Place:Andhra Pradesh, India

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NameAndhra Pradesh
Alt namesĀndhra Prādeshsource: Wikipedia
TypeState
Coordinates16.0°N 79.0°E
Located inIndia     (1956 - )
Contained Places
Deserted settlement
Golconda
District
Adilabad
Anantapur
Chittoor
East Godavari
Guntur
Hyderabad
Kadapa
Karimnagar
Khammam
Krishna
Kurnool
Mahbubnagar
Medak
Nalgonda
Nellore
Nizamabad
Prakasam
Rangareddi
Srikakulam
Visakhapatnam
Vizianagaram
Warangal
West Godavari
Inhabited place
Adoni
Allur
Alwal
Amalapuram
Anakapalle
Armur
Atmakur
Badvel
Banganapalle
Bapatla
Belampalli
Bhadrachalam
Bhainsa
Bhattiprolu
Bhongir
Bhrugubanda
Bimlipatan
Bobbili
Bodhan
Bollarum
Chilakalūrupet
Chodavaram
Cuddapah
Dharmavaram
Dhone
Elamanchili
Emmiganuru
Gadwal
Gajuwaka
Gandipalem
Giddalur
Gooty
Gudur
Gummadidala
Guntakal
Hasanparti
Hindupur
Jaggayyapeta
Jagtial
Jammalamadugu
Jangaon
Jannaram
Kadiri
Kalahasti
Kalyāndrug
Kamareddi
Kandukur
Kanigiri
Kapra
Kavali
Koilkuntla
Kolhāpur
Koratla
Kosigi
Kothapet
Kottagudem
Kovūr
Kukatpalle
L.B. Nagar
Macherla
Madhira
Mahbubabad
Malkajgiri
Malkapuram
Mancherāl
Mandapeta
Mangalagiri
Mantapampalle
Markapur
Miryalguda
Mothkur
Nagarkurnool
Nakrekal
Nandikotkur
Narasannapeta
Narasapur
Narasaraopet
Narayanpet
Narsipatnam
Nidadavole
Nirmal
North Vijayapuri
Pakala
Palakollu
Parlakimidi
Parvatipuram
Pedana
Peddapuram
Penna Ahobilam
Penugonda
Penukonda
Pithapuram
Ponnūru Nidubrolu
Proddatur
Pulimamidi
Punganuru
Pushpagiri
Puttūr
Pālkohda
Quthbullapur
Raikod
Rajampet
Ramachandrapuram
Ramagundam
Rayachoti
Rayadrug
Salur
Samalkot
Sangāreddi
Sattenapalle
Secunderabad
Serilingampalle
Siddipet
Sirsilla
Sompeta
South Vijayapuri
Sriharikota
Suluru
Suriapet
Sydapuram
Tadpatri
Tandur
Tanuku
Tekkali
Tenali
Tiruvur
Trimulgherry
Tuni
Tādepallegūdem
Upamaka
Uravakonda
Varshakonda
Vempalle
Venkatagiri
Vetapalemu
Vijayapuri
Vijayawada
Vikarabad
Vuyyuru
Wanparti
Yellandu
Zahirābād
Unknown
Thotapalli Gudur ( village
source: Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
source: Family History Library Catalog


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of . As per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh.

On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years. The new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA).

Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over almost 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.[1] The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, and to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state.

The state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, and Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. The largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion; the second largest city in the state is Vijayawada, located on the banks of the Krishna River, which has a GDP of US$3 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of .

Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India. The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, and Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi. The state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, and the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta.

Contents

Prehistory

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia


History

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Toponomy

A tribe named Andhra was mentioned in Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana (800–500 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India. The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their coins or inscriptions; it is possible that they were termed as Andhras because of their ethnicity or because their territory included the Andhra region.

Early and medieval history

Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati, Dharanikota, and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire. Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region.

The Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The later Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, and held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana. They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru, Amaravathi and Puranisangam.

The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi (modern Pedavegi) from 300 to 440 CE. The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C.E., eventually merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C.E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE.

Kakatiyas ruled Andhra Pradesh state for nearly two hundred years and constructed several forts. They were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks.

The Reddy dynasty (1325–1448 CE) was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal. They constructed Kondaveedu Fort which they ruled between 1328–1428, before it was taken over by the Gajpathis of Orissa, and later ravaged by the Muslim rulers of the Bahmani kingdom in 1458. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya captured it in 1516. The Golconda Sultans fought for the fort in 1531, 1536 and 1579, and Sultan Quli Qutb Shah captured it in 1579, renaming it Murtuzanagar. Again it was reconquered by Vijayanagarans who overthrew sultanate rule across the entirety of modern-day Andhra Pradesh (excluding Telangana). After this rebellion, the Bahmani sultans launched no further military campaigns outside their kingdoms, because the Marathas soon emerged as the strongest power in India. Efforts are in progress to classify Kondaveedu Fort as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Pemmasani Nayaks, the greatest kings during Vijayanagara times ruled parts of Andhra Pradesh state with Gandikota as capital for nearly three hundred years.

The Vijayanagara Empire originated in the Deccan Plateau region in the early 14th century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Sangama Dynasty. The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Lepakshi group of monuments are culturally and archaeologically significant as it is the location of shrines dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, and Veerabhadra which were built during the Vijayanagara Kings' period (1336–1646). The temples are the location of mural paintings of the Vijayanagara kings, Dravidian art, and inscriptions. Near the temple complex is a large granite Nandi bull. On a hillock known as Kurma Saila ('tortoise-shaped hill') are other temples to Papanatheswara, Raghunatha, Srirama, and Durga.

The Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken the initiative for including the "Lepakshi Group of Monuments" among the UNESCO World Heritage sites in India.

Modern history

Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal, founded the Vijayanagara Empire. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.

In the early nineteenth century, Northern Circars was ceded to the British East India Company and became part of the Madras Presidency. Eventually, this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British that eventually became the Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State. Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954. In 1947 Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu princely state in Andhra Pradesh.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.

Post-independence

In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated: "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)". After Potti Sreeramulu's death, the Telugu-speaking area of Andhra State was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city. On the basis of the gentlemen's agreement of 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State. Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

In February 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of the Telangana state comprising ten districts. Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for not exceeding ten years.[2] The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India. Number of petitions questioning the validity of Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 is long pending for the verdict since April 2014 before the supreme court constitutional bench.

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