Person:James II of England (1)

James II , of England
b.14 Oct 1633
d.16 Sep 1701
m.
  1. Henrietta FitzJames1667 - 1730
  2. James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick1670 - 1734
  3. Henry FitzJames1673 - 1702
  1. Isabel Stuart1676 - 1681
  2. Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge1677 - 1677
  3. James Francis Edward Stuart1688 - 1766
  4. Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart1692 - 1712
m.
  1. Lady Catherine Darnleyabt 1681 - 1743
Facts and Events
Name James II , of England
Gender Male
Birth[1] 14 Oct 1633 House of Stuart
Marriage Cohabitation?
to Arabella Churchill
Marriage Cohabitation?
to Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester
Military[1] 11 Jul 1690 Battle of the Boyne
Reference Number? Q126188?
Death[1] 16 Sep 1701


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, his reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it also involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown.

James inherited the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries, largely based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree; it was a political principle, rather than a religious one that ultimately led to his removal.

In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the first on 10 June was the birth of James's son and heir James Francis Edward, threatening to create a Catholic dynasty and excluding his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. The second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel; this was viewed as an assault on the Church of England and their acquittal on 30 June destroyed his political authority in England. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.

Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne; after he landed in Brixham on 5 November 1688, James's army deserted and he went into exile in France on 23 December. In February 1689, Parliament held he had 'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had 'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV.

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References
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 James II of England, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
  2.   James II Stuart, King of Great Britain, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.