, United Kingdom. It lies north of Derby, on a confluence of the rivers Rother and Hipper. It has a population of 103,800 (2011), making it the largest town in Derbyshire, and the second largest settlement in the county after the unitary authority of the city of Derby.
Archaeology of the town traces its beginnings to the 1st century and the construction of a Roman fort, which became redundant and was abandoned once peace was achieved. Later a Saxon village grew up on the site; the name Chesterfield stems from the Saxon words 'caester' (a Roman fort) and 'feld' (grazing land).
Chesterfield received its market charter in 1204 and has one of the largest open air markets in Britain. The town sits on a large coalfield which formed a major part of the area's economy until the 1980s. Little evidence of the mining industry remains today.
The town's most famous landmark is the distinctive 'crooked' spire of its predominantly 14th-century church.