Person:Robert I of Scotland (1)

     
Robert I of Scotland
Facts and Events
Name Robert I of Scotland
Alt Name Robert the Bruce
Alt Name Rei Robert Bruce, I
Gender Male
Alt Birth? 7 Jun 1274
Birth? 11 Jul 1274 Writtle, Essex, EnglandHouse of Bruce
Marriage 1295 Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotlandto Isabella of Mar
Alt Marriage 1296 to Isabella of Mar
Marriage 1302 Writtle,Near Chelsford,Essex,Englandto Elizabeth de Burgh
Alt Marriage 1302 Writtle,,Essex,Englandto Elizabeth de Burgh
Occupation? bet 1306 and 1329 ScotlandReign
Other? 27 Mar 1306 Scone, Perthshire, ScotlandCrowned
Military? 19 Jun 1306 Methven, Perthshire, Scotland Combatant of Methven
Reference Number? Q187312?
Military? 24 Jun 1314 Bannockburn, Falkirk, Scotland Combatant of Bannockburn
Death? 7 Jun 1329 Cardross, Dunbartonshire, ScotlandCause: probably leprosy
Alt Burial? Roxburghshire, ScotlandMelrose Abbey (heart)
Occupation? 4th Earl Of Carrick, 7th Lord Bruce Of Annandale, King Of Scots|4th Earl of Carrick, 7th Lord Bruce of Annandale, King of Scots
Alt Death? 11 Jul 1329
Burial? Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, ScotlandAbbey Church (body)


the text in this section is copied from an article in Wikipedia

Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: ; modern Scottish Gaelic: ; Norman French: or ; Early Scots: Robert Brus; ), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, and eventually led Scotland during the First War of Scottish Independence against England. He fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent country and is today revered in Scotland as a national hero.

Descended from the Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobility, his paternal fourth great-grandfather was King David I. Robert's grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during the "Great Cause". As Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his family's claim to the Scottish throne and took part in William Wallace's revolt against Edward I of England. Appointed in 1298 as a Guardian of Scotland alongside his chief rival for the throne, John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, and William Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews, Robert later resigned in 1300 due to his quarrels with Comyn and the apparently imminent restoration of John Balliol to the Scottish throne. After submitting to Edward I in 1302 and returning to "the king's peace", Robert inherited his family's claim to the Scottish throne upon his father's death.

In February 1306, Bruce having wounded Comyn, rushed from the church where they met and encountered his attendants outside. Bruce told them what had happened and said, "I must be off, for I doubt I have slain the Red Comyn," "Doubt?" Roger de Kirkpatrick of Closeburn answered, "I mak sikker," ("I'll make sure," or "I make sure") and rushing into the church, killed Comyn. For this Bruce was then excommunicated by the Pope (although he received absolution from Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow). Bruce moved quickly to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306. Edward I's forces defeated Robert in battle, forcing him to flee into hiding before re-emerging in 1307 to defeat an English army at Loudoun Hill and wage a highly successful guerrilla war against the English. Bruce defeated his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands, and in 1309 held his first parliament. A series of military victories between 1310 and 1314 won him control of much of Scotland, and at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Robert defeated a much larger English army under Edward II of England, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish kingdom. The battle marked a significant turning point, with Robert's armies now free to launch devastating raids throughout northern England, while also extending his war against the English to Ireland by sending an army to invade there and by appealing to the Irish to rise against Edward II's rule.

Despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to renounce his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish nobility submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Robert as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland's status as an independent kingdom. In 1324, the Pope recognised Robert I as king of an independent Scotland, and in 1326, the Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son, Edward III, and peace was concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to sovereignty over Scotland.

Robert died in June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey and his internal organs embalmed and placed in St Serf’s Chapel, Dumbarton, site of the medieval Cardross Parish church.

Story of what happened to Bruce's heart

When Bruce was dying (1329) his one big regret in life was that he had never went on a crusade to the Holy Land because of the constant wars with England. On his death bed he asked his friend, Sir James Douglas, (who I am named after) The Good Sir James to the Scots, The Black Douglas to the English, if he would on his death remove his heart, hence the sawn ribs when the body was rediscovered, and as he could not go, would Douglas take his heart to the Holy Land. (Not asking much)

Douglas and his followers got as far as Seville in southern Spain where the Spanish king asked for his help to remove the Moors from Spain. In the battle that followed the Moors feigned retreat and led Douglas into a trap. His last deed was to take the casket that held Bruce's heart and throw it into the enemy calling on his men to follow Bruce for the last time. Douglas was killed.

The casket was recovered and taken back to Scotland.

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Robert I of Scotland. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with WeRelate, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
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References
  1.   Robert I of Scotland, in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
  2.   Robert I Bruce, King of Scotland, in Lundy, Darryl. The Peerage: A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe.