Place:Limburg, Netherlands

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NameLimburg
Alt namesLimbourgsource: BHA, Authority file (2003-)
LIsource: Abbreviation
LBsource: Abbreviation
Provincie Limburg
TypeProvincie
Coordinates51.233°N 5.833°E
Located inNetherlands     (1839 - )
Contained Places
Dorp
Treebeek
Gemeente
Beek
Beesel
Bergen
Brunssum
Echt-Susteren ( 2003 - )
Eijsden-Margraten ( 2011 - )
Gennep
Gulpen-Wittem ( 1999 - )
Heerlen
Horst aan de Maas ( 2001 - )
Kerkrade ( 900 - )
Landgraaf ( 1982 - )
Leudal
Maasgouw ( 2007 - )
Meerssen
Mook en Middelaar
Nederweert
Nuth
Onderbanken ( 1982 - )
Peel en Maas
Roerdalen ( 1993 - )
Roermond
Schinnen
Simpelveld
Sittard-Geleen ( 2001 - )
Stein
Vaals
Valkenburg aan de Geul ( 1981 - )
Venlo ( 1100 - )
Venray
Voerendaal
Weert
Inhabited place
Aalbeek
Aaldonk
Aan de Rijksweg
Aasterberg
Afferden
Aijen
Arcen
Asenray
Asselt
Baakhoven
Baaks-Sweijer
Baarlo
Baneheide
Banholt
Barrier
Beertsenhoven
Berg aan de Maas
Bergenhuizen
Berghem
Berghof
Beringe
Billinghuizen
Blitterswijk
Bocholtzerheide
Boddenbroek
Boekend
Boeket
Bosschenhuizen
Bosserstraat
Boukoul
Bouwberg
Bovenste Caumer
Bovenste Puth
Brand
Broekhem
Broekhuizenvorst
Bruisterbosch
Buchten
Dieteren
Eckelrade
Eijs
Einighausen
Epen
Geijsteren
Griendtsveen
Guttecoven
Hasselderheide
Hasselt
Heek
Heel
Heerlerheide
Heerstraat
Hegelsom
Hegge
Heibloem
Heide
Heierhoeve
Heihoven
Heijen
Heijenrath
Heisterbrug
Heksenberg
Helle (Mechelen)
Helle (Nuth)
Hellebroek
Herkenbosch
Herkenrade
Heugem
Heukelom
Hilleshagen
Holset
Holtum
Hommert
Hondsrug
Honthem
Hoogcruts
Hout-Blerick
Huls
Humcoven
Hunnecum
Hurpesch
Hushoven
Hussenberg
Höfke
IJzeren
Imstenrade
In de Gaas
Ingber
Kaffeberg
Kamp
Kapolder
Kelpen
Lemiers
Leveroij
Limmel
Lottum
Maarland
Maastricht
Milsbeek
Mook
Nijswiller
Op de Bies
Overeys
Panningen
Peij
Reuver
Velden
Vijlen
Wahlwiller
Waubach
Wolfhaag
Wolfhagen
Wolfshuis
Ysselsteyn
Zandberg
Zelder
Zwarte Plak
Unknown
Berg
Cadier
Cotessem
De Bisselt
De Pol
Groot-Doenrade
Hoog-Caestert
Horst-Sevenum
Katert
Koningsbosch
Krawinkel
Kruchten
Lutterade
Millen
Neerbeek
Oirlo
Oler
Overmaze
Raar
Rolduc
Sint-Gerlach
Ten Esschen
Tienraij
Wehr
Welten
Wilre
Voormalige gemeente
Ambt Montfort ( 1994 - 2006 )
Amby ( - 1970 )
Amstenrade ( - 1982 )
Arcen en Velden ( 1816 - 2010 )
Baexem ( - 1991 )
Beegden ( - 1991 )
Belfeld ( - 2001 )
Bemelen ( - 1982 )
Berg en Terblijt ( - 1982 )
Bingelrade ( - 1982 )
Bocholtz ( - 1982 )
Borgharen ( - 1970 )
Born ( - 2001 )
Breust ( - 1828 )
Broekhuizen ( - 2001 )
Broeksittard ( 1817 - 1942 )
Buggenum ( - 1942 )
Bunde ( - 1982 )
Cadier en Keer ( 1828 - 1982 )
Echt ( - 2003 )
Eijgelshoven ( - 1982 )
Eijsden ( - 2011 )
Elsloo ( - 1982 )
Geleen ( - 2001 )
Geulle ( - 1982 )
Grathem ( - 1991 )
Grevenbicht ( - 1982 )
Gronsveld ( - 1982 )
Grubbenvorst ( - 2001 )
Gulpen ( - 1999 )
Haelen ( - 2007 )
Heel en Panheel ( 1821 - 1991 )
Heer en Keer
Heer ( 1828 - 1970 )
Helden ( - 2010 )
Herten ( - 1991 )
Heythuysen ( - 2007 )
Hoensbroek ( - 1982 )
Horn ( - 1991 )
Horst ( - 2001 )
Houthem ( - 1940 )
Hulsberg ( - 1982 )
Hunsel ( - 2007 )
Itteren ( - 1970 )
Ittervoort ( - 1942 )
Jabeek ( - 1982 )
Kessel ( - 2010 )
Klimmen ( - 1982 )
Limbricht ( - 1982 )
Linne ( - 1991 )
Maasbracht ( - 2007 )
Maasbree ( - 2010 )
Maasniel ( - 1959 )
Margraten ( - 2011 )
Meerlo ( - 1969 )
Meerlo-Wanssum ( 1969 - 2010 )
Meijel ( - 2010 )
Melick en Herkenbosch ( - 1993 )
Merkelbeek ( - 1982 )
Mesch ( - 1943 )
Mheer ( - 1982 )
Montfort ( - 1991 )
Munstergeleen ( - 1982 )
Neer ( - 1991 )
Neeritter ( - 1942 )
Nieuwenhagen ( - 1982 )
Nieuwstadt ( - 1982 )
Noorbeek ( - 1982 )
Nunhem ( - 1942 )
Obbicht en Papenhoven ( - 1982 )
Ohé en Laak ( - 1991 )
Oirsbeek ( - 1982 )
Oost ( - 1828 )
Ottersum ( - 1973 )
Oud-Valkenburg ( - 1940 )
Oud-Vroenhoven ( 1839 - 1920 )
Posterholt ( - 1994 )
Rijkholt ( - 1943 )
Rimburg ( - 1887 )
Roggel en Neer ( 1993 - 2007 )
Roggel ( - 1993 )
Roosteren ( - 1982 )
Schaesberg ( - 1982 )
Schimmert ( - 1982 )
Schin op Geul ( - 1940 )
Schinveld ( - 1982 )
Sevenum ( 1836 - 2010 )
Sint Geertruid ( 1828 - 1982 )
Sint Odiliënberg ( - 1991 )
Sint Pieter ( - 1920 )
Sittard ( - 2001 )
Slenaken ( - 1982 )
Spaubeek ( - 1982 )
Stevensweert ( - 1991 )
Stramproy ( - 1998 )
Strucht ( - 1879 )
Susteren ( - 2003 )
Swalmen ( - 2007 )
Tegelen ( 1817 - 2001 )
Thorn ( - 2007 )
Ubach over Worms ( - 1982 )
Ulestraten ( - 1982 )
Urmond ( - 1982 )
Valkenburg ( - 1941 )
Valkenburg-Houthem ( 1941 - 1981 )
Vlodrop ( - 1991 )
Wanssum ( - 1969 )
Wessem ( - 1991 )
Wijlre ( - 1982 )
Wijnandsrade ( - 1982 )
Wittem ( - 1999 )
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Limburg (; Dutch and Limburgish: (Nederlands-)Limburg;) is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands. It is in the southeastern part of the country, stretched out from the north, where it touches the province of Gelderland, to the south, where it internationally borders Belgium. Its northern part has the North Brabant province to its west. Its long eastern boundary is the international border with the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Much of the west border runs along the River Maas, bordering the Flemish province of Limburg, and a small part of the Walloon province of Liège. On the south end, it has borders with the Flemish exclave of Voeren and its surrounding part of Liège, Wallonia. The Vaalserberg is on the extreme south-eastern point, marking the tripoint of Netherlands, Germany and Belgium.

Limburg's major cities are the provincial capital Maastricht, as well as Heerlen, and Sittard-Geleen in the south, Venlo in the north and Roermond and Weert in the middle. More than half of the population, approximately 620,000 people, live in the south of Limburg, which corresponds to roughly one-third of the province's area proper. In South Limburg, most people live in the urban agglomerations of Maastricht, Parkstad and Sittard-Geleen.

Limburg has a highly distinctive character. The social and economic trends that have affected the province in recent decades have generated a process of change and renewal which has enabled Limburg to transform its peripheral location into a highly globalized regional nexus, linking the Netherlands to the Ruhr metro area and the southern part of the Benelux region. A less appreciated consequence of this international gateway location is rising international crime, often drug-related, especially in the southernmost part of the province.

Contents

History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

It is important to note that the history given below is that of the region, the current province Limburg of the Netherlands. There existed no polity or other entity going by that name covering this territory until 1815.

For centuries, the strategic location of the current province made it a much-coveted region among Europe's major powers. Romans, Habsburg Spaniards, Prussians, Habsburg Austrians and French have all ruled parts of Limburg. For long periods of history the region was not united under the same rule.

The first inhabitants of whom traces have been found were Neanderthals who camped in South Limburg. In Neolithic times flint was mined in underground mines, including one at Rijckholt that is open to visitors.

Just after the Roman conquest the Eburones, the inhabitants of most of the area of current Limburg, were annihilated by the legions of Julius Caesar with help of neighbour tribes, this as a punishment for a partially successful ambush set by their leader Ambiorix. After this genocide the area was repopulated with a diverse set of peoples that later under Roman rules, amalgated in the Tungri (note Tongeren, in Roman times the capital of the area). Especially the southern part of current Limburg, along the Via Belgica was thoroughly Romanized and a few still existing towns and cities were founded in this period, including Mosa Trajectum (Maastricht) and Coriovallum (Heerlen). Bishop Servatius introduced Christianity in Roman Maastricht, where he died in 384.

As Roman authority in the area weakened, Franks took over from the Romans, and the area, now called Austrasia, flourished under their rule. Especially the middle and southern part of the current province formed an important part of the heartland of Austrasia. In 714 Susteren Abbey was founded, as far as is known the first proprietary abbey in the current Netherlands. Main benefactor was Plectrude, the consort of Pepin of Herstal. Charles Martel was born in nearby Herstal and Charlemagne also had close links with the area. He made Aachen the capital of the Frankish empire. In 870 the treaty of Meerssen, the third partition treaty of the Frankish empire, was signed in Meerssen, just north of Maastricht. The river Meuse became the border between the Western- and Eastern Frankish kingdoms, placing the largest part of the current Dutch province of Limburg in the far west of the Eastern Frankish kingdom.

Around and immediately after this treaty Frankish power in the area of the current Netherlands more or less collapsed. For two or more years a large Viking army, operating from a place on or near the Meuse called Ascloa (or Hasloa or Haslon), wrought havoc in the neighbourhood. The damage was such that the emperor, Charles the Fat was forced to ensemble a large multinational army, that in 882 unsuccessfully besieged this island.

In the end of the 10th century, the area that is now Limburg, just like the largest part of the current Netherlands, belonged to the newly formed Holy Roman Empire. In the first decades of this empire the founding imperial family has close ties to areas in current northern Limburg. The emperor Otto III for instance was born in 980 in Kessel, practically on the current border between Limburg and North Rhine-Westphalia, just east from Gennep. In 1080 in Genneperhuis, just north of Gennep, Norbert of Gennep was born as a son of the count of Gennep. He was the founder of the order of the Premonstratensians.

By the late Middle Ages, present day province Limburg's territory was mainly part of the Duchy of Brabant, Duchy of Gelderland, Duchy of Jülich, the Principality of Liège and the prince-bishop of Cologne. These dukes and bishops were nominal subordinates of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, but in practice acted as independent sovereigns who were often at war with each other. These conflicts were often fought in and over Limburg, contributing to its fragmentation. An important battle was the Battle of Worringen in 1288, were a coalition led by the duke of Brabant overcame a coalition led by the archbishop of Cologne and the House of Luxemburg over the inheritance of the Duchy of Limburg.


Limburg was the scene of many bloody battles during the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), in which the Dutch Republic threw off Habsburg Spanish rule. At the Battle of Mookerheyde (14 April 1574), two brothers of Prince William of Orange-Nassau and thousands of "Dutch" mercenaries lost their lives. Most Limburgians fought on the Spanish side, being Catholics and being opposed to the Calvinist Hollanders.

In the early modern era, Limburg was largely divided between Spain (and its successor, Austria), Prussia, the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, the Principality of Liège and many independent small fiefs. In 1673, Louis XIV personally commanded the siege of Maastricht by French troops. During the siege, one of his brigadiers, Charles de Batz-Castelmore d'Artagnan, perished. He subsequently became known as a major character in The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas, père (1802–1870).

The modern boundaries of Dutch Limburg, along with its neighbour, Belgian Limburg, were basically set during the period after the French revolution, which erased much of the "ancien regime" of Europe, with all its old boundaries and titles. These two provinces were part of a new French département, named (like many départments) after the river running through it, "Meuse-Inférieure", meaning simply "lower Maas".

Following the Napoleonic Era, the great powers (the United Kingdom, Prussia, the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire and France) united the region with the new Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815. A new province was formed which was to receive the name "Maastricht" after its capital. The first king, William I, who did not want the medieval of Limburg to be lost, insisted that the name be changed to "Province of Limburg". As such, the name of the new province derived from the old Duchy of Limburg that had existed until 1648 on the southern borders of the new province.

When the Catholic and French-speaking Belgians split away from the mainly Calvinist northern Netherlands in the Belgian Revolution of 1830, the Province of Limburg was at first almost entirely under Belgian rule. However, by the 1839 Treaty of London, the province was divided in two, with the eastern part going to the Netherlands and the western part to Belgium, a division that remains today.

With the Treaty of London, what is now the Belgian Province of Luxembourg was handed over to Belgium and removed from the German Confederation. To appease Prussia, which had also lost access to the Meuse after the Congress of Vienna, the Dutch province of Limburg (but not the cities of Maastricht and Venlo because without them Limburg's population equalled that of the Province of Luxembourg, 150,000 [1]), was joined to the German Confederation between September 5, 1839 and August 23, 1866 as Duchy of Limburg. On 11 May 1867, the Duchy, which from 1839 on had been de jure a separate polity in personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, was reincorporated into the latter with the Treaty of London, though the term "Duchy of Limburg" remained in some official use until February 1907. Another idiosyncrasy survives today: the head of the province, referred to as the "King's Commissioner" in other provinces, is addressed as "Governor" in Limburg.

The Second World War cost the lives of many civilians in Limburg, and a large number of towns and villages were destroyed by bombings and artillery battles. Various cemeteries, too, bear witness to this dark chapter in Limburg's history. Almost 8,500 American soldiers, who perished during the liberation of the Netherlands, lie buried at the Netherlands American Cemetery and Memorial in Margraten. Other big war cemeteries are to be found at Overloon (British soldiers) and the Ysselsteyn German war cemetery was constructed in the Municipality of Venray for the 31,000 German soldiers who lost their lives.

According to the research of Herman van Rens, the residents of Limburg were especially active in hiding local and refugee Jews during the Holocaust, to the extent that the Jewish population even increased during the war. Jews in hiding were three times as likely to survive in Limburg as in Amsterdam.

In December 1991, the European Community (now European Union) held a summit in Maastricht. At that summit, the "Treaty on European Union" or so-called Maastricht treaty was signed by the European Community member states. With that treaty, the European Union came into existence.

Anthem

Limburg mijn Vaderland (Limburg my Fatherland) is the official anthem of both Belgian and Dutch Limburg.

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Limburg (Netherlands). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
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