Person:George Marshall (32)

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George Marshall
m. 11 Dec 1830
  1. Joseph Marshall1831 - 1880
  2. James Marshall1833 - 1886
  3. Mary Marshall1835 - 1852
  4. George Marshall1837 - 1907
  5. Elizabeth Marshall1843 - 1908
  6. Esther Marshall1848 - 1867
m. 17 Jun 1861
  1. George Marshall1861 - 1929
  2. William Charles Marshall1863 - 1941
  3. Sarah Ann Marshall1865 - 1938
  4. Joseph Marshall1868 - 1910
  5. John Marshall1870 - 1945
  6. Rose Elizabeth Marshall1872 - 1942
  7. Emily Eliza Marshall1874 - 1967
  8. Rachel Ellen Marshall1877 - 1949
Facts and Events
Name George Marshall
Gender Male
Birth[1] 5 Dec 1837 Luton, Bedfordshire, EnglandSomeries Gate, Newmill End
Census[3] 6 Jun 1841 Luton, Bedfordshire, EnglandEast Hyde
Christening[2] 20 Oct 1850 Luton, Bedfordshire, EnglandHoly Trinity, East Hyde
Census[4] 30 Mar 1851 Luton, Bedfordshire, EnglandNewmill End
Census[5] 7 Apr 1861 Luton, Bedfordshire, England64 Albert Road
Marriage 17 Jun 1861 Luton, Bedfordshire, EnglandSt Mary
to Rachel Ellen Linney
Census[6] 2 Apr 1871 Luton, Bedfordshire, England39 Albert Road
Census[7] 3 Apr 1881 Luton, Bedfordshire, England46 Albert Road
Census[8] 5 Apr 1891 Luton, Bedfordshire, England46 Albert Road
Census[9] 31 Mar 1901 Luton, Bedfordshire, England46 Albert Road
Death[10] 6 Aug 1907 Luton, Bedfordshire, England46 Albert Road

Childhood

George Marshall was born on 5th December 1837 at a place described on his birth certificate as "Summeries Gate, Newmill End", which is presumably at the hamlet of Someries near Newmill End in the parish of Luton. Someries is best known for the ruined manor house there, known as Someries Castle - the most intact part of the ruined building was actually the gatehouse, although it appears that the building was in ruins well before George Marshall was born. More likely he was born in one of the neighbouring cottages.

George was the fourth of six children of a couple called William Marshall and Sarah Almond. The family seems to have been well established in the rural area close to the borders of the three parishes of Luton (in Bedfordshire), Kimpton and King's Walden (both in Hertfordshire). The family appears to have been non-conformist around the time of George's birth. William and Sarah's first two children's births are recorded in the records of the Colemans Green Baptist Church at King's Walden, whilst their third child was not baptised as a child but as a young adult at the Luton Wesleyan Methodist Church. George and his two younger sisters were also not baptised as babies, but were all baptised on the same day in 1850, at the recently opened church of Holy Trinity at East Hyde, by when George was twelve years old. This was a Church of England church, perhaps indicating a return to conformity. Geography may have also played a part - the parish churches of Luton, Kimpton and King's Walden were quite a long way from the rural area in which the family lived.

George's childhood was apparently spent at the adjoining hamlets of Newmill End and East Hyde, both of which lie on the banks of the River Lea in what was then the extreme south of Luton parish. Luton parish was unusually large for the area and contained a wide rural area as well as the town itself. The southern area later became the separate parish of Hyde.

Adulthood

Sometime between 1851 and 1861 the family left the rural area and moved into the town of Luton. By the 1861 census, William and Sarah and their youngest two daughters were living at 72 Albert Road, Luton, whilst George was lodging with his older brother Joseph a few doors away at 64 Albert Road. Also lodging with Joseph was a young woman from Leighton Buzzard called Rachel Ellen Linney. A couple of months after the census, George and Rachel Ellen were married at the parish church of St Mary in Luton, and their eldest son, another George, was born before the end of that year. When he married, George was aged 23, whilst Rachel was 19. George and Rachel at this time appear to have been practising Methodists - at least their first two children were baptised at Luton's Wesleyan Methodist Chapel. George's father William died in 1863, aged 57, after falling from the brewer's cart he was driving and being run over by it as the horse bolted. Rachel was pregnant with their second child at the time of the accident - they named their second child William Charles.

George and Rachel's third child, Sarah, was born in Leighton Buzzard. Whether the family had briefly moved there or whether Sarah happened to be born whilst Rachel was visiting her parents is unclear. Either way, they returned to Luton by 1868, with the next four children being born in Luton. George's mother Sarah died in 1868, aged 58. At the time of her death she was living in the Luton Union Workhouse. Presumably she had fallen on hard times following her husband's death.

The 1871 census finds George and Rachel living at 39 Albert Road in Luton. In 1876, George was a witness at a court case concerning some of his neighbours in Albert Road. Some time between 1876 and 1877 the family left Luton altogether, moving over fifty miles away to Peterborough, where George took up work as a railway labourer and the family lived at Bamber Street, where their youngest child was born in 1877. However, they clearly decided against settling in Peterborough, and returned to Luton by 1881. From at least 1881 until their deaths, George and Rachel lived at 46 Albert Road.

Altogether George and Rachel appear to have had eight children. Back in Luton, both George and Rachel Ellen worked in the straw hat industry which was Luton's biggest industry at the time. George worked as a hat blocker and in the 1901 census described himself as a manufacturer of hats. Rachel Ellen meanwhile started as a straw bonnet sewer, later becoming a straw hat machinist, perhaps indicating the mechanisation of the trade. She also described herself simply as a manufacturer of hats in 1901. Their various children also worked in the industry, with the boys generally being blockers and the girls sewers or finishers.

Shortly after the 1901 census George clearly experienced some financial difficulties. In December 1901 he applied for an administration order on a debt of £44 17s 5d. At the time of his application he was described as a "stoker (formerly straw hat manufacturer)". The court allowed him to reduce the debt by 90%, paying 2 shillings in the pound, at a rate of 4 shillings every 28 days.

George died on 6th August 1907 at the age of 69. He had lived to see all eight of his children married and had over forty grandchildren born in his lifetime. Rachel outlived him by less than a year and died on 18th March 1908, aged 66.

References
  1. Birth certificate, in General Register Office. England and Wales Civil Registration. (London: General Register Office).
    REGISTRATION DISTRICT Luton
    1838 BIRTH in the Sub-district of Luton in the County of Bedford
    No.When and where bornName, if anySexName and surname of fatherName, surname and maiden name of motherOccupation of fatherSignature, description and residence of informantWhen registeredSignature of registrar
    133December 5th
    Summeries Gate Newmill End
    GeorgeMaleWilliam MarshallSarah Marshall formerly AlmondLabourerThe mark X of Sarah Marshall the Mother Summeries GateJanuary 4thFrederick Couper
    Registrar

    Although the "December 5th" on the certificate has no year, the 1838 at the top of the certificate relates to when the birth was registered - and that date was 4th January, with this certificate appearing in the index in the January to March 1838 quarter. The December 5th on which George was born must therefore have been 1837, not 1838.

  2. Baptisms register, in Church of England. East Hyde Parish Registers.

    BAPTISMS solemnized in the Parish of Luton (East Hyde Hamlet) in the County of Bedford in the Year 1850
    No. 127
    When Baptised: 1850 October 20th
    Child's Christian Name: George s[on] of
    Parent's Name - Christian: William & Sarah
    Parent's Name - Surname: Marshall
    Abode: Luton
    Quality, Trade, or Profession: Labourer
    By whom the Ceremony was performed: Tho[ma]s Baker, Curate

  3. England. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA): 1841 Census Schedules for England and Wales, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class HO107; Piece 4; Book 13; Folio 3; Page 1, 6 Jun 1841.

    Address: East Hyde Hamlet, Luton, Bedfordshire
    William Marshall, male, 35 [1801-6], Ag lab, b. Bedfordshire
    Sarah Marshall, female, 30 [1806-11], b. Bedfordshire
    Joseph Marshall, male, 9 [1831/2], b. Bedfordshire
    James Marshall, male, 7 [1833/4], b. Bedfordshire
    Mary Marshall, female, 5 [1835/6], b. Bedfordshire
    George Marshall, male, 3 [1837/8], b. Bedfordshire

  4. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). England and Wales. 1851 Census Schedules. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class HO107; Piece 1757; Folio 377; Page 1, 30 Mar 1851.

    Address: Newmill End, East Hyde, Luton, Bedfordshire
    William Marshall, head, married, male, 44 [1806/7], Ag lab, b. Kimpton, Hertfordshire
    Sarah Marshall, wife, married, female, 41 [1809/10], Straw plaitter, b. Kings Walden, Hertfordshire
    Joseph Marshall, son, unmarried, male, 19 [1831/2], Ag lab, b. Kimpton, Hertfordshire
    James Marshall, son, unmarried, male, 17 [1833/4], Straw plaitter, b. Kimpton, Hertfordshire
    George Marshall, son, unmarried, male, 14 [1836/7], Ag lab, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Elizabeth Marshall, daughter, female, 8 [1842/3], b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Esther Marshall, daughter, female, 2 [1848/9], b. Luton, Bedfordshire

  5. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). 1861 Census Schedules for England and Wales, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG9; Piece 1012; Folio 123; Page 40, 7 Apr 1861.

    Address: 64 Albert Road, Luton, Bedfordshire
    Joseph Marshall, head, married, male, 29 [1831/2], Straw plait manufacturer, b. Kings Walden, Hertfordshire
    Mary Marshall, wife, married, female, 29 [1831/2], Straw plait manufacturer, b. Harpenden, Hertfordshire
    Eliza Marshall, daughter, female, 5 [1855/6], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    George Marshall, son, male, 3 [1857/8], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    John Marshall, son, 6m [1860], b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    George Marshall, brother, unmarried, male, 23 [1837/8], Blocker, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Hannah Barker, boarder, widow, female, 60 [1800/1], Platter, b. Harpenden, Hertfordshire
    Maria Biggs, boarder, female, 14 [1846/7], Bonnet sewer, b. Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire
    Rachel Leiney, boarder, unmarried, female, 19 [1841/2], Bonnet sewer, b. Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire
    Charles Martin, boarder, unmarried, male, 17 [1843/4], Labourer, b. Luton, Bedfordshire

  6. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). England and Wales. 1871 Census Schedules. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG10; Piece 1573; Folio 18; Page 27, 3 Apr 1871.

    Address: 39 Albert Road, Luton, Bedfordshire
    George Marshall, head, married, male, 33 [1837/8], Straw hat & bonnet blocker, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Rachael Marshall, wife, married, female, 29 [1841/2], Straw hat sewer, b. Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire
    George Marshall, son, male, 9 [1861/2], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    William C. Marshall, son, male, 7 [1863/4], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Sarah Marshall, daughter, female, 5 [1865/6], Scholar, b. Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire
    Joseph Marshall, son, male, 2 [1868/9], b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    John Marshall, son, male, 6m [1870], b. Luton, Bedfordshire

  7. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). 1881 Census Schedules for England and Wales, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands: . (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG11; Piece 1651; Folio 76; Page 16, 3 Apr 1881.

    Address: 46 Albert Road, Luton, Bedfordshire
    George Marshall, head, married, male, 43 [1837/8], Engine driver at iron works, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Rachael E. Marshall, wife, married, female, 39 [1841/2], Straw hat machinist, b. Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire
    George Marshall, son, unmarried, male, 19 [1861/2], Straw hat blocker, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    William C. Marshall, son, male, 17 [1863/4], Bricklayer, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Sarah Marshall, daughter, female, 15 [1865/6], Straw hat machinist, b. Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire
    Joseph Marshall, son, male, 13 [1867/8], Domestic servant, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    John Marshall, son, male, 10 [1870/1], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Rose E. Marshall, daughter, female, 8 [1872/3], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Emily E. Marshall, daughter, female, 6 [1874/5], Scholar, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Rachael E. Marshall, daughter, female, 4 [1876/7], Scholar, b. Peterborough, Northamptonshire

  8. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). 1891 Census Schedules for England and Wales, Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG12; Piece 1273; Folio 93; Page 24, 5 Apr 1891.

    Address: 46 Albert Road, Luton, Bedfordshire
    5+ rooms occupied
    George Marshall, head, married, male, 53 [1837/8], Straw manufacturer, employer, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Rachel Marshall, wife, married, female, 49 [1841/2], Straw manufacturer, employer, b. Leighton Buz, Bedfordshire
    John Marshall, son, single, male, 20 [1870/1], Bricklayer, employed, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Rose Marshall, daughter, single, female, 18 [1872/3], Straw hat machinist, employed, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Emily Marshall, daughter, single, female, 16 [1874/5], Straw hat machinist, employed, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Rachel Marshall, daughter, single, female, 14 [1876/7], Straw hat finisher, employed, b. Peterborough, Northamptonshire

  9. General Register Office. The National Archives (abbreviated TNA). England and Wales. 1901 Census Schedules: also for the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. (Kew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU, United Kingdom)
    Class RG13; Piece 1516; Folio 105; Page 24, 31 Mar 1901.

    Address: 46 Albert Road, Luton, Bedfordshire
    5+ rooms occupied
    George Marshall, head, married, male, 63 [1837/8], Straw hat maker, employer, working at home, b. Flint Houses nr. Luton, Bedfordshire
    E. Marshall, wife, married, female, 59 [1841/2], Straw hat maker, worker, working at home, b. Leighton, Bedfordshire
    Rose Marshall, daughter, single, female, 28 [1872/3], Straw hat maker, worker, working at home, b. Luton, Bedfordshire
    Esther Dexter, granddaughter, single, female, 15 [1885/6], b. Luton, Bedfordshire

  10. Death Certificate, in General Register Office. England and Wales Civil Registration. (London: General Register Office).

    REGISTRATION DISTRICT LUTON
    1907 DEATH in the Sub-district of Luton in the County of Bedford
    No. 137
    When and where died: Sixth August 1907, 46 Albert Road, Luton U.D.
    Name: George Marshall
    Sex: Male
    Age: 69 years
    Occupation: Hat Worker
    Cause of death: Mitral Disease, Embolism Paralysis, Certified by F. Seymour Lloyd M.D.
    Informant: J. Marshall, son, Present at the death, 44 Cambridge Street, Luton
    Registered: Seventh August 1907
    Registrar: Edward Barnard, Registrar

  11.   Luton Times and Advertiser, Saturday 3 Jun 1876
    LUTON BOROUGH SESSIONS
    FEMININE QUARRELS.
    ‘’Ellen Lewis’’, of Albert-road, sewer, was charged with assaulting Martha Moygan [sic] at Luton, on May 23. There was a cross summons, and Lewis was further charged with assaulting Newby Smith, on May 29.
    Mr J.G. Shepheard appeared for Lewis and Mr W. Neve for Morgan.
    Martha Morgan said she was a sewer, working at Mr Crick's, Albert-road, and was in the work room on Tuesday, when she heard a noise. She went down to the gateway, with Mr. Crick, and found defendant making a disturbance, when Lewis hit her on the cheek, and she became senseless, and did not recover for an hour.
    Isaac Marrioner, manufacturer, was standing opposite Crick's, and saw him put the cart in the gateway which Lewis's had previously put out. Both men and their wives came out, one party trying to put in the cart and the others to keep it out. Mrs Lewis said she should like to fight Crick, and bad language was used. Defendant struck Martha Morgan, and she was knocked down senseless.
    George Marshall, blocker, corroborated.
    Newby Crick spoke to the "good lady" (the defendant) striking Martha Morgan, and to her this morning spitting twice in his face.
    Thomas Coole, dyer, also spoke to the spitting.
    The cross-summons was then heard, and a charge against William Andrews, of Church-street, blocker, for assaulting Ellen Lewis.
    Mrs Lewis said that in consequence of authority from Mr Pledge, the landlord, Crick's cart was put out from their gateway, and the gate fastened. Crick then broke it open with an axe, and then a disturbance occurred. She went down, when Martha Morgan pushed her, on which she struck her. Andrews made himself very forward, and gave her a black eye without saying anything. As to the alleged spitting, she was not guilty – she spat on the ground, but not at him.
    Thomas Lewis said he was a tenant of Mr Pledge's and by his orders turned out Crick's cart.
    A disturbance followed, and 200 people flocked round like a flock of sheep. He corroborated his wife.
    Annie Saunders, sewer, introduced as "Warned this morning," corroborated.
    Mr Neve re-called Isaac Mariner, who said the evidence given by the Lewises and their witness was quite false.
    George Marshall was also re-called, and spoke to the same effect.
    Mr Shepheard re-called Mrs Saunders to say what she had previously stated was true.
    The Chairman said there seemed to have been a great deal of hard swearing and bad temper, but they decided to convict Ellen Lewis of assaulting Martha Morgan, fining her 1s. and 10s. costs, allowing 3s. to Morgan; also for assaulting Crick, and she was fined 9s 6d. costs; and the charge by her of assault by Andrews was dismissed.
  12.   Luton Times and Advertiser, Friday 20 Dec 1901
    LUTON COUNTY COURT
    ADMINISTRATION ORDERS
    Re G. MARSHALL.-This debtor, George Marshall, 46, Albert-road, Luton, stoker, (formerly straw hat manufacturer), applied for an administration order, offering 2s in the £, by instalments of 4s. every 28 days, on debts amounting to £44 17s. 5d.
    Granted.
  13.   Luton Times and Advertiser, Friday 9 Aug 1907
    DEATHS
    Aug. 6, at 46, Albert-road, Luton, George Marshall, aged 69 years.