Place:Yanam, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India


Alt namesYanaonsource: Wikipedia
TypeCity or town
Located inEast Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Yanam (French: Yanaon) is a town where the state government of Tamil Nadu has partial rights in its administration Puducherry, located in Yanam district, which forms a 30 km² enclave in the district of East Godavari in Andhra Pradesh. It has a population of 32,000, most of whom speak Telugu. For 200 years it was a French colony, and, though united with India in 1954, is still sometimes known as "French Yanam". It possesses a blend of French and Telugu culture prevailing in Andhra Pradesh. During French rule, the Tuesday market (mangalavaram santa) at Yanam was popular among Telugu people in the Madras Presidency who visited Yanam to buy foreign and smuggled goods during Yanam People's Festival, which is held in January. Also, after implementation of the Sarda Act in British India in 1929, Telugu people came to Yanam to conduct child marriages, which remained legal under the French administration. In 1936, Yanam's population was 5,220.



the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Yanaon was a Dutch colony prior to French takeover in the 1720s. 'Neelikundilu' (indigo wells) are still found in the west of Yanam. The Dutch built a fort, which they used to store their currency, minted in nearby Neelapalli. The location of the fort is today referred to by locals as 'saali kota' (in Telugu Saalivandru; lit, "shawl-hut") because, after the demise of the Dutch, the building was reputedly taken over by cloth weavers.

The region was presented to the French General the Marquis de Bussy by the Vizianagaram King as a token of gratitude for the help rendered by Bussy in his fight against the rulers of Bobbili. There remains a street named after Bussy in Yanam.

Commercial era, before 1742

The book The botanic garden of Yanam (Le Jardin Botanique de Yanaon), by Médecin-colonel Alfred-Alphonse-Léon Bigot, states that the Compagnie Française des Indes Orientales established a trading post at Yanaon in 1723, making it the third French colony established in India (though not officially confirmed as such until 1751).

The area was given up in 1727, after commercial operations proved unsuccessful, but was seized again by Governor-General Dupleix in 1731. A firman from Haji Hassan Khan, Nawab of Masulipatam, authorised the French Representative Fouquet, then chief of the Company at Masulipatam, to set up a loge (small business concession). Governor of Rajahmundry and its Southern Circars, Nawab Roustoum khan (Haji Hussain) granted a Paravana dated 1735 for French commerce in Yanam.

Political era, after 1742

Yanoan was re-established in 1742, during the reign of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah, at which time political motives began to overshadow commercial development. The annual rent was waived by a document in 1743, and in 1747 the French administrator, Monsieur Sinfray, induced Mir Ahmad Ali Khan, Nawab of Arcot, to grant the French all rights to the lands situated around their quarters at Yanam.

In December 1753, a Paravana of Salabat Jang conceded to Bussy the Northern Circars. Salabat Jang was indebted to the French East India Company for his elevation to the throne, which had been confirmed by the Mughal emperor. The agreement made between the French and Salabat Jang in Aurangabad bears the signature of Said Loukshur, Minister of Salabat Jang. Yanam acquired considerable importance during the French occupation of the Northern Circars.

First British occupation

Another important event in the history was the war between the French and the British fought at Chandurthi in 1758 in which the French were defeated. Salabat Jang made a treaty with the British and gave the Northern Circars under a firman to the British. After 1760 the French lost hold in South India, especially on Northern Circars.

A document dated 15 May 1765 showed that the villages of Yanam and Kapulapalem (Capouloupalém) with other lands were handed over by Jean White Hill and George Dolben, the British representatives deputed by Jean Pybus, the head of the British settlement in Masulipatam to Yoan Yacques Panon, French Commissioner deputed by Jean Law de Lauriston the then Governor General of Puducherry, for taking them over. This document mentions that France entered into possession of Yanam and its dependent territories with exemption from all export and import duties. Soon after taking possession of this settlement, Panon obtained a firman for full liberty of trade and commerce of the French in Yanam.

Second British occupation

Between 1778 and 1783, Puducherry was under British occupation. Yanam was restored again to the French in 1785. Mallhendre took possession of it and Bluter succeeded him. After Bluter, Pierre Sonnerat (18 August 1748 – 31 March 1814) became the chief in 1790 in Yanam. He appreciated very much the sonority and the music of the Telugu language. He administered Yanam during the time of the French Revolution.

Third British occupation

Once again French lost control over Yanam to the British. During 1793 and 1816 Puducherry was under British control. So, Yanam fell thrice into the hands of the British. After the Napoleonic wars, by the Treaty of Paris (1814) Yanam along with the factory at Machilipatnam was finally returned to the French on 26 September 1816. From then it was continuously under French control until its transfer to India in 1954.

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