Person:James II of England (1)

James II , of England
b.14 Oct 1633
d.16 Sep 1701
m.
  1. Henrietta FitzJames1667 - 1730
  2. James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick1670 - 1734
  3. Henry FitzJames1673 - 1702
  1. James Francis Edward Stuart1688 - 1766
  2. Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart1692 - 1712
m.
  1. Lady Catherine Darnleyabt 1681 - 1743
Facts and Events
Name James II , of England
Gender Male
Birth[1] 14 Oct 1633 House of Stuart
Marriage  Cohabitation without marriage formalities?  
to Arabella Churchill
Marriage  Cohabitation without marriage formalities?  
to Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester
Military[1] 11 Jul 1690 Battle of the Boyne
Death[1] 16 Sep 1701


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland.

The second son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britain's political and religious elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and of having designs on becoming an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, the tension exploded, and leading nobles called on his Protestant son-in-law and nephew, William III of Orange, to land an invasion army from the Netherlands, which he did. James fled England (and thus was held to have abdicated) in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was replaced by his Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III. James made one serious attempt to recover his crowns from William and Mary, when he landed in Ireland in 1689 but, after the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamite forces at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France. He lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV.

James is best known for struggles with the English Parliament and his attempts to create religious liberty for English Roman Catholics and Protestant nonconformists against the wishes of the Anglican establishment. However, he also continued the persecution of the Presbyterian Covenanters in Scotland. Parliament, opposed to the growth of absolutism that was occurring in other European countries, as well as to the loss of legal supremacy for the Church of England, saw their opposition as a way to preserve what they regarded as traditional English liberties. This tension made James's four-year reign a struggle for supremacy between the English Parliament and the Crown, resulting in his deposition, the passage of the English Bill of Rights, and the Hanoverian succession.

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References
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 James II of England, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. (Online: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.).
  2.   James II Stuart, King of Great Britain, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.